First Public Examination, Wed 21st Feb 9am, The Chapel Royal of the Castle of Rouen.

Present:

42 Assessors

The Bishop Cauchon

Joan

Outline

Images / References

Speech

Questions / Notes

1. J is put before the court.

2. J’s request to attend mass is denied

3.The court makes the claim that God has given Joan to them.

4. J states there are questions she will not answer.

5. J swears to answer questions concerning her faith and ‘of which she knows’.

6. J states she will not reveal her visions, even if it condemns her and that after eight days she will receive a sign that she may reveal visions to the court.

7. J swears to speak on her own terms only.

8. J gives her family background. J says Mother and Father taught her prayer.

9. J is asked to recite a prayer.

10. J says she will recite a prayer only if she is granted permission to go to mass.

11. J rejects the offer of two French speaking men to receive her prayers.

13. The assessors banish Joan to her prison cell.

1.5 Body: Joan places her hand on the Holy Gospels to swear to speak truth on the questions to be addressed to her.

1.5 Revelations: … “but of the revelations which have come to me from God, to no one will I speak or reveal them, save only to Charles my King; and to you I will not reveal them, even if it cost me my head; because I have received them in visions and by secret counsel, and am forbidden to reveal them. Before eight days are gone, I shall know if I may reveal them to you."

1.6 Body: “And the said Jeanne, on her knees, her two hands resting on the Missal”

1.9 Body: “And as she complained that she had been fastened with chains and fetters of iron.”

1.5  "I know not upon what you wish to question me; perhaps you may ask me of things which I ought not to tell you.

"Swear, We did then say to her, "to speak truth on the things which shall be asked you concerning the Faith, and of which you know."

"Of my father and my mother and of what I did after taking the road to France, willingly will I swear; but of the revelations which have come to me from God, to no one will I speak or reveal them, save only to Charles my King; and to you I will not reveal them, even if it cost me my head; because I have received them in visions and by secret counsel, and am forbidden to reveal them. Before eight days are gone, I shall know if I may reveal them to you."

1.9 "I do not accept such a prohibition," she answered; "if ever I do escape, no one shall reproach me with having broken or violated my faith, not having given my word to anyone, whosoever it may be."

And as she complained that she had been fastened with chains and fetters of iron, We said to her:

"You have before, and many times, sought, We are told, to get out of the prison, where you are detained; and it is to keep you, more surely that it has been ordered to put you in irons."

"It is true I wished to escape; and so I wish still; is not this lawful for all prisoners?"

2.1 The court states: "That in the last place, the most Serene and most Christian our Lord the King had sent and given her up to Us"

4.1 J aware of her fate: 'even if it cost me my head.'

Summary of the First Public Examination: Joan will not speak of her vision but may in the future if she receives direction from God. Joan is punished for refusing to answer prayer. Joan is prepared to defend her honour to the death.

Second Public Examination, Thurs 22nd Feb 8am, The Ornament Room at the end of the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen.

Present:

42 Assessors

The Bishop Cauchon

Joan

Maitre Jean Beaupère (Professor of Theology)

Outline

Images / References

Speech

Questions / Notes

1. Joan is brought before trial. She agrees to speak on subjects that concern her Faith.

2. J is questioned by Maitre Jean Beaupére.

3. MJP asks J if she has received the Eucharist at any feast other than Easter.

4. J evades the question and speaks about voice of God.

5. MJB questions the veracity of Joan’s light.

6. J evades the question and speaks about The Voice. She explains that The Voice is an Angel sent from God. She tells the court that this was the Voice who instructed J to raise the siege at Orleans.

7. MJB asks J who instructed her to dress as a man.

8. J will not say who and replies only that it was necessary to dress as a man.

9. J denounces three points in the letter.

10. J recounts visiting Charles VII and telling him her direction from God to go to war on the English.

11. J does not answer questions about how and if the voice appeared to Charles VII.

12.. J admits to causing an attack on Paris. J is criticised for attacking Paris on a Festival Day. .

2.4 The Voice & The Light: The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. I had not fasted the day before. I heard this Voice to my right, towards the Church; rarely do I hear it without its being accompanied also by a light. This light comes from the same side as the Voice. Generally it is a great light.

2.5 Voice: I believe it was sent me from God. When I heard it for the third time, I recognized that it was the Voice of an Angel. This Voice has always guarded me well, and I have always understood it; it instructed me to be good and to go often to Church; it told me it was necessary for me to come into France.

2.6 Body: It was necessary for me to change my garments for a man's dress.

2.7 Voice: Points denounced by J in letter: 1.NOT 'Surrender to the Maid' but 'Surrender to The King' 2. NOT 'body for body' OR 3. 'chieftain in war.’

2.11 Body: I was wounded in the trenches before Paris.

2.2 “I swore yesterday: that should be enough."

Again We required her to swear: we said to her, not even a prince, required to swear in a matter of faith, can refuse.

"I made oath to you yesterday," she answered, "that should be quite enough for you: you overburden me too much!"

Finally she made oath to speak truth on 'that which touches the Faith.'

2.3 "First of all, I exhort you, as you have so sworn, to tell the truth on what I am about to ask you."

"You may well ask me some things on which I shall tell you the truth and some on which I shall not tell it you. If you were well informed about me, you would wish to have me out of your hands. I have done nothing except by revelation."

"How old were you when you left your father's house?"

"On the subject of my age I cannot vouch."

"In your youth, did you learn any trade ?"

"Yes, I learnt to spin and to sew; in sewing and spinning I fear no woman in Rouen. For dread of the Burgundians, I left my father's house and went to the town of Neufchateau in Lorraine, to the house of a woman named La Rousse, where I sojourned about fifteen days. When I was at home with my father, I employed myself with the ordinary cares of the house. I did not go to the fields with the sheep and the other animals. Every year I confessed myself to my own Cure, and, when he was prevented, to another Priest with his permission. Sometimes, also, two or three times, I confessed to the Mendicant Friars; this was at Neufchateau. At Easter I received the Sacrament of the Eucharist."

"Have you received the Sacrament of the Eucharist at any other Feast but Easter?"

2.4 "Pass that by [Passez outré]. I was thirteen when I had a Voice from God for my help and guidance. The first time that I heard this Voice, I was very much frightened; it was mid-day, in the summer, in my father's garden. I had not fasted the day before. I heard this Voice to my right, towards the Church; rarely do I hear it without its being accompanied also by a light. This light comes from the same side as the Voice. Generally it is a great light. Since I came into France I have often heard this Voice."

"But how could you see this light that you speak of, when the light was at the side?"

2.5 "If I were in a wood, I could easily hear the Voice which came to me. It seemed to me to come from lips I should reverence. I believe it was sent me from God. When I heard it for the third time, I recognized that it was the Voice of an Angel. This Voice has always guarded me well, and I have always understood it; it instructed me to be good and to go often to Church; it told me it was necessary for me to come into France. You ask me under what form this Voice appeared to me? You will hear no more of it from me this time. It said to me two or three times a week: 'You must go into France.' My father knew nothing of my going. The Voice said to me: 'Go into France !' I could stay no longer. It said to me: 'Go, raise the siege which is being made before the City of Orleans. Go!' it added, 'to Robert de Baudricourt, Captain of Vaucouleurs: he will furnish you with an escort to accompany you.' And I replied that I was but a poor girl, who knew nothing of riding or fighting. I went to my uncle and said that I wished to stay near him for a time. I remained there eight days. I said to him, 'I must go to Vaucouleurs.' He took me there. When I arrived, I recognized Robert de Baudricourt, although I had never seen him. I knew him, thanks to my Voice, which made me recognize him. I said to Robert, 'I must go into France!' Twice Robert refused to hear me, and repulsed me. The third time, he received me, and furnished me with men; the Voice had told me it would be thus. The Duke of Lorraine gave orders that I should be taken to him. I went there. I told him that I wished to go into France. The Duke asked me questions about his health; but I said of that I knew nothing. I spoke to him little of my journey. I told him he was to send his son with me, together with some people to conduct me to France, and that I would pray to God for his health. I had gone to him with a safe-conduct: from thence I returned to Vaucouleurs. From Vaucouleurs I departed, dressed as a man, armed with a sword given me by Robert de Baudricourt, but without other arms. I had with me a Knight, a Squire, and four servants, with whom I reached the town of Saint Urbain, where I slept in an Abbey. On the way, I passed through Auxerre, where I heard Mass in the principal Church. Thenceforward I often heard my Voices."

2.6 "Who counseled you to take a man's dress?"

To this question she several times refused to answer. "In the end, she said: "With that I charge no one."

Many times she varied in her answers to this question. Then she said:

"Robert de Baudricourt made those who went with me swear to conduct me well and safely. 'Go,' said Robert de Baudricourt to me, 'Go! and let come what may!' I know well that God loves the Duke d'Orleans; I have had more revelations about the Duke d'Orleans than about any man alive, except my King. It was necessary for me to change my woman's garments for a man's dress. My counsel thereon said well.

2.9 ‘When the Voice showed you the King, was there any light

"Pass on."

"Did you see an Angel over the King?"

"Spare me. Pass on. Before the King set me to work, he had many apparitions and beautiful revelations."

2.10 "What revelations and apparitions had the King?"

"I will not tell you; it is not yet time to answer you about them; but send to the King, and he will tell you. The Voice had promised me that, as soon I came to the King, he would receive me. Those of my party knew well that the Voice had been sent me from God; they have seen and known this Voice, I am sure of it. My King and many others have also heard and seen the Voices which came to me: there were there Charles de Bourbon and two or three others.

2.11 There is not a day when I do not hear this Voice; and I have much need of it. But never have I asked of it any recompense but the salvation of my soul. The Voice told me to remain at Saint-Denis, in France; I wished to do so, but, against my will, the Lords made me leave. If I had not been wounded, I should never have left. After having quitted Saint-Denis, I was wounded in the trenches before Paris but I was cured in five days.

2.12 “It is true that I caused an assault to be made before Paris.

"Was it a Festival that day?"

"I think it was certainly a Festival."

"Is it a good thing to make an assault on a Festival ?"

" Pass on."

Q: Why was Joan moved out of the chapel?

Note: J does not assign blame to anyone, other than herself, for dressing like a man.

Note: Joan says that she was injured in battle because her Lords went against the advice of God.

Summary of The Second Public Examination: Joan’s religious upbringing is brought into question. Joan does not say who made her dress like a man.  Joan will not reveal the nature of the visions or that appeared before Charles VII or the details of their revelations.

Third Public Examination, Sat 24th Feb, The Ornament Room at the end of the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen.

Present:

62 Assessors

The Bishop

Joan

Maitre Jean Beaupère

Outline

Images / References

Speech

Questions / Notes

1. J is asked to speak the truth. J says she will do so only when necessary.

2. MJB asks J if her voices are the result of fasting. J tells MJB clearly and confidently about when, and how often, she hears her voices.

3. MJB asks J what she was doing when the voice came to her. MJB says the voice woke her without touching her. J asks the voice for advice on how to answer the court’s questions. The voice replies: Answer boldly.

4. J refuses to speak on the revelations touching The King. J maintains that the voice she hears is the voice of God.  

5. MJB asks J if the voices appear in the form of an Angel, directly from God, or from the Saints. J answers: The voice comes to me from God. MJB asks J why her voices do not speak directly to the King. J replies that she will not question God’s will.

6. J refuses to discuss the voice’s physical manifestation.

7. MJB asks J to explain her political alliances. J reaffirms that she is on the side of God.

8.  MJB asks J if she has always wanted to be a man. J refuses to answer. MJB asks J if she worked as a shepherd. J says she cannot remember. J says she remembers leading animals to the meadows as an older child.  

9. MJB asks J about the Faeries Tree near her village. J says she has not played there since she was a child. J says she never saw any faeries. J denies that her first visions took place at the tree.

10. J says she has no faith in those who have prophesied about her.

11. MJB asks J if she would like a women’s Dress. J says she would take it if given to her but that she is content to wear men’s clothing because it is God’s will.

3.2  Voice/Visions:

"Yesterday I heard them three times, once in the morning, once at Vespers, and again when the Ave Maria rang in the evening. I have even heard them oftener than that."

3.3 Body: "It awoke me without touching me."

3.4  Voice: The voice told Joan to answer boldly.

3.5 Voice: “...If my Voice has forbidden me, what would you say about it? Believe me, it is not men who have forbidden me."

3.6 Voice: "You shall not know yet. There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.' "Do you know if you are in the grace of God?" "If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice would come to me? I would that everyone could hear the Voice as I hear it. I think I was about thirteen when it came to me for the first time."

3.1 "Give me leave to speak. By my faith! you may well ask me such things as I will not tell you. Perhaps on many of the things you may ask me I shall not tell you truly, especially on those that touch on my revelations; for you may constrain me to say things that I have sworn not to say; then I should be perjured, which you ought not to wish."

"I tell you, take good heed of what you say, you, who are my Judge; you take a great responsibility in thus charging me. I should say that it is enough to have sworn twice."

"Will you swear, simply and absolutely?"

"You may surely do without this. I have sworn enough already twice. All the clergy of Rouen and Paris cannot condemn me if it be not law. Of my coming into France I will speak the truth willingly; but I will not say all: the space of eight days would not suffice."

"Take the advice of the Assessors, whether you should swear or not."

"Of my coming I will willingly speak truth, but not of the rest; speak no more of it to me."

"You render yourself liable to suspicion in not being willing to swear to speak the truth absolutely."

"Speak to me no more of it. Pass on."

"We again require you to swear, precisely and absolutely."

"I will say willingly what I know, and yet not all. I am come in God's name; I have nothing to do here; let me be sent back to God, whence I came."

"Again we summon and require you to swear, under pain of going forth charged with that which is imputed to you."

"Pass on."

"A last time we require you to swear, and urgently admonish you to speak the truth on all that concerns your trial; you expose yourself to a great peril by such a refusal."

"I am ready to speak truth on what I know touching the trial."

3.2 "How long is it since you have had food and drink?"

"Since yesterday afternoon."

"How long is it since you heard your Voices?"

"I heard them yesterday and today."

"At what hour yesterday did you hear them?"

"Yesterday I heard them three times,-once in the morning, once at Vespers, and again when the Ave Maria rang in the evening. I have even heard them oftener than that."

3.3 "What were you doing yesterday morning when the Voice came to you?"

"Was it by touching you on the arm?"

"It awoke me without touching me."

"Was it in your room?"

"Not so far as I know, but in the Castle."

"Did you thank it? and did you go on your knees?"

"I did thank it. I was sitting on the bed; I joined my hands; I implored its help. The Voice said to me: 'Answer boldly.' I asked advice as to how I should answer, begging it to entreat for this the counsel of the Lord. The Voice said to me: 'Answer boldly; God will help thee.' Before I had prayed it to give me counsel, it said to me several words I could not readily understand. After I was awake, it said to me: 'Answer boldly.' "

3.4 "You say you are my judge. Take care what you are doing; for in truth I am sent by God, and you place yourself in great danger."

Maître Beaupère, continuing, said: "Has this Voice sometimes varied in its counsel?"

"I have never found it give two contrary opinions. . . . This night again I heard it say: 'Answer boldly.'"

"Has your Voice forbidden you to say everything on what you are asked?"

"I will not answer you about that. I have revelations touching the King that I will not tell you."

"Has it forbidden you to tell those revelations?"

"I have not been advised about these things. Give me a delay of fifteen days, and I will answer you. If my Voice has forbidden me, what would you say about it? Believe me, it is not men who have forbidden me. To-day I will not answer: I do not know if I ought, or not; it has not been revealed to me. But as firmly as I believe in the Christian Faith and that God has redeemed us from the pains of Hell, that Voice had come to me from God and by His Command."

3.5 "The Voice that you say appears to you, does it come directly from an Angel, or directly from God; or does it come from one of the Saints ?"

"The Voice comes to me from God; and I do not tell you all I know about it: I have far greater fear of doing wrong in saying to you things that would displease it, than I have of answering you. As to this question, I beg you to grant me delay."

"Is it displeasing to God to speak the truth ?"

"My Voices have entrusted to me certain things to tell to the King, not to you. This very night they told me many things for the welfare of my King, which I would he might know at once, even if I should drink no wine until Easter: the King would be the more joyful at his dinner!"

"Can you not so deal with your Voices that they will convey this news to your King ?"

"I know not if the Voice would obey, and if it be God's Will. If it please God, He will know how to reveal it to the King, and I shall be well content."

"Why does not this Voice speak any more to your King, as it did when you were in his presence?"

"I do not know if it be the Will of God. Without the grace of God I should not know how to do anything."

3.6 "Has your counsel revealed to you that you will escape from prison?"

"I have nothing to tell you about that."

"This night, did your Voice give you counsel and advice as to what you should answer?"

"If it did give me advice and counsel thereon, I did not understand."

"The last two occasions on which you have heard this Voice, did a light come [with it ?"]

"The light comes at the same time as the Voice."

"Besides the Voice, do you see anything?"

"I will not tell you all; I have not leave; my oath does not touch on that. My Voice is good and to be honored. I am not bound to answer you about it. I request that the points on which I do not now answer may be given me in writing."

"The Voice from whom you ask counsel, has it a face and eyes?"

"You shall not know yet. There is a saying among children, that 'Sometimes one is hanged for speaking the truth.'"

"Do you know if you are in the grace of God?"

"If I am not, may God place me there; if I am, may God so keep me. I should be the saddest in all the world if I knew that I were not in the grace of God. But if I were in a state of sin, do you think the Voice would come to me? I would that everyone could hear the Voice as I hear it. I think I was about thirteen when it came to me for the first time."

3.7 "In your youth, did you play in the fields with the other children?"

"I certainly went sometimes, I do not know at what age."

"Do the Domremy people side with the Burgundians or with the opposite party?"

"I knew only one Burgundian

at Domremy: I should have been quite willing for them to cut off his head - always had it pleased God."

"The Maxey people, were they Burgundians, or opposed to the Burgundians?"

"They were Burgundians. As soon as I knew that my Voices were for the King of France, I loved the Burgundians no more. The Burgundians will have war unless they do what they ought; I know it by my Voice. The English were already in France when my Voices began to come to me. I do not remember being with the children of Domremy when they went to fight against those of Maxey for the French side: but I certainly saw the Domremy children who had fought with those of Maxey coming back many times, wounded and bleeding."

"Had you in your youth any intention of fighting the Burgundians?"

"I had a great will and desire that my King should have his own Kingdom."

3.8 "When you had to come into France, did you wish to be a man?"

" I have answered this elsewhere."

"Did you not take the animals to the fields?"

"I have already answered this also. When I was bigger and had come to years of discretion, I did not look after them generally; but I helped to take them to the meadows and to a Castle called the Island, for fear of the soldiers. I do not remember if I led them in my childhood or not."

3.9 "What have you to say about a certain tree which is near to your village ?"

"Not far from Domremy there is a tree  that they call 'The Ladies' Tree '- others call it 'The Fairies' Tree'; near by, there is a spring where people sick of the fever come to drink, as I have heard, and to seek water to restore their health. I have seen them myself come thus; but I do not know if they were healed. I have heard that the sick, once cured, come to this tree to walk about. It is a beautiful tree, a beech, from which comes the 'beau may.' It belongs to the Seigneur Pierre de Bourlement, Knight. I have sometimes been to play with the young girls, to make garlands for Our Lady of Domremy. Often I have heard the old folk - they are not of my lineage - say that the fairies haunt this tree. I have also heard one of my Godmothers, named Jeanne, wife of the Marie Aubery of Domremy, say that she has seen fairies there; whether it be true, I do not know. As for me, I never saw them that I know of. If I saw them anywhere else, I do not know. I have seen the young girls putting garlands on the branches of this tree, and I myself have sometimes put them there with my companions; sometimes we took these garlands away, sometimes we left them. Ever since I knew that it was necessary for me to come into France, I have given myself up as little as possible to these games and distractions. Since I was grown up, I do not remember to have danced there. I may have danced there formerly, with the other children. I have sung there more than danced. There is also a wood called the Oak-wood, which can be seen from my father's door; it is not more than half-a-league away. I do not know, and have never heard if the fairies appear there; but my brother told me that it is said in the neighborhood: 'Jeannette received her mission at the Fairies' Tree.' It is not the case; and I told him the contrary.

3.10 “When I came before the King, several people asked me if there were not in my country a wood, called the Oak-wood, because there were prophecies.which said that from the neighborhood of this wood would come a maid who should do marvelous things. I put no faith in that."

3.11 "Would you like to have a woman's dress?"

"Give me one, and I will take it and begone; otherwise, no. I am content with what I have, since it pleases God that I wear it."

Note: Joan will not answer how her visions appear to her. JB. The specifics JB offers are: An Angel, God, The Saints. Are these notions that Joan latches onto?

               

Summary of the Third Public Examination: Joan refuses to speak about her visions. Joan has been asked questions relating to witchcraft, she seems aware that these questions are dangerous questions. Joan says she has no faith in those who have prophesied about her. Joan is offered a woman’s dress. She says she will wear a dress if she is given a dress, but that because it is God’s will she sees nothing wrong with wearing men’s clothing.  

Fourth Public Examination, Tues 27th Feb, The Ornament Room at the end of the Great Hall of the Castle of Rouen.

Present:

54 Assessors

The Bishop

Joan

Maitre Jean Beaupère

Outline

Images / References

Speech

Questions/Notes

1. J swears to speak only to what concerns the trial.

2. J confirms that she has fasted every day during lent.

3. Joan states she has received permission from her voice to give answers to some, but not all, of the questions.

4.  J names her voices as Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret. When she is further questioned about the voices she eventually says she has forgotten the details. She says if she was given leave should could prove and that these details are already written at the Register at Poitiers.

5. J says that Saint Michael has also appeared to her. She will not say what Saint Michael told her.  

6. J presses MJB to obtain a copy of the book at Poitiers. MJB asks if the voices have prevented J for describing her revelations in trial. J states again that she has permission to speak on certain matters. MJB asks how she knows her revelations come to her from God. J answers that she would only follow the word of God.’

7. MJB asks J if God asked her to dress as a man. J confirms that it was God. MJB asks if she is aware that it is unlawful to dress as a man, and if it was Robert de Baudricourt who ordered J to do so

8. J is asked if a light accompanied her voice. J says there was not an angel above the head of the King. J gives the most detailed explanation yet of the vision that appeared before the King.

9. MJB Asks J how the King knew her word was from God. J replies he had ‘good signs’ and that she had the support of The Church. MP asks J to describe King’s revelations. J refuses. She goes onto say the Clergy at Chinon and Poitiers and the sign the King received convinced The King that she was on a Holy mission.

10. MJB asks J if she has been to the the Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois. J says yes, that after sending a letter to the King asking if she may see him, she went to the Church under the guidance of her Voices and took a sword from behind the Alter. J is asked if she placed a blessing on the sword. She says she did not. J is asked and refuses to answer where she has left her other swords. She says her Brothers have the sword in question.

11. J is asked if at Orleans she had a standard or a banner and the colour of it if she did. J says she has a banner and describes, when prompted, the design on the banner. When asked if she prefers her banner or her sword, J answers confidently: her banner.

12. J is asked about the King’s involvement in raising the Siege at Orleans.  J says she was given an army by the King and led the siege at Orlenes, at Saint Loup and at the Bridge Fortess. She says she was wounded in the neck. It had been revealed to her that she would be wounded by Catherine and Margaret  and she received comforts from the two Saints.

13. J is questioned about the treaty with Captain of Jargeau. J says it was her Lords who did not grant the English’s requests for a fortnight’s delay. She told the English to take two week’s respite or they would be taken by assault. J is asked if her voice gave her council about this choice. J says she does not remember.

4.4 Voice/Visions: This Voice that speaks to you, is it that of an Angel, or of a Saint, or from God direct?" “It is the Voice of Saint Catherine and of Saint Margaret. Their faces are adorned with beautiful crowns, very rich and precious. To tell you this I have leave from Our Lord. If you doubt this, send to Poitiers, where I was examined before.”

4.5 Voice/Visions: It was Saint Michael: I saw him before my eyes; he was not alone, but quite surrounded by the Angels of Heaven. I came into France only by the order of God.

4.6 God: I would rather have been torn asunder by four horses than have come into France without God's leave.

4.7 Dressing as a man:

"Was it God who prescribed to you the dress of a man?"

"What concerns this dress is a small thing - less than nothing. I did not take it by the advice of any man in the world. I did not take this dress or do anything but by the command of Our Lord and of the Angels.

4.9 Vision/Light (The King’s VIsion): There were more than three hundred Knights and more than fifty torches, without counting the spiritual light.

4.10 The Sword: I had a sword I had taken at Vaucouleurs. Whilst I was at Tours, or at Chinon, I sent to seek for a sword which was in the Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois, behind the altar; it was found there at once; the sword was in the ground, and rusty; upon it were five crosses; I knew by my Voice where it was.

4.10 Scabbard: The Priests of Fierbois made me a present of a scabbard; those of Tours, of another; one was of crimson velvet, the other of cloth-of-gold.

4.11 The Banner: I had a banner of which the field was sprinkled with lilies; the world was painted there, with an angel at each side; it was white, of the white cloth called 'boccassin' ; there was written above, I believe, 'Jhesus Maria' ; it was fringed with silk."

 "Which did you care for most, your banner or your sword?"

"Better, forty times better, my banner than my sword!"

4.12 Battle: “It was I who first planted a ladder against the fortress of the Bridge, and it was in raising this ladder that I was wounded in the neck by this cross-bolt."

4.12 Battle:

4.1 "Willingly will I swear," she answered, "to tell the truth on everything touching the trial, but not all that I know."

"You ought to be satisfied," she answered. "I have sworn enough."

4.2 “You can see for yourself how I am. I am as well as can be."

"Do you fast every day this Lent?"

"Is that in the Case? Well, yes! I have fasted every day during this Lent."

4.3 "Have you heard your Voices since Saturday?"

"Yes, truly, many times."

"Did you hear them on Saturday in this hall, where you were being examined?"

"That is not in your Case. Very well, then - yes! I did hear them."

"What did your Voice say to you last Saturday?"

"I did not quite understand it; and up to the moment when I returned to my room, I heard nothing that I may repeat to you."

"What did it say to you in your room, on your return?"

"It said to me, 'Answer them boldly.' I take counsel with my Voice about what you ask me. I will tell willingly whatever I shall have permission from God to reveal: as to the revelations concerning the King of France, I will not tell them without the permission of my Voice."

"Has your Voice forbidden you to tell everything?"

"I did not quite understand it."

"What did your Voice last say to you?"

"I asked counsel about certain things that you had asked me."

"Did it give you counsel?"

"On some points, yes; on others you may ask me for an answer that I shall not give, not having had leave. For, if I answered without leave, I should no longer have my Voices as warrant. When I have permission from Our Savior, I shall not fear to speak, because I shall have warrant."

4.4

"This Voice that speaks to you, is it that of an Angel, or of a Saint, or from God direct?"

"It is the Voice of Saint Catherine and of Saint Margaret. Their faces are adorned with beautiful crowns, very rich and precious. To tell you this I have leave from Our Lord. If you doubt this, send to Poitiers, where I was examined before."

"How do you know if these were the two Saints?"

"How do you distinguish one from the other?"

"I know quite well it is they; and I can easily distinguish one from the other."

" How do you distinguish them?"

" By the greeting they give me. It is seven years now since they have undertaken to guide me. I know them well because they were named to me."

"Are these two Saints dressed in the same stuff?"

"I will tell you no more just now; I have not permission to reveal it. If you do not believe me, go to Poitiers. There are some revelations which come to the King of France, and not to you, who are questioning me."

"Are they of the same age?"

"I have not leave to say."

"Do they speak at the same time, or one after the other?"

"I have not leave to say; nevertheless, I have always had counsel from them both."

" Which of them appeared to you first?"

"I did not distinguish them at first. I knew well enough once, but I have forgotten. If I had leave, I would tell you willingly : it is written in the Register at Poitiers.”

4.5

"I have also received comfort from Saint Michael."

"Which of these two appearances came to you first?"

"Saint Michael."

"Is it a long time since you first heard the voice of Saint Michael?"

"I did not say anything to you about the voice of Saint Michael; I say I have had great comfort from him."

"What was the first Voice that came to you when you were about thirteen?"

"It was Saint Michael: I saw him before my eyes; he was not alone, but quite surrounded by the Angels of Heaven. I came into France only by the order of God."

"Did you see Saint Michael and these Angels bodily and in reality?"

"I saw them with my bodily eyes as well as I see you; when they went from me, I wept. I should have liked to be taken away with them."

"And what was Saint Michael like?"

"You will have no more answer from me; and I am not yet free to tell you."

"What did Saint Michael say to you this first time?"

"You will have no more answer about it from me today. My Voices said to me, 'Reply boldly.' Once I told the King all that had been revealed to me, because it concerned him ; but I am no longer free to reveal to you all that Saint Michael said to me."

4.6

[To Maître Beaupère:] "I wish you could get a copy of this book at Poitiers, if it please God."

"Have your Voices forbidden you to make known your revelations without leave from them?"

"I will answer you no more about it. On all that I have leave, I will answer willingly. I have not quite understood if my Voices have forbidden me to answer.

"What sign do you give that you have this revelation from God, and

that it is Saint Catherine and Saint Margaret that talk with you?"

"I have told you that it is they ; believe me if you will."

"Are you forbidden to say?"

"I have not quite understood if this is forbidden or not."

"How can you make sure of distinguishing such things as you are free to tell, from those which are forbidden?"

"On some points I have asked leave, and on others I have obtained it. I would rather have been torn asunder by four horses than have come into France without God's leave."

4.7

"Was it God who prescribed to you the dress of a man?"

"What concerns this dress is a small thing - less than nothing. I did not take it by the advice of any man in the world. I did not take this dress or do anything but by the command of Our Lord and of the Angels."

"Did it appear to you that this command to take man's dress was lawful?"

"All I have done is by Our Lord's command. If I had been told to take some other, I should have done it; because it would have been His command."

"Did you not take this garment by order of Robert de Baudricourt?"

"No."

"Do you think it was well to take a man's dress?"

"All that I have done by the order of Our Lord I think has been well done; I look for good surety and good help in it."

"In this particular case, this taking of man's dress, do you think you did well?"

"I have done nothing in the world but by the order of God."

4.8

"When you saw this Voice coming to you, was there a light?"

"There was plenty of light everywhere, as was seemly."

[Addressing herself to Maître Beaupère:] "It does not all come to you!"

"Was there an angel over the head of your King when you saw him for the first time?"

"By Our Lady! if there were, I know nothing of it; I did not see it."

"Was there a light?"

"There were more than three hundred Knights and more than fifty torches, without counting the spiritual light."

4.9 .

"Why was your King able to put faith in your words?"

"He had good signs, and the clergy bore me witness."

"What revelations has your King had?"

"You will not have them from me this year. During three weeks I was questioned by the clergy at Chinon and at Poitiers. Before he was willing to believe me, the King had a sign of my mission ; and the clergy of my party were of opinion that there was nothing but good in my mission."

4.10

"Have you been to Saint Catherine de Fierbois?"

"Yes, and I heard there three Masses in one day. Afterwards, I went to the Castle of Chinon, whence I sent letters to the King, to know if I should be allowed to see him; saying, that I had traveled a hundred and fifty leagues to come to his help, and that I knew many things good for him. I think I remember there was in my letter the remark that I should recognize him among all others. I had a sword I had taken at Vaucouleurs. Whilst I was at Tours, or at Chinon, I sent to seek for a sword which was in the Church of Saint Catherine de Fierbois, behind the altar; it was found there at once; the sword was in the ground, and rusty; upon it were five crosses; I knew by my Voice where it was. I had never seen the man who went to seek for it. I wrote to the Priests of the place, that it might please them to let me have this sword, and they sent it to me. It was under the earth, not very deeply buried, behind the altar, so it seemed to me: I do not know exactly if it were before or behind the altar, but I believe I wrote saying that it was at the back. As soon as it was found, the Priests of the Church rubbed it, and the rust fell off at once without effort. It was an armorer of Tours who went to look for it. The Priests of Fierbois made me a present of a scabbard; those of Tours, of another; one was of crimson velvet, the other of cloth-of-gold. I had a third made of leather, very strong. When I was taken prisoner I had not got this sword. I always bore the sword of Fierbois from the time I had it up to my departure from Saint-Denis, after the attack on Paris."

"What blessing did you invoke, or have invoked, on this sword?"

"I neither blessed it, nor had it blessed : I should not have known how to set about it. I cared very much for this sword, because it had been found in the Church of Saint Catherine, whom I love so much."

"Have you been at Coulange-les-Vineuses?"

"I do not know."

"Have you sometimes placed your sword upon an altar; and, in so placing it, was it that your sword might be more fortunate?"

"Not that I know of."

"Have you sometimes prayed that it might be more fortunate?"

"It is good to know that I wished my armor might have good fortune!"

"Had you your sword when you were taken prisoner?"

"No, I had one which had been taken on a Burgundian."

"Where was the sword of Fierbois left?"

"I offered at Saint-Denis a sword and armor; it was not this sword. I had that at Lagny; from Lagny to Compiegne, I bore the sword of this Burgundian; it was a good sword for fighting - very good for giving stout buffets and hard clouts. To tell what became of the other sword does not concern this Case, and I will not answer about it now. My brothers have all my goods - my horses,  my sword, so far as I know, and the rest, which are worth more than twelve thousand crowns."

4.11

"When you were at Orleans, had you a standard, or banner and of what color was it?"

"I had a banner of which the field was sprinkled with lilies; the world was painted there, with an angel at each side; it was white, of the white cloth called 'boccassin' ; there was written above, I believe,

'Jhesus Maria' ; it was fringed with silk."

"The words 'Jhesus Maria' were they written above, below, or on the side?"

"At the side, I believe."

"Which did you care for most, your banner or your sword?"

"Better, forty times better, my banner than my sword!"

"Who made you get this painting done upon your banner?"

"I have told you often enough, that I had nothing done but by the command of God. It was I, myself who bore this banner, when I attacked the enemy, to save killing any one, for I have never killed any one."

4.12

"What force did your King give you when he set you to work?"

"He gave me ten or twelve thousand men. First, I went to Orleans, to the fortress of Saint Loup, and afterwards to that of the Bridge."

"Which fortress was being attacked when you made your men retire?"

"I do not remember. I was quite certain of raising the siege of Orleans; I had revelation of it. I told this to the King before going there."

"Before the assault, did you not tell your followers that you alone would receive the arrows, cross-bolts, and stones, thrown by the machines and cannons ?"

"No; a hundred and even more of my people were wounded. I had said to them: 'Be fearless, and you will raise the siege.' Then, in the attack on the Bridge fortress, I was wounded in the neck by an arrow or cross-bolt; but I had great comfort from Saint Catherine, and was cured in less than a fortnight. I did not interrupt for this either my riding or work. I knew quite well that I should be wounded; I had told the King so, but that, notwithstanding, I should go on with my work. This had been revealed to me by the Voices of my two Saints,  the blessed Catherine and the blessed Margaret. It was I who first planted a ladder against the fortress of the Bridge, and it was in raising this ladder that I was wounded in the neck by this cross-bolt."

"Why did you not accept the treaty with the Captain of Jargeau?"

"It was the Lords of my party who answered the English that they should not have the fortnight's delay which they asked, telling them that they were to retire at once, they and their horses. As for me, I told them of Jargeau to retire if they wished, with their doublets, and their lives safe; if not, they would be taken by assault."

"Had you any revelation from your counsel, that is to say from your Voices, to know whether it was right or not to give this fortnight's respite?"

"I do not remember."

At this point, the rest of the inquiry had been postponed to another day. We have fixed for Thursday the next Meeting, at the same place.

4.13

"Why did you not accept the treaty with the Captain of Jargeau?"

"It was the Lords of my party who answered the English that they should not have the fortnight's delay which they asked, telling them that they were to retire at once, they and their horses. As for me, I told them of Jargeau to retire if they wished, with their doublets, and their lives safe; if not, they would be taken by assault."

"Had you any revelation from your counsel, that is to say from your Voices, to know whether it was right or not to give this fortnight's respite?"

"I do not remember."

Note: This is the first time that J references Saint Catherine, Saint Margaret & Saint Michael.

Note: This Examination at Poitiers resulted in Charles VII following J’s divine guidance. There is no surviving document from this examination.

Note: J says that the voices have been with her for seven years.

Q: Does J want the copy of the Examination at Poitiers in order to make sure her story checks out?  

Note: J gives her most detailed vision of the King

Note: This is the first reference to the banner & the sword.

Summary of the 4th Public Examination: Joan reveals that her visions come to her in the form of Saint Catherine, Saint Margaret & Saint Michael. Joan references This Examination at Poitiers, which could suggest that she is losing stamina in the trial - or perhaps that she is beginning to understand their line of enquiry. For the first time in the trial Joan is asked specific details about her military action.