IB Biology & Anatomy/Physiology Standards

IB Biology Unit Standards:

Semester 1

Semester 2

IB Anatomy & Physiology Unit Standards:

Semester 1

Semester 2

Unit 0: Statistical Analysis (1)

2 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. State that error bars are a graphical representation of the variability of data
2. State that standard deviation is used to summarize the spread of values around the mean
3. State that 68% of standard deviations values fall within one standard deviation of the mean
4. Calculate the mean and standard deviation of given set values

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceeds proficiency

1. Deduce the significance of the difference between two sets of data using calculated t values and appropriate tables
2. Explain the existence of a correlation and explain that a causal relationship can exist between two variables
3. Explain how the standard deviation (S.D.) can be used to compare the means and spread (distribution) of data; S.D. indicates data is clustered around the mean value, large S.D. indicates a wider spread around the mean

Unit 1: Cell Structure & Function

10 Hours

1. Cell Theory (2.1), 3 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 6 required to meet proficiency

1. State that unicellular organisms carry out all the functions of life
2. State that stem cells retain the capacity to divide and have the ability to differentiate along different pathways
3. Explain that multicellular organisms show emergent properties: multiple small components interact cohesively
4. Outline the three parts of the cell theory
5. Calculate the magnification of drawings and the actual size of specimen given the magnification
6. Discuss the evidence for cell theory

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Compare the relative sizes of molecules, cell membrane thickness, viruses, bacteria, organelles and cells using an appropriate SI unit
2. Explain the importance of the surface area to volume ratio as a limiting factor to cell size
3. Explain why cells in multicellular organisms differentiate to carry out specialized functions through expression of some of their genes but not others
4. Outline one therapeutic use of stem cells

1. Prokaryotic & Eukaryotic Cells (2.2 & 2.3), 4 Hours

Proficient: 6 of 8 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of an E. coli cell as an example of a prokaryotic: cell wall, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, pili, flagella, ribosomes and nucleoid
2. Annotate the functions of each structure identified in an example prokaryote cell
3. Identify structures from (a) of an E. coli in an electron micrograph
4. State that prokaryotic cells divide by binary fission.
5. Draw and label a diagram of a liver cell as an example of eukaryotic animal cell: free ribosomes, Rough ER, lysosome, golgi apparatus, mitochondria and nucleus
6. Annotate the functions of each structure identified in an example eukaryotic animal cell
7. Identify structures from (a) of a liver cells in an electron micrograph
8. State three differences between plant and animal cells

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceed proficiency

1. Compare prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells
2. Outline two roles of extracellular components, one in plant and one in animal cells

1. Membranes (2.4), 3 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of membranes: phospholipid bilayer, cholesterol, glycoproteins, integral and peripheral proteins, plasma membrane
2. List functions of membrane proteins
3. Define diffusion and osmosis
4. Explain the process of passive transport across a membrane through diffusion and facilitated diffusion
5. Explain the process of active transport across a membrane and the role of ATP and protein pumps

Exceeds:2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain how hydrophobic and hydrophilic properties of phospholipids help to maintain the structure of cell membranes
2. Describe how fluidity of the membrane allows it to change shape: break apart and re-form during endocytosis and exocytosis
3. Explain how vesicles are used to transport materials within a cell between the rough ER, golgi apparatus and plasma membrane

Unit 2: The Chemistry of Life

9 Hours

1. Chemical Elements & Water (3.1), 2 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. State the most frequently occurring chemical elements in living things: carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen
2. State the variety of other elements are needed by living organisms: sulfur, calcium, phosphorus, iron and sodium
3. State one role for each of the elements mentioned in (a) and (b)
4. Draw and Label a diagram showing the structure of water molecules to show their polarity and hydrogen bond formation
5. Outline the thermal, cohesive and solvent properties of water

Exceeds: 1 of 1 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the relationship between the properties of water and its uses in living organisms as a coolant, medium for metabolic reactions and transport medium

1. Carbohydrates, Lipids, & Proteins (3.2 & 7.5), 3 Hours

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. Distinguish between organic and inorganic compounds
2. Identify amino acids, glucose, ribose and fatty acids from diagrams showing their structure
3. List three examples each of monosaccharides (glucose, galactose & fructose), disaccharides (maltose, lactose & sucrose) and polysaccharides (starch, glycogen & cellulose)
4. State one function of glucose, lactose and glycogen in animals
5. State one function of fructose, sucrose and cellulose in plants
6. State three functions of lipids
7. State four functions of proteins, giving a named example of each

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Outline the role of condensation and hydrolysis in the following relationships using equations with words or chemical formulas: monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides; fatty acids, glycerol and triglycerides; amino acids and polypeptides
2. Compare the use of carbohydrates and lipids in energy storage
3. Explain the four levels of protein structure, indicating the significance of each level
4. Outline the difference between fibrous and globular proteins with reference to two examples of each protein type
5. Explain the significance of polar and non-polar amino acids: creates hydrophilic channels through membranes specificity of active sites in enzymes

1. Enzymes (3.6 & 7.6), 4 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Define enzyme, active site, denaturation
2. State that metabolic pathways consist of chains and cycles of enzyme-catalyzed reactions
3. Describe the induced-fit model (lock-and-key model)
4. Explain enzyme-substrate specificity

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the effects of temperature, pH and substrate concentration on enzyme activity
2. Explain the use of lactase in the production of lactose-free milk
3. Explain that enzymes lower the activation energy of the chemical reactions that they catalyse
4. Explain the difference between competitive and non-competitive inhibition and give one example of each
5. Explain the control of metabolic pathways by end-product inhibition, including the role of allosteric sites

Unit 3: DNA

8 Hours

1. Cell Division (2.5), 2 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Outline the stages in the cell cycle: interphase (G1, S, G2), mitosis, and cytokinesis
2. State that tumours (cancers) are the result of uncontrolled cell division and that they can occur in any organ or tissue
3. State that interphase is an active period in the life of a cell when many metabolic reactions occur
4. State that growth, embryonic development, tissue repair and axexual reproduction invovle mitosis

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain how mitosis produces two genetically identical nuclei
2. Describe the events that occur in the four phases of mitosis (prophase, metaphase, anaphase and telophase): two DNA molecules formed by DNA replication are considered to be sister chromatids until splitting of the centromere at which point they are individual chromosomes

1. DNA Structure (3.3 & 7.1), 3 Hours

Proficient:6 of 8 required to meet proficiency

1. State the names of the four bases in DNA
2. Draw and label a simple diagram of the molecular structure of DNA
3. Outline (identify or draw using simple shapes) DNA nucleotide structure in terms of sugar (deoxyribose), base and phosphate
4. Outline (identify or draw using simple shapes) how DNA nucleotides are linked together by covalent bonds into a single strand
5. State that nucleosomes help to supercoil chromosomes and help to regulate transcription
6. Outline the structure of nucleosomes
7. State that eukaryotic genes can contain exons and introns
8. Describe the structure of DNA, including the antiparallel strands, 3’-5’ linkages and hydrogen bonding between purines (adenine & guanine) and pyrimidines (cytosine & thymine)

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain how a DNA double helix is formed using complementary base pairing and hydrogen bonds
2. Distinguish between unique or single-copy genes and highly repetitive sequences in nuclear DNA

1. DNA Replication (3.4 & 7.2), 3 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 3 required to meet proficiency

1. State that DNA replication is semiconservative
2. State that DNA replication occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction
3. State that DNA replication is initiated at many points in eukaryotic chromosomes

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the significance of complementary base pairing in the conservation of the base sequence of DNA
2. Explain DNA replication in terms of unwinding the double helix and separation of the strands by helicase, followed by formation of the new complementary strands by DNA polymerase
3. Explain the process of DNA replication in prokaryotes including the following: enzymes (helicase, DNA polymerase, RNA primase & DNA ligase), Okazaki fragments and deoxynucleoside triphosphates

Unit 4: Transcription & Translation

6 Hours

1. Transcription (3.5 & 7.3), 3 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. State that transcription is carried out in a 5’ to 3’ direction
2. State that eukaryotic RNA needs the removal of introns to form mature mRNA
3. Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand complementary to the DNA strand by RNA polymerase
4. Describe the genetic code in terms of codons composed of triplets of bases

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Compare the structure of RNA and DNA
2. Distinguish between the sense and antisense strands of DNA
3. Explain the process of transcription in prokaryotes including: role of the promoter region, RNA polymerase, nucleoside triphsophates and the terminator

1. Translation (3.5 & 7.4), 3 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. State that translation occurs in a 5’ to 3’ direction
2. Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a peptide bond between two amino acids
3. State that free ribosomes synthesize proteins for use primarily within the cell, and that bound ribosomes synthesize proteins primarily for secretion or for lysosomes
4. Explain the process of translation, leading to polypeptide formation
5. State that translation consists of initiation, elongation, translocation and termination.

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Discuss the relationship between one gene and one polypeptide
2. Explain the process of translation, including ribosomes, polysomes, start codons and stop codons
3. Explain that each tRNA molecule is recognized by a tRNA-activating enzyme that binds a specific amino acid to the tRNA, using ATP for energy
4. Outline the structure of ribosomes, including protein and RNA composition, large and small subunits, three tRNA binding sites and mRNA binding sites

Unit 5: Cellular Respiration & Photosynthesis (3.7, 3.8, 8.1 & 8.2)

15 Hours

1. Cellular Respiration (3.7 & 8.1), 7 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 6 required to meet proficiency

1. Define cell respiration: controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP
2. State that, in cell respiration, glucose in the cytoplasm is broken down by glycolysis into pyruvate, with a small yield of ATP
3. Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a mitochondrion as seen in electron micrograph
4. State that oxidation involves the loss of electrons from an element, whereas reduction involves a gain of electrons: oxidation involves gaining oxygen or losing hydrogen (overall ratio of oxygen increases), reduction involves losing oxygen or gaining hydrogen (overall ratio of hydrogen increases)
5. Outline the process of glycolysis, including phosphorylation, lysis, oxidation and ATP formation
6. Identify inputs and outputs of cellular respiration

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain that, during anaerobic cell respiration, pyruvate can be converted in the cytoplasm into lactate, or ethanol and carbon dioxide, with no further yield of ATP
2. Explain that, during aerobic cell respiration, pyruvate can be broken down in the mitochondrion into carbon dioxide and water with a large yield of ATP
3. Explain aerobic respiration, including the link reaction, the Krebs cycle, the role of NADH + H+, the electron transport chain and the role of oxygen
4. Explain oxidative phosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis
5. Explain the relationship between the structure of the mitochondrion and its function

1. Photosynthesis (3.8 & 8.2), 8 Hours

Proficient: 7 of 9 required to meet proficiency

1. State that photosynthesis involves the conversion of light energy into chemical energy
2. State that light from the sun is composed of a range of wavelengths (colors)
3. State that chlorophyll is the main photosynthetic pigment
4. State that light energy is used to produce ATP, split water molecules (photolysis) and to form oxygen and hydrogen
5. State that ATP and hydrogen (from photolysis of water) are used to fix carbon dioxide to make organic molecules
6. State that photosynthesis consists of light-dependent and light-independent reactions
7. Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a chloroplast as seen in electron micrographs
8. Outline the effects of temperature, light intensity and carbon dioxide concentration on the rate of photosynthesis
9. Outline the differences in absorption of red, blue and green light by chlorophyll

Exceeds: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. Explain that the rate of photosynthesis can be measured directly by the production of oxygen or the uptake of carbon dioxide, or indirectly by an increase in biomass
2. Explain the light-dependent reactions
3. Explain the light-independent reactions
4. Explain the relationship between the structure of the chloroplast and its function
5. Explain photophosphorylation in terms of chemiosmosis
6. Explain the relationship between the action spectrum and the absorption spectrum of photosynthetic pigments in green plants
7. Explain the concept of limiting factors in photosynthesis, with reference to light intensity, temperature and concentration of carbon dioxide

Unit 6: Genetic Engineering & Biotechnology

5 Hours

1. Genetic engineering & Biotechnology (4.4), 5 Hours

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. State that in gel electrophoresis, fragments of DNA move in an electric field and are separated according to their size.
2. State that gel electrophoresis of DNA is used in DNA profiling
3. State that, when genes are transferred between species, the amino acid sequence of polypeptides translated from them is unchanged because the genetic code is universal.
4. State two examples of the current uses of genetically modified crops or animals
5. Define clone
6. Outline three outcomes of the sequencing of the complete human genome
7. Outline the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) to copy and amplify minute quantities of DNA

Exceeds: 4 of 6 required to exceeds proficiency

1. Describe the application of DNA profiling to determine paternity and also in forensic investigations
2. Analyse DNA profiles to draw conclusions about paternity or forensic investigations
3. Outline a basic technique used for gene transfer involving plasmids, a host cell (bacterium, yeast or other cell), restriction enzymes (endonucleases) and DNA ligase
4. Outline a technique for cloning using differentiated animal cells
5. Discuss the potential benefits and possible harmful effects of one example of genetic modification
6. Discuss the ethical issues of therapeutic cloning in humans.

Unit 7: Evolution

10 Hours

1. Evolution (5.4), 3 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Define evolution
2. State that populations tend to produce more offspring than the environment can support
3. State that the members of a species show variation
4. Outline the evidence for evolution provided by the fossil record, selective breeding of domesticated animals and homologous structures

Evolution: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain that the consequence of potential overproduction of offspring is a struggle for survival
2. Explain how sexual reproduction promotes variation in a species
3. Explain how natural selection leads to evolution
4. Explain two examples of evolution in response to environmental change; one must be antibiotic resistance in bacteria

1. The Hardy-Weinberg Principle (D4), 2 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 2 required to meet proficiency

1. State the assumptions made when the Hardy-Weinberg equation is used
2. Calculate allele, genotype and phenotype frequencies for two alleles of a gene, using the Hardy-Weinberg equation

Exceeds: 1 of 1 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain how the Hardy-Weinberg equation is derived

1. Speciation (D2), 5 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 6 required to meet proficiency

1. Define allele frequency and gene pool
2. State that evolution involves a change in allele frequency in a population’s gene pool over a number of generations
3. Describe three examples of barriers between gene pools
5. Describe an example of transient polymorphism
6. Describe sickle-cell anemia as an example of balanced polymorphism

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Discuss the definition of the term species
2. Discuss ideas on the pace of evolution, including gradualism and punctuated equilibrium
3. Explain how polyploidy can contribute to speciation
4. Compare allopatric and sympatric speciation
5. Compare convergent and divergent evolution

Unit 8: Development of Life

15 Hours

1. Origin of Life on Earth (D1), 4 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. State that comets may have delivered organic compounds to Earth
2. State that living cells may have been preceded by protobionts, with an internal chemical environment different from their surroundings
3. Outline the experiments of Miller and Urey into the origin of organic compounds
4. Outline the contribution of prokaryotes to the creation of an oxygen-rich atmosphere

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Describe four processes needed for the spontaneous origin of life on Earth
2. Outline two properties of RNA that would have allowed it to play a role in the origin of life.
3. Discuss possible locations where conditions have allowed the synthesis of organic compounds
4. Discuss the endosymbiotic theory for the origin of eukaryotes

1. Human Evolution (D3), 6 Hours

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. Define half-life
2. State that, at various stages in hominid evolution, several species may have coexisted
3. Describe the major anatomical features that define humans as primates
4. Outline the trends illustrated by the fossils of Ardipithecus ramidus, Australopithecus including A. afarensis and A. africanus, and Homo including H. habilis, H. erectus, H. neanderthalensis  and H. sapiens
5. Distinguish between genetic and cultural evolution

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Deduced the approximate age of materials based on a simple decay curve for a radioisotope
2. Outline the method for dating rocks and fossils using radioisotopes, with reference to 14C and 40K
3. Discuss the incompleteness of the fossil record and the resulting uncertainties about human evolution
4. Discuss the correlation between the change in diet and increase in brain size during hominid evolution
5. Discuss the relative importance of genetic and cultural evolution in the recent evolution of humans

1. Phylogeny & Systematics (D5), 5 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Outline the value of classifying organisms
3. Distinguish, with examples, between analogous and homologous characteristics
4. Outline the methods used to construct cladograms and the conclusions that can be drawn from them

Exceeds: 4 of 6 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the biochemical evidence provided by the universality of DNA and protein structures for the common ancestry of living organisms
2. Explain how variations in specific molecules can indicate phylogeny.
3. Discuss how biochemical variations can be used as an evolutionary clock
5. Analyze cladograms in terms of phylogenetic relationships
6. Discuss the relationship between cladograms and the classification of living organisms

Unit 9: Plant Science

11 Hours

1. Plant Structure & Growth (9.1), 4 Hours

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label plant diagrams to show the distribution of tissues in the stem and leaf of a dicotyledonous plant
2. State that dicotyledonous plants have apical and lateral meristems
3. Identify modification of roots, stems and leaves for different functions: bulbs, stem tubers, storage roots and tendrils
4. Outline three differences between the structures of dicotyledonous and monocotyledonous plants

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the relationship between the distribution of tissues in the leaf and the functions of these tissues
2. Compare growth due to apical and lateral meristems in dicotyledonous plants
3. Explain the role of auxin in phototropism as an example of the control of plant growth

1. Transport in Angiospermophytes (9.2), 4 Hours

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. List ways in which mineral ions in the soil move to the root
2. State that terrestrial plants support themselves by means of thickened cellulose, cell turgor and lignified xylem
3. Define transpiration
4. State that guard cells can regulate transpiration by opening and closing stomata
5. State that the plant hormone abscisic acid causes the closing of the stomata
6. Outline four adaptations of xerophytes that help to reduce transpiration
7. Outline the role of phloem in active translocation of sugars and amino acids from source (photosynthetic tissue and storage organs) to sink (fruits, seeds, roots)

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain how water is carried by the transpiration stream, including the structure of xylem vessels, transpiration pull, cohesion, adhesion and evaporation
2. Explain the process of mineral ion absorption from the soil into roots by active transport
3. Outline how the root system provides a large surface area for mineral ion and water uptake by means of branching and root hairs

1. Reproduction in Angiospermophytes (9.3), 3 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 3 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram showing the structure of a dicotyledonous animal-pollinated flower
2. Draw and label a diagram showing the external and internal structure of a named dicotyledonous seed
3. Distinguish between pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the conditions needed for the germination of a typical seed
2. Explain how flowering is controlled in a long-day and short-day plants, including the role of phytochrome
3. Outline the metabolic processes during germination of a starchy seed

Unit 10: Ecology

13 Hours

1. Communities & Ecosystems (5.1), 5 Hours

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. Distinguish between autotroph and heterotroph
2. Distinguish between consumers, detritivores and saprotrophs
3. Describe what is meant by a food web
4. Define trophic level
5. State that light is the initial energy source for almost all communities
6. State that energy transformation are never 100% efficient
7. State that saprotrophic bacteria and fungi (decomposers) recycle nutrients

Exceeds: 4 of 6 required to exceed proficiency

1. Deduce the trophic level of organisms in a food chain and a food web
2. Describe what is meant by a food chain, giving three examples, each with at least three linkages (four organisms)
3. Construct a food web containing up to 10 organisms, using appropriate information
4. Explain the energy flow in a food chain
5. Explain reasons for the shape of pyramids of energy
6. Explain that energy enters and leaves ecosystems but nutrients must be recycled

1. The Greenhouse Effect (5.2), 3 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 3 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of the carbon cycle to show the process involved
2. Outline the precautionary principle
3. Outline the consequences of a global temperature rise on arctic ecosystems

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Analyze the changes in concentration of atmospheric carbon dioxide using historical records
2. Explain the relationship between rises in concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide, methane and oxides of nitrogen and the enhanced greenhouse effect
3. Evaluate the precautionary principle as a justification for strong action in response to the threats posed by the enhanced greenhouse effect

1. Populations (5.3), 2 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 2 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a graph showing a sigmoid (S-shaped) population growth curve
2. List three factors that set limits to population increase

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the reasons for the exponential growth phase, the plateau phase and the transitional phase between these two phases
2. Outline how population size is affected by natality, immigration, mortality and emigration

1. Classification (5.5), 3 Hours

Proficient: 2 of 3 required to meet proficiency

1. List seven levels in the hierarchy of taxa-kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus, species- using an example from two different kingdoms for each level
2. Distinguish between the following phyla of animals, using simple external recognition features: porifera, cnidaria, platyhelminthes, annelida, mollusca and arthropoda
3. Distinguish between the following phyla of plants using simple external recognition features: bryophyta, filicinophyta, coniferophyta, and angiospermophyta

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceed proficiency

1. Apply and design a key for a group of up to eight organisms
2. Outline the binomial system of nomenclature

Anatomy and Physiology

Unit 1 Anatomy Vocab Chap. 1 (not in IB syllabus, but needed for understanding the rest of the year).

1. Anatomy Organization and Terminology (4.5 hours)

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. List the levels of organization in the human body and the characteristics of each.
2. List and describe the major characteristics of life
3. Give examples of metabolism.
4. List and Describe the major requirements of organisms.
5. Identify the locations of the major body cavities.
6. List the organs located in each major body cavity.
7. Name and Identify the locations of the membranes associated with the thoracic and abdominopelvic cavities.

Exceeds: 3 of 5 required to exceed proficiency:

1. Explain how anatomy and physiology are related.
2. Explain the importance of homeostasis to survival.
3. Describe the parts of a homeostatic mechanism and explain how they function together.
4. Properly use the terms that describe relative positions, body sections and body regions.
5. Describe the general function of each organ system.

Unit 2 Bones/Joints/Elbow/ Muscles and Movement

1.  Muscles and Movement (11.2 AHL) 4 hours

Proficient:  4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency:

1. State the roles of bones, ligaments, muscles, tendons and nerves in human movement.
2. Label a diagram of the human elbow joint, including cartilage, synovial fluid, joint capsule, named bones and antagonistic muscles (biceps and triceps)
3. Outline the functions of the structures in the human elbow joint named above.
4. Describe the structure of striated muscle fibers, including the myofibrils with light and dark bands, mitochondria, the sarcoplasmic reticulum, nuclei and the sarcolemma.
5. Draw and label a diagram to show the structure of a sarcomere, including Z-lines, actin filaments, myosin filaments with heads, and the resultant light and dark bands.

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency:

1. Explain the movement of the hip joint and the movement of the knee joint.
2. Explain how skeletal muscle contracts, including the release of calcium ions from the sarcoplasmic reticulum, the formation of cross-bridges, the sliding of actin and myosin filaments, and the use of ATP to break cross-bridges and re-set myosin heads.
3. Analyze electron micrographs to find the state of contraction of muscle fibers.

Unit 3 Homeostasis 9 hours

1. Nerves and Homeostasis (6.5 )

Proficient:  4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency:

1. State that the nervous system consists of the central nervous system (CNS) and the peripheral nervous system (PNS), and is composed of cells called neurons that can carry rapid electrical impulses.
2. Draw and label a diagram of the structure of a motor neuron.
3. State that nerve impulses are conducted from receptors to the CNS by sensory neurons, within the CNS by relay neurons, and from the CNS to effectors by motor neurons.
4. Define resting potential and action potential (depolarization and repolarization).
5. State that homeostasis involves maintaining the internal environment between limits, including blood pH, carbon dioxide concentration.

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency:

1. Explain how a nerve impulse passes along a non-myelinated neuron.
2. Explain the principles of synaptic transmission.
3. Explain that homeostasis involves monitoring levels of variables and correcting changes in levels by negative feedback mechanisms.
4. Explain the control of body temperature, including the transfer of heat in blood, and the roles of the hypothalamus, sweat glands, skin arterioles and shivering.
5. Explain the control of blood glucose concentration, including the roles of glucagon, insulin, and alpha and beta cells in the pancreatic islets.

1. Hormones & Hormonal Control (6.5 & H1)

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. State that the endocrine system consists of glands that release hormones that are transported in the blood.
2. State that hormones are chemical messengers secreted by endocrine glands into the blood and transported to specific target cells.
3. State that hormones can be steroids, proteins and tyrosine derivatives, with one example of each.
4. Distinguish between the mode of action of steroid hormones and protein hormones.
5. Distinguish between type I and type II diabetes.

Exceeds: 2 of 2 required to exceeds proficiency

1. Explain the control of blood glucose concentration, including the roles of glucagon, insulin, and alpha and beta cells in the pancreatic islets.
2. Outline the relationship between the hypothalamus and the pituitary gland.

Unit 4 Digestion/Liver

1. Digestion (6.1, H2)

Proficient: 6 of 8 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of the digestive system.
2. Explain why digestion of large food molecules is essential.
3. State the source, substrate, products and optimum pH conditions for one amylase, one protease and one lipase.
4. Explain the need for enzymes in digestion.
5. Outline the function of the stomach, small intestine and large intestine.
6. State that digestive juices are secreted into the alimentary canal by glands, including salivary glands, gastric glands in the stomach wall, the pancreas and the wall of the small intestine.
7. Explain the structural features of exocrine gland cells.
8. Outline the reasons for cellulose not being digested in the alimentary canal.

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceeds proficiency

1. Compare the composition of saliva, gastric juice and pancreatic juice.
2. Explain why pepsin and trypsin are initially synthesized as inactive precursors and how they are subsequently activated.
3. Discuss the roles of gastric acid and Heliobacter pylori in the development of stomach ulcers and stomach cancers.
4. Outline the control of digestive juice secretion by nerves and hormones, using the example of secretion of gastric juice.

1. Absorption of Digested Foods (H3)

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram showing a transverse section of the ileum as seen under a light microscope.
2. List the materials that are not absorbed and are egested.
3. Distinguish between absorption and assimilation.
4. Outline the role of membrane-bound enzymes on the surface of epithelial cells in the small intestine in digestion.

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the structural features of an epithelial cell of a villus as seen in electron micrographs, including microvilli, mitochondria, pinocytotic vesicles and tight junctions.
2. Explain how the structure of the villus is related to its role in absorption and transport of the products of digestion.
3. Explain the mechanisms used by the ileum to absorb and transport food, including facilitated diffusion, active transport and endocytosis.

1. Functions of Liver (H4)

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. State that the liver synthesizes plasma proteins and cholesterol.
2. State that the liver has a role in detoxification.
3. Outline the circulation of blood through liver tissue, including the hepatic artery, hepatic portal vein, sinusoids and hepatic vein
4. Outline the role of the liver in the storage of nutrients, including carbohydrate, iron, vitamin A and vitamin D.

Exceeds: 2 of 3 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the role of the liver in regulating levels of nutrients in the blood.
2. Explain the liver damage caused by excessive alcohol consumption.
3. Describe the process of erythrocyte and hemoglobin breakdown in the liver, including phagocytosis, digestion of globin and bile pigment formation.
4. Explain the problem of lipid digestion in a hydrophilic medium and the role of bile in overcoming this.

Unit 5 Transport System & Gas Exchange 15 hours

1. Transport System (6.2 & H5)

Proficient: 4 of 6 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of the ventilation system, including trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
2. State that the coronary arteries supply heart muscle with oxygen and nutrients
3. State that blood is composed of plasma, erythrocytes, leucocytes (phagocytes and lymphocytes) and platelets
4. State that the following are transported by the blood: nutrients, oxygen, carbon dioxide, hormones, antibodies, urea and heat.
5. Outline atherosclerosis and the causes of coronary thrombosis
6. Describe the process of blood clotting

Exceeds: 5 of 7 required to exceed proficiency

1. Outline the mechanisms that control the heartbeat, including the roles of the SA node, AV node and conducting fibres in the ventricular walls.
2. Explain the action of the heart in terms of collecting blood, pumping blood, and opening and closing valves.
3. Outline the control of the heartbeat in terms of mygoenic muscle contraction, the role of the pacemaker, nerves, the medulla of the brain and epinephrine (adrenaline).
4. Explain the relationship between the structure and function of arteries, capillaries and veins.
5. Explain the events of the cardiac cycle, including atrial and ventricular systole and diastole, and heart sounds
6. Analyse data showing pressure and volume changes in the left atrium, left ventricle and the aorta, during the cardiac cycle
7. Discuss factors that affect the incidence of coronary heart disease

1. Gas Exchange (6.4 & H6)

Proficient: 4 of 6 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of the ventilation system, including trachea, lungs, bronchi, bronchioles and alveoli.
2. Distinguish between ventilation, gas exchange and cell respiration
3. Describe the features of alveoli that adapt them to gas exchange
4. Define partial pressure
5. Outline the possible causes of asthma and its effects on the gas exchange system
6. Describe how carbon is carbon dioxide is carried by the blood, including the action of carbonic anhydrase, the chloride shift and buffering by plasma proteins.

Exceeds: 4 of 6 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the need for ventilation system
2. Explain the mechanism of ventilation of the lungs in terms of volume and pressure changes caused by the internal and external intercostal muscles, the diaphragm and abdominal muscles
3. Explain the oxygen dissociation curves of adult hemoglobin, fetal hemoglobin and myoglobin.
4. Explain the role of the Bohr shift in the supply of oxygen to respiring tissues.
5. Explain how and why ventilation rate varies with exercise
6. Explain the problem of gas exchange at high altitudes and the way the body acclimatizes.

Unit 6 Immune/ Lymphatic

1. Defence Against Infectious Diseases (6.3, 11.1)

Proficient: 5 of 7 required to meet proficiency

1. Define pathogen.
2. Define active and passive immunity.
3. Outline the role of skin and mucous membranes in defense against pathogens.
4. Outline how phagocytic leucocytes ingest pathogens in the blood and in body tissues.
5. Outline the effects of HIV on the immune system.
6. Outline the principle of challenge and response, clonal selection and memory cells as the basis of immunity.
7. Distinguish between antigens and antibodies.

Exceeds: 4 of 6 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain antibody production.
2. Describe the production of monoclonal antibodies and their use in diagnosis and in treatment.
3. Explain the principle of vaccination.
4. Discuss the cause, transmission and social implications of AIDS.
5. Discuss the benefits and dangers of vaccination.
6. Explain why antibiotics are effective against bacteria but not against viruses.

Unit 7 Urinary & Kidney (4 hours)

1. Kidney (11.3)

Proficient: 3 of 4 required to meet proficiency

1. Draw and label a diagram of the kidney.
2. Define osmoregulation.
3. Define excretion
4. Annotate a diagram of glomerulus and associated nephron to show the function of each part

Exceeds: 4 of 5 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain the process of ultrafiltration, including blood pressure, fenestrated blood capillaries and basement membrane
2. Explain the reabsorption of glucose, water and salts in the proximal convoluted tubule, including the roles of microvilli, osmosis and active transport
3. Explain the roles of the loop of Henle, medulla, collecting duct and ADH (vasopressin) in maintaining the water balance of the blood.
4. Explain the differences in the concentration of proteins, glucose, and urea between blood plasma, glomerular filtrate and urine.
5. Explain the presence of glucose in the urine of untreated diabetic patients.

Unit 8 Genetics  11 hours

1. Chromosomes, genes, alleles, mutations and Theoretical Genetics (4.1, 4.3,)Proficient: Need 7 of 10 to be proficient
1. State that eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins.
2. Define gene, allele, genome and gene mutation.
3. Define genotype, phenotype, dominant allele, recessive allele, codominant alleles, locus, homozygous, heterozygous, carrier, test cross, sex linkage,  polygenic inheritance and linkage group.
4. State that some genes have more than two alleles (multiple alleles).
5. State that some genes are present on the X chromosome and absent from the shorter Y chromosome in humans.
6. Describe ABO blood groups as an example of codominance and multiple alleles.
7. State that a human female can be homozygous or heterozygous with respect to sex-linked genes.
8. Describe the inheritance of color blindness and hemophilia as examples of sex-linkage.
9. Distinguish between autosomes and sex chromosomes.

j.         Deduce the genotypes and phenotypes of individuals in pedigree charts.

1. Exceeds: Need 7 of 9 to be proficient

a. Explain the consequence of a base substitution mutation in relation to the processes of transcription and translation, using the example of sickle-cell anemia.

b. Explain how the sex chromosomes control gender by referring to the inheritance of X and Y chromosomes in humans.

c. Determine the genotypes and phenotypes of the offspring of a monohybrid cross using a Punnett grid.

d. Explain that female carriers are heterozygous for X-linked recessive alleles.

e. Predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratios of offspring of monohybrid crosses involving any of the above patterns of inheritance.

h. Explain how crossing over between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair in prophase I can result in an exchange of alleles.

i. Explain an example of a cross between two linked genes.

j. Identify which of the offspring are recombinants in a dyhybrid cross involving linked genes.

k. Explain that polygenic inheritance can contribute to continuous variation using two examples, one of which must be human skin color.

1. Dihybrid Crosses/ Gene Linkage and Polygenic Inheritance (10.2, 10.3,) FINISH THIS!!

Proficient: Need 7 of 10 to be proficient

1. State that eukaryote chromosomes are made of DNA and proteins.
2. Define gene, allele, g

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Calculate and predict  and predict the genotypic and phenotypic ratio of offspring of dihybrid crosses involving unlinked autosomal genes.
2. Explain how crossing over between non-sister chromatids of a homologous pair in prophase 1 can result in an exchange of alleles.

Unit 9 Reproduction/ Meiosis

1. Meiosis (4.2, 10.1) (5 hours)

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. Define or state the following: that meiosis is a reduction division of a diploid nucleus to form haploid nuclei, homologous chromosome, Mendel’s law of independent assortment
2. State that chromosomes are arranged in pairs according to size and structure in karyotypes
3. Identify and describe the process (steps) of meiosis including: pairing of homologous chromosome, crossing over, two rounds of division to create four haploid cells, and
4. Identify when crossing over occurs and outline the formation of chiasmata in the crossing over.
5. State that karyotyping is performed using cells collected by chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis, or pre-natal diagnosis of chromosome abnormalities.

Exceeds: 3 of 4 required to exceed proficiency

1. Explain that non-disjunction can lead to changes in chromosome number, as evidenced in Down-Syndrome and Turner’s.
2. Explain the relationship between Mendel’s law of independent assortment and meiosis.
3. Explain how meiosis results in an effectively infinite genetic variety in        gametes through crossing over in prophase I and random orientation in metaphase I.
4. Analyze a human karyotype to determine gender and whether non-disjunction has occurred.

1. Reproduction (6.6 & 11.4)  SPLIT INTO MALE AND FEMALE

Proficient: 4 of 5 required to meet proficiency

1. State that the fetus is supported and protected by the amniotic sac and amniotic fluid.
2. State that materials are exchanged between the maternal and fetal blood in the placenta.
3. Annotate a light micrograph of testis tissue to show the location and function of interstitial cells (Leydig cells), germinal epithelium cells, developing spermatozoa and Sertoli cells.
4. Outline the processes involved in spermatogenesis within the testis, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis.
5. State the role of LH, testosterone and FSH in spermatogenesis.
6. Annotate a diagram of the ovary to show the location and function of germinal epithelium, primary follicles, mature follicle and secondary oocyte.
7. Outline the processes involved in oogenesis within the ovary, including mitosis, cell growth, the two divisions of meiosis, the unequal division of cytoplasm and the degeneration of polar bodies.
8. Draw and label a diagram of a mature sperm and egg.
9. Outline the role of the epididymis, seminal vesicle and prostate gland in the production of semen.
10. List three roles of testosterone in males
11. Outline the process of in vitro fertilization

Exceeds: 6 of 9 required to exceed proficiency

1. Compare the process of spermatogenesis and oogenesis, including the number of gametes and the timing of the formation and release of gametes.
2. Describe the process of fertilization, including the acrosome reaction, penetration of the egg membrane by a sperm and the cortical reaction.
3. Outline the role of HCG in early pregnancy.Outline early embryo development up to the implantation of the blastocyst.
4. Outline early embryo development up to the implantation of the blastocyst.
5. Explain how the structure and functions of the placenta, including its hormonal role in secretion of estrogen and progesterone, maintain pregnancy.
6. Outline the process of birth and its hormonal control, including the changes in progesterone and oxytocin levels and positive feedback.
7. Discuss the ethical issues associated with IVF
8. Annotate a graph showing hormone levels in the menstrual cycle, illustrating the relationship between changes in hormone levels and ovulation, menstruation and thickening of the endometrium
9. Outline the role of hormone in the menstrual cycle, including FSH, LH, estrogen and progesterone.

Lab Standards

Design

 Aspect 1: Defining the problem and selecting variables Aspect 2: Controlling variables Aspect 3: Developing a method for collection of data Exceeds (Complete) Formulates a focused problem/research question and identifies the relevant variables Designs a method for the effective control of the variables Develops a method that allows for the collection of sufficient relevant data Meets (Partial) Formulates a problem/research question that is incomplete or identifies only some relevant variables Designs a method that makes some attempt to control the variables Develops a method that allows for the collection of insufficient relevant data Not Proficient (Not at all) Does not identify a problem/research question and does not identify any relevant variables Designs a method that does not control the variables Develops a method that does not allow for any relevant data to be collected

Data Collection & Processing

 Aspect 1:Recording raw data Aspect 2: Processing raw data Aspect 3: Presenting processed data Exceeds (Complete) Records appropriate quantitative and associated qualitative raw data, including units and uncertainties where relevant Processes the quantitative raw data correctly Presents processed data appropriately and, where relevant, includes errors and uncertainties Meets (Partial) Records appropriate quantitative and associated qualitative raw data, but with some mistakes or omissions Processes quantitative raw data, but with some mistakes and/or omissions Presents processed data appropriately, but with some mistakes and/or omissions Not Proficient (Not at all) Does not record any appropriate quantitative raw data or raw data is incomprehensible No processing of quantitative raw data is carried out or major mistakes are made in processing Presents processed data inappropriately or incomprehensibly

Conclusion & Evaluation

 Aspect 1: Concluding Aspect 2: Evaluating Aspect 3: Improving the investigation Exceeds (Complete) States a conclusion, with justification, based on a reasonable interpretation of the data Evaluates weaknesses and limitations Suggests realistic improvements in respect of identified weaknesses and limitations Meets (Partial) States a conclusion based on a reasonable interpretation of the data Identifies some weaknesses and limitations, but the evaluation is weak or missing Suggests only superficial improvements Not Proficient (Not at all) States no conclusion or the conclusion is based on an unreasonable interpretation of the data Identifies irrelevant weaknesses and limitations Suggests unrealistic improvements