Define: Give the precise meaning of a word, phrase or physical quantity.                               Core Quiz (SL)

1. Define diffusion.

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2. Define osmosis.

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3. Define enzyme.

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4. Define active site.

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5. Define denaturation.

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6. Define cell respiration.

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7. Define gene.

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8. Define allele.

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9. Define genome.

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10. Define gene mutation.

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11. Define homologous chromosomes.

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12. Define genotype.

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13. Define phenotype.

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14. Define dominant allele.

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15. Define recessive allele.

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16. Define codominant alleles.

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17. Define homozygous.

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18. Define heterozygous.

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19. Define locus.

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20. Define carrier.

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21. Define test cross.

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22. Define sex linkage.

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23. Define clone.

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24. Define species.

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25. Define habitat.

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26. Define population.

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27. Define community.

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28. Define ecosystem.

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29. Define ecology.

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30. Define trophic level.

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31. Define evolution.

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32. Define pathogen.

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33. Define resting potential (repolarization).

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34. Define action potential (depolarization).

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OPTION A & E

35. Define nutrient.

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36. Define stimulus.

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37. Define response.

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38. Define reflex.

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ANSWER KEY

1. Define diffusion.

Diffusion is the passive movement of particles from a region of high concentration to a region of low concentration.

2. Define osmosis.

Osmosis is the passive movement of water molecules, across a partially permeable membrane, from a region of lower solute concentration to a region of higher solute concentration.

3. Define enzyme.

Enzme: globular proteins that act as catalysts for biochemical reactions.

4. Define active site.

Active site: specific region on the suface of an enzyme to which substrates bind and which catalyses biochemical reactions.

5. Define denaturation.

Denaturation is a structural change in a protein that results in the loss (usually permanent) of its biological properties. Refer only to heat and pH as agents.

6. Define cell respiration.

Cell respiration is the controlled release of energy from organic compounds in cells to form ATP.

7. Define gene.

Gene: a heritable factor that controls a specific characteristic.

8. Define allele.

Allele: one specific form of a gene, differing from other alleles by one or a few bases only and occupying the same gene locus as other alleles of the gene.

9. Define genome.

Genome: the whole of the genetic information of an organism.

10. Define gene mutation.

A change in the base-sequence of an allele.

11. Define homologous chromosomes.

Chromosome pairs, one from each parent, that are identical or very similar in gene composition. Can be identified by size, banding pattern and centromere position.

12. Define genotype.

Genotype: the alleles of an organism.

13. Define phenotype.

Phenotype: the characteristics of an organism.

14. Define dominant allele.

Dominant allele: an allele that has the same effect on the phenotype whether it is present in the homozygous or heterozygous state.

15. Define recessive allele.

Recessive allele: an allele that only has an effect on the phenotype when present in the homozygous state.

16. Define codominant alleles.

Codominant alleles: pairs of alleles that both affect the phenotype when present in a heterozygote.

17. Define homozygous.

Homozygous: having two identical alleles of a gene.

18. Define heterozygous.

Homozygous: having two different alleles of a gene.

19. Define locus.

Locus: the particular position on homologous chromosomes of a gene.

20. Define carrier.

Carrier: an individual that has one copy of a recessive allele that causes a genetic disease in individuals that are homozygous for this allele.

21. Define test cross.

Test cross: testing a suspected heterozygote by crossing it with a known homozygous recessive.

22. Define sex linkage.

An association between genes in sex chromosomes that makes some traits more prevalent in on gender than the other. These genes are located on the non-homologous region of the X-chromosome in humans.

23. Define clone.

Clone: a group of genetically identical organisms or a group of cells derived from a single parent cell.

24. Define species.

Species: a group of organisms that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.

25. Define habitat.

Habitat: the environment in which a species normally lives or the location of a living organism.

26. Define population.

Population: a group of organisms of the same species who live in the same area at the same time.

27. Define community.

Community: a group of populations living and interacting with each other in an area.

28. Define ecosystem.

Ecosystem: a community and its abiotic environment.

29. Define ecology.

Ecology: the study of relationships between living organisms and between organisms and their environment.

30. Define trophic level.

A class of organisms that share the same position in a food chain (such as producers, primary consumers etc)

31. Define evolution.

Evolution is the cumulative change in the heritable characteristics of a population.

32. Define pathogen.

Pathogen: an organism or virus that causes a disease.

33. Define resting potential.

Resting potential: the electrical potential across the plasma membrane of a cell that is not conducting an impulse.

34. Define action potential (depolarization and repolarization).

Action potential: the reversal and restoration of the electrical potential across the plasma membrane of a cell, as an electrical impulse passes along it (depolarization and repolarization).

OPTION A & E

35. Define nutrient.

Nutrient: a chemical substance found in foods that is used in the human body.

36. Define stimulus.

A stimulus is a change in the environment (internal or external) that is detected by a receptor and elicits a response.

37. Define response.

A response to a change in (internal or external) environment, detected by a receptror.

38. Define reflex.

A reflex is a rapid, unconscious response.

Stephen Taylor                                                     Sortable Syllabus: http://i-biology.net/ibdpbio/command-terms/