Dr. Chris Haskell
19 May 2016
Flipped Classroom: An Annotated Bibliography
Bergmann, J., & Sams, A. (2012). Flip your classroom: Reach every student in every class every
day. Eugene, Or: International Society for Technology in Education.
Bergmann and Sam’s article summarized the advances, issues, and research contributing to the increased popularity of the flipped classroom pedagogy. Their research shows that “video lectures (slightly) outperform in-person lectures” and “online homework is just as effective as paper-and-pencil homework” (Bergmann & Sam, 2012). However, despite these obvious benefits, teacher adoption of the flipped classroom model has been slow. Given the improving reputation of online education and the success of free institutions like Khan Academy though, traditional brick-and-mortar schools are feeling the push toward new educational techniques. Bergmann and Sam explain the flipped classroom has to have two key components: one requiring student collaboration and the other requiring the use of “computer technologies such as video lectures” (2012). The remainder of Bergmann and Sam’s articles relays the theoretical framework and evolution of the flipped classroom, citing influences like Piaget and Vygotsky (student-centered learning) to Hmelo-Silver (problem-based learning) and Prince (active learning). They conclude this portion by stating that the “importance of these (student-centered) learning theories to the flipped classroom cannot be understated” (Bergmann & Sam, 2012) given that the “pedagogical theory used to design the in-class experience may ultimately be the determining factor [to its] success (or failure)... (Bergmann & Sam, 2012). They also expressly state that understanding the flipped classroom only for its inclusion of computer technology would be a mistake given the pedagogies dependence on the previously mentioned learning theories.
This article is helpful in that it creates a direct connection between learning theory and the design of a flipped classroom. It forces the reader to connect the two rather than only evaluating the technology advancements that enable the flipped classroom model. Bergmann and Sam explain the significance of theory to design as well as refresh the readers on valuable learning theory.
Heyborne, W. H., & Perrett, J. J. (2016). To flip or not to flip? Analysis of a flipped classroom
pedagogy in a general biology course. Journal of College Science Teaching, 45(4), 31–37. http://dx.doi.org/10.2505/4/jcst16_045_04_31
The authors of this article, Heyborne and Perrett (2016), attempted to fill a need in flipped classroom research, by comparing a traditional classroom and a flipped classroom using an “experimental or quasi-experimental approach.” Their study compared student performance in a flipped and non-flipped biology class to prove the superiority of one over the other. It was hypothesized that student results in the flipped classroom would be “significantly higher” (Heyborne & Perrett, 2016) than those in a traditional classroom. Overall, the studies results appeared to be mixed, not distinguishing the superiority of one pedagogy over the other; however, the authors stated that this lack of significant evidence may have been due to the experiment’s small sample size (only two course sections were involved) and recommended that a larger study was warranted. The experiment did conclude that student perceptions of the biology course using the flipped classroom model were higher than those of the lecture-based course.
Despite its witty name, this article did little to encourage the reader to implement, or not to implement, the flipped classroom. It presented some comparative and contrasting studies; however, it did not present any findings, opinions, or ideas that a reader would, or would not, find helpful toward the implementation or investigation of the flipped classroom model. One of the article’s tables, Table 1, did present some valuable material on what sort of instructional strategies to use in a flipped classroom with a large student population. This list of strategies is useful given that other studies have referenced the difficulty of incorporating collaborative activities in larger classrooms.
Rotellar, C., & Cain, J. (2016). Research, perspectives, and recommendations on implementing
the flipped classroom. American Journal of Pharmaceutical Education, 80(2), 1–9. http://dx.doi.org/10.5688/ajpe80234
In this article, the authors address the increasing popularity of flipped classrooms in relation to implementation, methodology, and student/teacher perceptions and concerns. Rotellar and Cain (2016) begin by discussing the contrasting learning outcomes of a traditional “bulimic learning” style and the constructivist learning style of the flipped classroom. Research shows that, in the flipped classroom model, student attendance, preparation, and accountability is increased as well as retention and motivation due to pre-class assignments that build primary knowledge and in-class active-learning assignments that focus on collaboration (Rotellar & Cain, 2016). Flipped classroom methodology states that pre-class assignments are most effective when students understand what they should know or be able to do before attending class, and that in-class assignments are most effective when students cannot succeed without attending class. Student and teacher perspectives toward the learning style are seemingly mixed, as students fear the class format forces them to “teach themselves” and teachers wonder if it fits some curriculum better than others. However, conducted research does show that the majority of students who participate in a flipped class prefer it to a traditional lecture-based class (Rotellar & Cain, 2016).
Rotellar and Cain’s article is useful in that it recommends the most effective methodologies for utilizing a flipped classroom format, and it relates the perspectives and concerns of both students and teachers. By focusing on these perspectives and concerns, it realistically approaches the difficulty of transitioning from a traditional classroom to a flipped classroom and allows readers to view the transition with all sides considered, not just the perks from its advocates. Additionally, the article includes two appendices that list recommendations for implementing and designing a flipped classroom that a teacher new to the model would find helpful.
Shimamoto, D. (2012). Implementing a flipped classroom: An instructional module. TCC
Conference. Retrieved from http://scholarspace.manoa.hawaii.edu/handle/10125/22527
How do we prepare teachers to implement a flipped classroom in their classrooms? The authors of this article offered a solution to this question in their study of an online teacher preparation module for implementing the flipped classroom. The instructional module included screencast videos that delivered tutorials and survey questions to collect data. The participants were teachers from a college preparatory school in Honolulu. Each teacher participating was college educated and had at least five years of experience. The module was not limited by age, gender, or technical experience though all were proficient in basic browsing skills. The results, data collected in a retrospective survey, concluded that the majority of participants improved their knowledge of the flipped classroom and the hardware and software necessary to implement the style. An additional increase was also seen in participant confidence levels in using and/or implementing the flipped classroom in their own classrooms. Responses to the survey questions also cited some necessary improvements to the instructional model, including more examples of actual implementation and ideas for implementation in less conventional courses. Teachers planning to implement the flipped classroom request access to a support community.
As a reader interested in school and classroom technology coordination/integration, this article provided a great example of how to educate fellow teachers on the flipped classroom model. The instructional learning module is something that would be easily accessible to teachers and the survey responses outlined areas of improvement to create an even more successful professional development module. Regarding personal interest, this article was quite helpful and in many ways quite simple to implement to any faculty with access to a learning management system.
Westermann, E. B. (2014). A half-flipped classroom or an alternative approach?: Primary
sources and blended learning. Educational Research Quarterly, 38(2), 43–57.
Westermann’s article discusses the use of a half-flipped classroom in an upper-level history course to examine primary sources about the course’s subject of Nazi Germany. This course is considered half-flipped because Westermann leverages technology and collaboration through online discussion; however, he did not use it introduce the primary material. Rather, he used a blended learning model that supplemented his face-to-face instruction. In this model, students reviewed and reacted to primary sources online through peer-to-peer discussion, peer-to-instructor discussion, and a weekly “micro-essay.” Student responses to an end-of-course survey embraced the half-flipped format, citing that the primary sources increased the quality of understanding and “provided a greater context for the lesson material” (Westermann, 2014). Westermann (2014) concluded his article by identifying that the half-flipped classroom bridges a gap for instructors that feel the full flipped classroom model would not allow an element of instruction significant in the humanities, lecture and Socratic discussion. Through this blended approach, instructor’s effectively utilized learner-centric methods as well as instruct through traditional means.
The helpfulness of this article lies in its originality. It provides an example of an instructor that used technology and collaboration to supplement and enhance his course without sacrificing a form of instruction beneficial to his specialty. We see in this article a method that offers an alternative to the flipped classroom that effectively incorporates higher-order thinking skills and collaborative activities.