Telltale signs                                               Functions of                             Strategies for moving forward

Negative Area

Positive area

“‘They’ are criminals/rapists/lazy/stupid/not American”; “Non-whites are racist”

“I have non-white friends”; looking to non-whites for answers (blaming the victim), Racial disparities

Explicit/Implicit bias, Racist messaging from religion, family,


Need to be accepted/ belong; Hazing (my family/mentor does it); Fear; Denial; Debt of knowledge/understanding

Honest sharing of experiences in home/school/community; religious leaders renunciation of racist texts; A way out; Forming a positive identity; Acceptance in other groups; Examining data, learning definitions around racism

“I’m not racist”; Talking, but no action; “Others (conservatives, southerners) are racist”; “I have black friends”; “I take care of myself, and judge others equally on merit”; looking to non-whites for answers (seeking acceptance), Racial Disparities

Implicit bias, Denial, Ignorance; Fear, ‘listening,’ Guilt, Abusive cycle (rescuer, abuser, victim),

Identify America as inherently diverse

Listening, facing history (good/bad), develop positive identity, honest discussion, reflecting on self/family/community, examining data, learning definitions around racism

Anti-racism training

“Racism is real, and I have a responsibility to act”, “I am not needed as an ally, but need to get out of the way,” “White people need to talk to white people about racism,” “We have created a debt of education, leadership, and economy for non-whites,” “People need equal access to community power, opportunities, and resources”

Humility, responsibility, respect, understanding, Acting (talking to white people about racism; stopping the cycles of racist messaging, hazing, projecting guilt), positive identity with self and others, Identify with America as inherently diverse

Anti-racism training, sharing space, respecting other’s space, developing positive identities toward  self/others/nation, checking racism, define and respect human dignity/freedom/justice/equality, sharing culture,

Pay down debt of education/leadership/economy


Equality/freedom/justice, Authentic Relationships, Civility, American Identity BULLINGON 2015