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Emerson College Quidditch Rulebook

Based on the International Quidditch Association Rulebook V 6.0 & 7.0

Drafted: 16 May, 2013 - Ratified: 15 September, 2013

1.1. Preliminaries

1.1.1. Ground rules

1.1.2. Pregame

1.2. Starting the Game

1.2.1. Procedure

1.3. Stopping Play

1.3.1. When to stop

1.3.2. Stopping play procedure

1.3.3. Advantage

1.3.4. Immediate stop

1.3.5. Delay of game

1.3.6. Defective balls mid-play

1.3.7. Defective snitch

1.4. Fouls that Do Not Stop Play

1.4.1. Fouls that do not stop play

1.5. Substitutions

1.5.1. Time of substitution

1.5.2. Substitution procedure

1.5.3. Substitute area

1.5.4. Jurisdiction over substitutions

1.5.5. Substitutes interfering with play

1.5.6. Substitutions before overtime

1.6. Regulating Game Time

1.6.1. Game Length

1.6.1.1. No limit

1.6.1.2. Seeker floor

1.6.1.3. Regulating game length

1.6.2. Ending the Game

1.6.2.1. Snatch on-pitch

1.6.2.2. Snatch off-pitch

1.7. Overtime

1.7.1. Going to overtime

1.7.2. First overtime

1.7.3. Sudden death second overtime

2.1. The Mounted Broom

2.1.1. Mounting the broom

2.1.2. Dismounting

2.2. Goal Scoring

2.2.1. Good goal

2.2.2. Goal clarifications

2.3. Restarting After a Goal

2.3.1. Chaser restart

2.3.2. Penalty box release

2.3.3. Keeper possession

2.4. Goaltending

2.4.1. Goaltending

2.5. Broken or Fallen Hoops

2.5.1. Broken hoop procedure

2.5.2. Scoring in a broken hoop

2.6. The Knockout Effect

2.6.1. Getting Knocked Out

2.6.1.1. Incurring the knockout effect

2.6.1.2. Bludger taps

2.6.1.3. Live bludger

2.6.1.4. Catching bludgers

2.6.1.5. Friendly fire

2.6.1.6. Knockout immunity

2.6.2. Knockout Effect Procedure

2.6.2.1. Knockout procedure

2.6.2.2. Knocked out players

2.6.2.3. Natural motion

2.6.2.4. Unnoticed knockout

2.7. The Snitch Snatch

2.7.1. The snitch snatch

2.8. Physical Contact

2.8.1. General Contact

2.8.1.1. Types of contact

2.8.1.2. Illegal contact

2.8.1.3. Egregious physical contact

2.8.1.4. Initial point of contact

2.8.1.5. Limited contact from behind

2.8.1.6. Interaction between positions

2.8.1.7. Adjusting illegal contact

2.8.1.8. Running backwards

2.8.1.9. Setting picks and blocking out

2.8.2. Stiff Arm

2.8.2.1. Stiff arm

2.8.3. Stealing

2.8.3.1. Stealing

2.8.4. Charging

2.8.4.1. Charging definition

2.8.4.2. Charging procedure

2.8.4.3. Charging a helpless receiver

2.8.5. Tackling

2.8.5.1. Tackling conditions

2.8.5.2. Tackling a helpless receiver

2.9. Fouls and Misconduct

2.9.1. Disciplinary Sanctions

2.9.1.1. Nature of the offense

2.9.1.2. Yellow card

2.9.1.3. Red card

2.9.1.4. Referee’s discretion

2.9.1.5. Plays after a foul

2.9.1.6. Fouls prior to the game

2.9.1.7. Fouls after the game ends

2.9.1.8. No harm, no foul

2.9.1.9. Faking a foul

2.9.1.10. List of fouls

2.9.2. Warning Offenses

2.9.2.1. Warning offenses

2.9.3. Back to Hoops offenses

2.9.3.1. Back to hoops offenses

2.9.4. Cautionable offenses

2.9.4.1. Cautionable offenses

2.9.5. Sending Off Offenses

2.9.5.1. Sending off offenses

2.9.6. Special offenses

2.9.6.1. Special offenses

2.9.7. The Penalty Box

2.9.7.1. Penalty Box conditions

2.9.7.2. Time of penalty

2.9.7.3. Stopping play

2.9.7.4. Penalty box interaction

2.9.7.5. Tracking penalty time

2.9.8. Unusual Penalty Box Situations

2.9.8.1. Substitute in the box

2.9.8.2. Keeper in box, no chasers 2.9.8.3. Keeper in box, no teammates

3.1. Players

3.1.1. Team Composition

3.1.1.1. Rosters and players

3.1.1.2. Coaches

3.1.1.3. Two minimum rule

3.1.2. General Player Rules

3.1.2.1. Running

3.1.2.2. Passing

3.1.2.3. Stealing

3.1.2.4. Using balls of another position

3.1.2.5. Pitch boundaries

3.1.2.6. Boundaries and spectators

3.1.2.7. Throwing a ball off of the pitch

3.1.2.8. Throwing the quaffle while off-pitch

3.1.2.9. Playing dangerously

3.1.2.10. Serious foul play

3.1.2.11. Positions overview

3.1.3. Chasers

3.1.3.1. Chaser overview

3.1.3.2. Using the quaffle

3.1.4. Beaters

3.1.4.1. Beater overview

3.1.4.2. Using the bludger

3.1.5. The Keeper

3.1.5.1. Keeper overview

3.1.5.2. Outside the keeper zone

3.1.5.3. Inside the keeper zone

3.1.5.4. Keeper restart

3.1.6. The Seeker

3.1.6.1. Seeker overview

3.1.6.2. Snatching the snitch

3.1.6.3. Seekers during the seeker floor

3.1.6.4. Seeker interactions

3.1.6.5. Seeker contact with the snitch runner

3.1.6.6. Seekers during stoppages

3.2. Officials

3.2.1. Head Referee

3.2.1.1. Authority of the head referee

3.2.1.2. Powers and duties

3.2.1.3. Decisions of the head referee

3.2.2. Assistant Referees

3.2.2.1. Appointment of assistant referees

3.2.2.2. Goal referees

3.2.2.3. Bludger referees

3.2.2.4. Snitch referee

3.2.2.5. Scorekeeper

3.2.3. Snitch Runner

3.2.3.1. Role of the snitch runner

3.2.3.2. The snitch’s boundaries

3.2.3.3. Spectacles

3.2.3.4. Return to the pitch

3.2.3.5. Reporting the snatch

3.2.3.6. Snitch code of conduct

3.2.3.7. Snitch requirements

3.2.3.8. Snitch suggestions

3.2.3.9. Physical play

3.2.3.10. Safety

3.2.3.11. Ruled as down

4.1. The Pitch

4.1.1. Pitch Marking

4.1.1.1. Pitch shape

4.1.1.2. Sidelines and backlines

4.1.1.3. Midfield line

4.1.1.4. Halves

4.1.2. Dimensions

4.1.2.1. Dimensions

4.1.3. The Keeper Zone

4.1.3.1. Keeper zone lines

4.1.3.2. Extent of the keeper zone

4.1.3.3. Offensive vs. defensive keeper zone

4.1.4. The Penalty Boxes

4.1.4.1. Penalty box shape

4.1.4.2. Own penalty box

4.1.5. Substitute Areas

4.1.5.1. Substitute areas

4.1.6. Ball Marks

4.1.6.1. Ball marks

4.1.7. Additional Pitch Lines

4.1.7.1. Goal lines

4.1.7.2. Starting lines

4.2. Hoops

4.2.1. Specifications

4.2.1.1. Hoop composition

4.2.1.2. Hoops shape

4.2.1.3. Hoop positioning

4.3. Game Balls

4.3.1. Quaffle

4.3.1.1. Quaffle

4.3.2. Bludger

4.3.2.1. Bludgers

4.3.3. Snitch

4.3.3.1. The snitch

4.3.3.2. Snitch ball

4.3.3.3. Snitch sock

4.4. The Broom

4.4.1. Specifications

4.4.2. Broom safety

4.4.3. Brooms

4.5. Equipment

4.5.1. Safety

4.5.2. Mandatory equipment

4.5.3. Recommended equipment

4.5.4. Additional equipment

4.5.5. Infringement of equipment rules

4.5.6. Headband lost mid-play

1.1. Preliminaries 

1.1.1. Ground rules - Before a game, the head referee calls together the two teams to go over general rules. Each teams’ captains must attend this meeting and represent the team over the course of the game. Should either of  the captains ever leave the vicinity of the pitch due to injury, dismissal, or any other reason, the team must name a new temporary captain(s).

 

1.1.2. Pregame - The head referee decides which sides the teams are on for the duration of regular time. In each subsequent game, and in the case of first overtime, teams change sides and attack the opposite set of hoops.

 

1.2. Starting the Game 

1.2.1. Procedure - In order to begin the game, or any overtime period:

  1. If it is the start of the second or third game in a match, or the start of first overtime,  teams must switch sides (subs included).
  2. All seven starters must line up on the starting line in any order they choose with their brooms on the ground.
  3. All balls must be stationary (excluding the snitch) and resting in their respective positions on the pitch. The quaffle must be placed at one of the ball marks closest to the center spot.
  4. The head referee then shouts to each team, “[TEAM NAME], are you ready?”
  5. If both teams confirm that they are by shouting, dancing, or otherwise, then the head referee shouts, “Brooms down!”
  6. All players must have at least one knee on the ground with closed eyes. Any substitutes also must close their eyes. Anyone caught peeking must be cautioned.
  7. The head referee shouts, “THE SNITCH IS LOOSE!” At this point the snitch runner may run wherever she likes off the pitch while remaining within the snitch boundary. (see 3.2.3., Snitch Runner).
  8. Once the snitch runner is out of sight, the head referee shouts, “Ready!”
  9. A few seconds after the head referee shouts, “Ready!” he then shouts “BROOMS UP!” On the first “B” sound of “Brooms up!” all players may immediately begin play. If someone in the audience yells “Brooms up!” too early, the head referee resets the players and announces the cadence again.

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - If a player leaves his position or raises his eyes before the first “B” sound of “Brooms up!” the referee warns that player and all players must reset, excluding the snitch. If the referee determines that a player was intentionally “peeking” at the snitch, he must be cautioned. The referee announces the cadence again, but does not repeat, “The snitch is loose.” If a player leaves his position more than once in the same game, that player must be cautioned.

1.3. Stopping Play

1.3.1. When to stop - The head referee stops play in any of the following circumstances by blowing his whistle in paired short blasts until players stop:

  1. A player commits a foul that directly and negatively affects a scoring opportunity or results in a change of quaffle possession.
  2. A player commits a foul that results in a card or penalty box time.
  3. The referee is unsure of a difficult call, and needs to consult with his other referees.
  4. A player is too injured to continue play, or is down with a serious injury.
  5. External interference occurs, including when a ball from another pitch enters the pitch.
  6. A ball becomes defective.
  7. All three hoops on one side fall down or become defective.
  8. Quaffle play moves too close to dangerous terrain or spectators.

1.3.2. Stopping play procedure - The head referee stops play for any of the situations outlined above. To stop and resume play:

  1. The referee blows his whistle two times.
  2.  All players on the pitch stop and hold their respective positions. The seekers do not have to hold their positions unless the snitch is on the pitch (and they are near enough to the pitch to notice the stoppage).
  3. Any players that are paused in an illegal position are adjusted immediately to a legal position; any players that accidentally (and significantly) moved after the whistle are returned to their appropriate positions.
  4. The referee adjudicates any fouls, including sending players to the penalty box.
  5. If a change of possession occurs, the ball is given to the nearest eligible player of the appropriate team.
  6. Any players that are injured or sent off are replaced.
  7. Any players that have committed back to hoops offenses are informed that they must return to their hoops upon resumption.
  8. Any external interference is removed.
  9. Any defective equipment is fixed or replaced.
  10. The referee indicates to the players that he is ready to resume play.
  11. The referee blows his whistle once, resuming play.

1.3.3. Advantage - If a referee determines that stopping play due to a foul would provide an advantage to the fouling team, he may call a delayed penalty. If he chooses to do so, the play will continue until stopping play would no longer benefit the fouling team. If the fouled team scored, then the referee applies the appropriate penalty to the fouling player before restarting play. If the foul would have resulted in penalty box time and the fouling team’s penalty box is empty, then the penalty time is nullified by the score. If the advantage of stopping play for the fouling team abates in any other way, then the referee stops play at that point, applies the penalty, and then resumes play.

1.3.4. Immediate stop - When the referee blows the whistle twice, all players must stop immediately (except for seekers when the snitch is not on the pitch) and drop their brooms exactly where they are to mark their position when the whistle blows. If the snitch returns to the pitch during a stoppage, seekers that are within sight of the pitch are required to drop their brooms where they are as well. When the referee is ready to resume play, players must return to their brooms.

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - Failing to drop the broom in place during a stoppage results in a warning; repeat offenses result in a caution.

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - If a player is not prepared to resume play on the referee's signal, he is warned for delay of game (or cautioned for repeat offenses).

1.3.5. Delay of game - It is illegal to delay the game by any method including committing a foul or simply failing to attempt to advance the quaffle. This rule does not prohibit a team from making substitutions in a timely manner.

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - Any player that the head referee determines to be delaying the game is warned (or cautioned for repeat offenses) in addition to other punishments he may have already incurred.

Penalty: Yellow - Feigning injury in an attempt to delay the game always must result in a caution.

1.3.6. Defective balls mid-play - If a game ball becomes defective (deflates, explodes, et cetera) while in play, the head referee must stop play to replace the ball. Play is stopped immediately when the ball becomes defective; if it was mid-air when it became defective, it is returned to the player who last held possession. No goals or knock outs may be achieved with a defective ball. If the quaffle becomes defective while hitting a hoop, no goal is scored unless the quaffle had already passed entirely through the hoop. If a bludger becomes defective while hitting a player, the knockout counts, although a beater may still catch the bludger to negate the knockout. If a player throws a bludger that breaks by sticking on the end of an opponent’s broom, the knockout effect applies rather than a catch.

1.3.7. Defective snitch - If the snitch becomes defective during the snitch snatch (say, the sock breaks in half and the seeker gets half of it), the snatch counts if the seeker cleanly removes the actual ball. Otherwise, it is replaced and play continues.

1.4. Fouls that Do Not Stop Play

1.4.1. Fouls that do not stop play - If a player commits a foul that does not result in an immediate stoppage of play, a referee informs the player of the infringement and subsequent consequence. If the referee determines that the player can not hear him, he should stop play to correct the situation.

Penalty: Yellow - Any player that intentionally ignores the referee’s punishment after committing an offense that did not stop play is subject to a caution.

1.5. Substitutions

1.5.1. Time of substitution - A substitution may be made at any time during a game, as long as the result of the substitution adheres to the rules governing players (see 3.1, Players).

1.5.2. Substitution procedure - To replace a player with a substitute, the following conditions must be observed:

  1. The substitute enters the pitch along the boundary line of the pitch, inside his team’s keeper zone.
  2. The player substituting out is not currently knocked out.
  3. The substitute enters the pitch after the player substituting out has left the pitch at the boundary of his team’s keeper zone.
  4. The substitute only enters the pitch after any traded equipment between the substitute and the player substituting out has been securely traded and fastened.
  5. A substitution is complete when a substitute enters the pitch. A player who has substituted out may replace another player as a substitute any time later in the game, following the same procedures.
  6. One captain must always remain on the sidelines at all times.

Penalty: Special - If a team attempting a substitution violates any part of the substitution procedure:

  1. The referee stops play.
  2. The referee commands the substitute and player substituting out to return to an acceptable location for substitution.
  3. The referee cautions both players (only the player entering play serves penalty box time) and then allows the substitution.

1.5.3. Substitute area - Substitutes must remain within the substitute area at all times when play is not stopped. Only the non-playing captain(s) may leave this area when play is ongoing.

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - A substitute who leaves the substitute area must be warned by the referee. If that substitute persists in remaining outside of the area, or leaves the area again, that substitute must be cautioned.

1.5.4. Jurisdiction over substitutions - All substitutes are subject to the authority and jurisdiction of the referee, whether called upon to play or not. Note that players switching positions must follow the substitution procedure, including switching at the boundary line of the pitch in their team’s keeper zone and trading necessary equipment.

1.5.5. Substitutes interfering with play – A substitute may not intentionally interfere with play in any way. To avoid confusion, a substitute may not be mounted on a broom except when completing a substitution.

Penalty: Yellow - The penalty for substitute interference, or for a substitute being mounted on a broom while not completing a substitution, is a yellow card.

1.5.6. Substitutions before overtime and between games - In the event of an overtime period, or between games in a match, any number of substitutions may be made without following the substitution procedure before the start of the overtime period or next game. During the overtime period, however, all procedures are the same.

1.6. Regulating Game Time

1.6.1. Game Length

1.6.1.1. No limit - There is no rule strictly defining the length of a game.

1.6.1.2. Seeker floor - Games have a “seeker floor” of eight minutes. Seekers must remain on the sideline by the scorekeeper until eight minutes have passed. They may not interact with play in any way or catch the snitch during the seeker floor. When this time expires, the scorekeeper informs the seekers that they are free to pursue the snitch off the pitch.

Penalty: Yellow - The penalty for a seeker interacting with play during a seeker floor is a caution.

1.6.1.3. Regulating game length - The head referee can use the snitch runner to regulate the length of the game by establishing a time at the beginning of the game for the snitch runner to return to the pitch after being released. See 3.2.3. The Snitch Runner for more information.

1.6.2. Ending the Game

1.6.2.1. Snatch on-pitch - If the snitch snatch occurs on the pitch, the game is considered over as soon as the snatch occurs, so long as it is later confirmed by the head referee and the score is not tied. See 2.7, The Snitch Snatch for more information.

1.6.2.2. Snatch off-pitch - If the snitch is snatched off the pitch, the successful seeker must return to the pitch with the snitch ball as quickly as possible. If the seeker does not immediately return, the snitch runner must self-report the snatch. The snitch runner should immediately report to the pitch once the snitch has been snatched, regardless. As soon as the head referee believes that a seeker has legally snatched the snitch, he must stop play and confirm with the snitch runner and snitch referee. If the snatch is confirmed, he must announce the end of regular time. Regular time is considered over as soon as the seeker referee or head referee believes the snitch has been snatched, so long as this is later confirmed; in this way, the game is considered over before any referee blows his whistle.

1.7. Overtime

1.7.1. Going to overtime - In a situation in which both teams have scored an equal amount of points after the snitch has been snatched in regular time, the game proceeds into overtime; if the game is not tied when the snitch is snatched, the end of regular time is also the end of the game.

1.7.2. First overtime – The snitch must remain on the pitch for the duration of the overtime. The duration of overtime is five minutes or until the snitch has been snatched. After either has occurred, the team with the higher score wins the game. If both teams score an equal amount of points, the game proceeds into sudden death second overtime. The following procedure is observed for the first overtime period:

  1. Before the first overtime, teams switch ends of the pitch that they are defending.
  2. The head referee grants the teams a five minute rest period between regular time and overtime.
  3. The referees reset the pitch.
  4. After five minutes, both teams take their positions at the starting line.
  5. The snitch does not leave the pitch but remains on the midpoint until the sound of “B” in “Brooms up!”
  6. Play begins with “Brooms up!” just as in regular time by following the procedure described in 1.2. Starting the Game.

1.7.3. Sudden death second overtime - In a situation in which both teams have scored an equal amount of points after the first overtime, the game proceeds into sudden death second overtime. Teams do not switch ends before the second overtime, second overtime begins under the jurisdiction of the head referee, as soon as both teams are ready. During the second overtime, play begins with “Brooms up!” just as in regular time and overtime. As in overtime, the snitch does not leave the pitch but remains in the center until “Brooms up!” is called. The snitch must remain on the pitch for the duration of the second overtime. The first team to score any points, by quaffle or by snitch, is the winner.

2.1. The Mounted Broom

2.1.1. Mounting the broom - In order to be mounted on a broom, a player must have the broom straddled between her legs, touching some part of her body and not lying flat on the ground. No forms of artificial attachment are allowed; these are considered illegal equipment. See 4.4. The Broom for more information.

2.1.2. Dismounting - If a player dismounts or “falls off” her broom while in play, any plays made by that player while off her broom do not count. The player is considered out of play until she has followed the same procedures as the knockout effect and remounted her broom (see 2.6, The Knockout Effect). It is the responsibility of the player to remain on her broom.

Penalty: Back - A player who dismounts her broom while in play must return to hoops.

Penalty: Yellow - The head referee must caution any player who does not follow the proper procedures after dismounting.

2.2. Goal Scoring

2.2.1. Good goal - A goal is scored when the whole quaffle passes through one of the hoops, and no infringement of the rules of the game has been committed by the scoring team immediately prior to or during the goal. Ten points are awarded to the goal scoring team.

2.2.2. Goal clarifications - Any part or the entirety of the scoring player’s body may pass through the hoop during a legal score. Goals can be scored through either side of the hoops. It is possible for a player to score

an “own goal,” scoring ten point for the opposing team by scoring through his own hoop.

2.3. Restarting After a Goal

2.3.1. Chaser restart - After scoring, all chasers of the scoring team must immediately return to their offensive keeper zone line and wait to attack until the referee restarts quaffle play. A team’s offensive keeper zone is the one containing the hoops through which they are trying to score. If a chaser from that scoring team is not yet back to his offensive keeper zone line when quaffle play restarts due to a very fast restart, he must still attempt to reach his offensive keeper zone line until the quaffle leaves the keeper zone.

Penalty: Back - A chaser who fails to return to the offensive keeper zone line after his team has scored before defending, as outlined above, must return to hoops.

2.3.2. Penalty box release - If applicable, one player from the team scored upon with the least amount of penalty time remaining is released from the box whenever the opposing team scores a goal.

2.3.3. Keeper possession - After a goal has been scored, the quaffle must be in the possession of the formerly defending team’s keeper before quaffle play can be restarted. During the time before quaffle play is restarted, all of the players and all of the balls except for the quaffle are live and in play. However, the quaffle is not live, and no one may score until quaffle play is restarted.

2.4. Goaltending

2.4.1. Goaltending - A play is considered goaltending, and is scored as if the quaffle had gone through the hoop, if any of the following is true:

  1. A player in his own keeper zone other than the keeper reaches through a hoop from behind to block the quaffle, and in doing so touches the quaffle.
  2. A player in his own keeper zone other than the keeper arranges his body or any equipment behind the hoop in such a way that it prevents the quaffle from passing entirely through the hoop. For the purposes of this rule, “behind” refers to the area where the quaffle would have exited the hoop if not for the goaltending.

2.5. Broken or Fallen Hoops

2.5.1. Broken hoop procedure - If a hoop is broken, displaced, or in any way knocked down, play continues. The goal referee must fix the hoop whenever play around it subsides. If all three of a team’s hoops are broken, the head referee must stop play until they are fixed. A player may not intentionally dislodge a hoop.

Penalty: Yellow - A player who intentionally dislodges a hoop must be cautioned.

2.5.2. Scoring in a broken hoop - No one may score in a hoop that has been dislodged. If a hoop is upright at the time of a shot and falls after the release of the quaffle, a goal still counts. Failing this, a goal does not count if scored in a broken hoop until that hoop has been entirely fixed.

2.6. The Knockout Effect

2.6.1. Getting Knocked Out

2.6.1.1. Incurring the knockout effect - If a player is struck with a live bludger on any part of her body (including the head) or any part of her broom or clothing, that player has been “knocked out.” The bludger must leave the body of the attacking beater before it hits the other player in order to take effect. See 2.6.1.3. “Live bludger” for more information.

2.6.1.2. Bludger taps - It is illegal for a beater to tap another player with a bludger without releasing it, with the intention of deceiving that player into believing she is knocked out

Penalty: Yellow - A beater who taps another player with a bludger in order to deceive must be cautioned.

2.6.1.3. Live bludger - A bludger is live after being thrown, kicked, or otherwise intentionally propelled until that bludger touches the ground or is caught. A bludger that is not live is considered "dead." Every opposing player struck by the bludger while it is live is subject to the knockout effect as soon as he is hit, except for beaters, who are not knocked out until the bludger is dead because they have an opportunity to catch it.

2.6.1.4. Catching bludgers - Beaters may catch bludgers that are thrown at them by opposing players. If a beater catches a thrown bludger, the knockout effect does not occur for that beater and she may continue play as normal. For this reason, a beater is not considered knocked out until a bludger she has been hit with becomes dead. A beater may not attempt to intentionally change the direction of a bludger in any manner other than to attempt to catch it during the time period after she is hit, but before she is subjected to the knockout effect. This rule does not prohibit a beater from tapping a bludger further into the air in the process of attempting a catch.

Penalty: Yellow - A beater who intentionally changes or attempts to intentionally change the direction of a bludger illegally as described above must be cautioned.

2.6.1.5. Friendly fire - If a beater hits a teammate with a bludger, there is no effect. The beater who initially released the bludger cannot be knocked out by her own bludger.

2.6.1.6. Knockout immunity - A beater who is in the process of recovering the third bludger may become immune to the knockout effect by raising a closed fist. See 3.1.4.2.g. “Third bludger immunity” for more details.

2.6.2. Knockout Effect Procedure

2.6.2.1. Knockout procedure - After being struck by a bludger resulting in the knockout effect, a player must do the following before she is allowed to participate in any part of the game:

  1. Give up possession of any ball by dropping it. While giving up possession, the player must not pass, toss, roll, or kick the ball (notwithstanding a natural motion already begun, as per 2.6.2.3. “Natural motion”).
  2. Dismount the broom.
  3. Retreat back to her set of hoops.
  4. Touch any part of any hoop (not including any hoop base). The player must physically touch the hoop; touching the hoop with her broom is not sufficient.
  5. Get back on the broom (immediately, and before leaving the vicinity of the hoops).

Penalty: Warning/Yellow - If a player fails to dismount or gets back on the broom before touching the hoops during knockout procedure, the referee warns that player. If she intentionally or repeatedly ignores this procedure, she must be cautioned.

2.6.2.2. Knocked out players - Knocked out players are out of play and may not interact with any players or balls in any way. A knocked out player may never begin a pass, shot, or any other action related to the play at hand other than dropping any ball she is holding. She may not sub out of the game. Any play made by a player while she is knocked out is not counted. If a seeker is hit by a bludger before or during a snitch snatch, the snitch snatch does not count.

Penalty: Yellow - If a player willfully ignores being knocked out, she must be cautioned.

2.6.2.3. Natural motion - A player may finish any natural motion he had already started when he was knocked out. If a player is in the process of a pass when he is knocked out, he may release the ball and play continues normally. If a player is in the process of a shot when he is knocked out, he may release the ball and play continues normally. However, a goal is not scored if the player was knocked out while touching any part of the quaffle and he was the last offensive player to touch the quaffle before it passed through a hoop (on the strength of his shot). In this case, if the quaffle goes through a hoop, no goal is scored, but play continues as if the ball had never passed through a hoop. A beater may release a bludger in finishing a natural motion as described above, but this bludger is not considered live and cannot incur a knockout until it is made live another way.

2.6.2.4. Unnoticed knockout - If a player does not notice she is knocked out, the referee may stop play in order to inform that player of the knockout. In this instance, any ball the knocked out player was holding when she was knocked out is turned over to the opposing team’s closest eligible player, including any ball that she released via a motion she started after she was knocked out.

2.7. The Snitch Snatch

2.7.1. The snitch snatch - The game lasts an indefinite amount of time until the snitch has been snatched by a seeker. Thirty points are awarded to the team whose seeker snatched the snitch, and regular time is immediately ended. A good snitch snatch is confirmed when all of the following are true:

  1. A seeker has snatched and gained sole possession of the snitch.
  2. The snitch was securely fastened to the shorts of the snitch runner before the snitch snatch.
  3. The snitch runner was not on the ground or ruled as down during the snitch snatch (see 3.2.3, Snitch Runner).
  4. No infringement of the rules of the game had been committed by the seeker immediately prior to or during the snatch.
  5. The seeker was not knocked out or off of his broom at the time of the snatch.
  6. If the snatch occurred off-pitch, the head referee has seen the seeker holding the snitch ball or been informed of the snatch by the snitch runner or snitch referee.
  7. If the snitch was snatched on the pitch, all play was not stopped when the snitch was snatched.

2.8. Physical Contact

2.8.1. General Contact

2.8.1.1. Types of contact - Players are allowed to physically interact over the course of play. Contact that is prohibited by the rules results in a penalty.

2.8.1.2. Illegal contact - The following types of physical contact or interaction are illegal:

  1. Making contact with a player of another position (except chasers and keepers with regard to each other)
  2. Blocking out or setting a pick against a player of another position (except chasers and keepers with regard to each other)
  3. Making contact with the head, neck, or groin
  4. Initiating contact from behind an opponent
  5. Initiating contact at or below the knees
  6. Tripping; a trip consists of any attempt to knock a player off his feet through contact below the knees
  7. Pushing an opponent with such force that he falls to the ground, when he is not in possession or attempting to gain possession of a ball
  8. Grabbing another player’s broom or clothing
  9. Slide tackling
  10. Reaching over the shoulder or around the neck of a player in an attempt to strip the ball
  11. Punching a ball loose, as defined in 2.8.3.1. Stealing
  12. Charging an opponent, when he is not in possession or attempting to gain possession of a ball
  13. Charging with an elbow
  14. Charging with a shoulder lowered before contact is made, except when contact is shoulder-to-shoulder
  15. Tackling an opponent
  16. Tackling an opponent using both arms
  17. Attempting to steal the quaffle from a keeper who is in her own keeper zone
  18. As a seeker, interacting with play during a seeker floor
  19. As a non-seeker, interacting with a seeker during a seeker floor
  20. As a non-seeker, making intentional contact with the snitch runner
  21. As a substitute, intentionally interacting with play

Penalty: Back/Yellow/Red - Unintentional illegal physical contact is a back to hoops offense; intentional illegal physical contact results in a caution. These penalties can be increased depending on the circumstances. For example, a player committing illegal contact in a manner that the referee determines to be violent conduct (excessive tackling) must be sent off.

2.8.1.3. Egregious physical contact - The following types of physical contact are egregiously illegal:

  1. Contact exhibiting violent conduct or using excessive force. “Using excessive force” is defined as when a player exceeds by far the necessary use of force and is in danger of injuring his opponent.
  2. Attempting to hurt or deliberately hurting any person
  3. Striking or attempting to strike an opponent
  4. Intentionally physically contacting an opponent’s head, neck, or groin
  5. Intentionally physically contacting a referee (other than the snitch runner)
  6. Charging a helpless receiver
  7. Tackling a helpless receiver
  8. Spitting at an opponent
  9. Delaying a seeker who has snatched the snitch from returning to the pitch

Penalty: Red - Any player using egregiously illegal physical contact must be sent off.

2.8.1.4. Initial point of contact – A player may never make initial contact with an opponent from behind, defined as outside an opponent’s peripheral vision. Once contact has been legally established in another way, a player may continue contact even when it results in contact from behind.

Penalty: Yellow - Initial contact from behind is illegal contact, and results in a caution.

2.8.1.5. Limited contact from behind - A player may make minimal contact in an attempt to strip a ball or poke it out from behind, so long as he does not break any other rules. This also allows a player to attempt to steal the ball from an opponent who is on the ground, covering a ball with his body. These are not, however, considered “initial contact,” and other contact from behind may not be made until contact is initiated in a different way.

2.8.1.6. Interaction between positions - Players of a position are forbidden to physically interact with any player of any other position. Chasers and keepers are the exception to this rule, and may physically interact with one another because they both use the quaffle during play. No player other than a seeker may physically interact with the snitch runner.

2.8.1.7. Adjusting illegal contact - A player who finds himself making illegal physical contact due to the direct actions of an opposing player and acts immediately to correct this is not penalized. For example, if a player in the process of striping the ball finds his arm around his opponent’s neck due to that opponent suddenly spinning around, he is not penalized if stops this action immediately.

2.8.1.8. Running backwards - A player may not run backwards down the pitch in an attempt to gain immunity from physical contact.

Penalty: Yellow - Running backwards in an attempt to gain immunity from physical contact is considered playing dangerously, and results in a yellow card.

2.8.1.9. Setting picks and blocking out - It is illegal for a player to block out or throw a pick against a player of another position (besides chasers and keepers with respect to each other) by positioning his body with the intention of causing the other player to run into him or in any way make physical contact. This is considered an illegal physical interaction.

2.8.2. Stiff Arm

2.8.2.1. Stiff arm - A player is allowed to create separation from his opponent with his arm. Both attacking

and defending players can use this tactic. This rule also allows players to grab opponent's arm, so long as they are not pulling on or moving the player by moving  their arm, or acting dangerously. This rule does not allow a player to push another player with such force that the player falls to the ground. This rule also does not allow a player to grab another player’s broom or clothing, to trip a player, or to slide tackle. These actions are considered illegal physical contact.

2.8.3. Stealing

2.8.3.1. Stealing - A player may steal a ball from an opponent by either stripping or poking it loose. A player

must not reach over the shoulder or around the neck of an opponent in an attempt to strip the ball. A player

must not punch a ball loose. A punch occurs when a player winds up and swings at the ball, or attempts to

poke the ball loose and hits the player in possession. Stiff arming is also not allowed in the head, neck, chest, or groin area.

2.8.4. Charging

2.8.4.1. Charging definition - Players are allowed to charge other players who use the same ball. A charge is

a player’s attempt to run through an opponent, halting his progress and possibly knocking him to the ground.

2.8.4.2. Charging procedure - All charges must be done without use of elbows and only performed against

a player in possession of a ball or moving with the clear intent to gain possession of a ball. A shoulder must

not be lowered until contact has been made; however, shoulder-to-shoulder contact is permissible. Players

must never charge from behind. Charging must also be done without arms being extended, in the manner of a tackle.

2.8.4.3. Charging a helpless receiver - It is illegal to charge a helpless receiver who is in the process of

catching a ball that is in the air. Jostling for position or fighting for a ball in the air is legal.

Penalty: Red - Charging a helpless receiver is considered excessive force and results in a red card.

2.8.5. Tackling

2.8.5.1. Tackling -  It is illegal to tackle another player.

Penalty: Yellow - Tacking is a yellow card offense.

2.8.5.2. Tackling a helpless receiver - It is doubly illegal to tackle a helpless receiver who is in the process of catching a ball in the air.

Penalty: Red - Tackling a helpless receiver is considered a foul both for excessive force and  for tackling and results in an immediate red card.

2.9. Fouls and Misconduct

2.9.1. Disciplinary Sanctions

2.9.1.1. Nature of the offense - A player who commits a back to hoops, special, cautionable, or sending off offense, on or off the pitch, directed toward an opponent, a teammate, the head referee, an assistant referee, or any other person, is disciplined according to the nature of the offense committed as determined by the referee.

2.9.1.2. Yellow card - The yellow card is used to communicate that a player or substitute has been cautioned. Play is stopped for a caution, the player is sent to the penalty box for one minute, and any balls that the cautioned player possessed, including balls possessed at the time the foul was committed, must be turned over to the opposing team’s closest eligible player to the spot of the yellow card before play is resumed and the one minute penalty begins.

2.9.1.3. Red card - The red card is used to communicate that a player or substitute has been sent off for the remainder of the game. The sent off player must leave the vicinity of the pitch for the remainder of the game. Play is stopped for a sending off, and any balls that the sent off player possessed, including balls possessed at the time the foul was committed, must be turned over to the opposing team’s closest eligible player to the spot of the red card before play is resumed. At this time, the team must substitute a player in for the player that was sent off; this substitute is sent to the penalty box for two minutes. The player is allowed to play the other games in the match with the approval of the head referee, and so long as the foul causing the red card wasn’t overly egregious.

2.9.1.4. Referee’s discretion - Judgement of disciplinary sanctions remains at the referee’s discretion. The referee has the authority to take disciplinary action from the moment he enters the pitch until he leaves the pitch after the final whistle.

2.9.1.5. Plays after a foul - Any goal, knockout, or snitch snatch performed by a player immediately after committing a foul does not count, and such plays made by that player do not count until the referee has issued a call (unless play is allowed to continue due to an advantage call).

2.9.1.6. Fouls prior to the game - If a player is assessed a foul before brooms up that would result in penalty box time, that foul is enforced at the beginning of the game. The offending team begins the game with the offending player (or his replacement, if he was sent off) in the box, and the team begins with fewer than seven players for brooms up. The player in the box still must follow normal procedure for brooms up, including closing his eyes as the snitch leaves. The player’s penalty box time officially begins at the moment of brooms up.

2.9.1.7. Fouls after the game ends - If a player is assessed a foul after the game ends, the penalty is noted normally. A penalty may only extend into future games if the player committed a particularly egregious red card offense, at the discretion of the matches head referees.

2.9.1.8. No harm, no foul - In the case of a minor offense, a referee may decide “no harm, no foul” and may choose to verbally warn players about an infraction he sees is occurring or thinks might occur in the near future, if he believes that such infraction is minor enough that a verbal warning would cease the offending behavior and such behavior has not yet given an advantage, material or psychological, to any team.

2.9.1.9. Faking a foul - It is illegal to pretend to be fouled in an attempt to deceive the referee or referees.

Penalty: Yellow - Pretending to be fouled is a cautionable offense.

2.9.1.10. List of fouls - Sections 2.9.2. through 2.9.6. list the various fouls of quidditch and what category they fall under. These are just the offenses in brief; for more information on each offense, see the indicated section number.

2.9.2. Warning Offenses

2.9.2.1. Warning offenses - A player is warned by the referee, but not otherwise punished, for any of the

following offenses:

  1. False starting once (1.2.1.)
  2. Failing to drop one’s broom when required during a stoppage of play once (1.3.4.)
  3. Delaying the game once (1.3.5.), including but not limited to:
  1. Not being prepared to resume play on the referee’s signal (1.3.4.)
  1. As a substitute, leaving the substitute area once (1.5.3.)
  2. Unintentionally failing to dismount or remounting early during knockout procedure once (2.6.2.1.)
  3. Throwing the quaffle illegally while off pitch (3.1.2.8.)

2.9.3. Back to Hoops Offenses

2.9.3.1. Back to hoops offenses - A player is considered knocked out and must drop (and not toss or roll, on penalty of a caution) any ball she possesses (or return it to the other team, if she possesses the quaffle) and dismount her broom if she commits any of the following offenses:

  1. Dismounting the broom (2.1.2.)
  2. As a chaser whose team just scored, failing to return to the offensive keeper zone line before defending (2.3.1.)
  3. Unintentional illegal physical contact (2.8.1.2.)
  4. Intentionally and illegally leaving the pitch, remaining off of the pitch, or carrying a ball off of the pitch (3.1.2.5.)
  5. Possessing or guarding the third bludger once (3.1.4.2.)
  6. As a seeker, pursuing a snitch ruled as down before the three-second head start has been counted off (3.2.3.11)

2.9.4. Cautionable Offenses

2.9.4.1. Cautionable offenses - A player is cautioned and shown the yellow card if he commits any of the following offenses:

  1. Illegal procedure, including:
  1. False starting a second time in one game (1.2.1.)
  2. Repeatedly failing to drop one’s broom when required during a stoppage of play (1.3.4.)
  3. Ignoring referee’s punishment after committing a foul that did not stop play (1.4.1.)
  4. As a substitute, leaving the substitute area more than once or persistently remaining outside the area (1.5.3.)
  5. Failing to follow proper procedure after dismounting the broom (2.1.2.)
  6. Intentionally dislodging a hoop (2.5.1.)
  7. Intentionally or repeatedly failing to dismount or remounting early during knockout procedure (2.6.2.1.)
  8. Tacking (2.8.5.1.)
  9. Using illegal equipment (4.5.4.)
  10. Illegally returning to the pitch following an equipment infringement (4.5.5.)
  11. Intentionally altering any equipment that is part of the game (4.5.5.)
  1. Illegal contact or interaction, including:
  1. As a substitute, interfering with play or being mounted on a broom while not completing a substitution (1.5.5.)
  2. As a seeker, interacting with play during a seeker floor (1.6.1.2. and 3.1.6.3.)
  3. As a beater, illegally attempting to change the direction of a bludger during a catching situation (2.6.1.4.)
  4. Intentional illegal physical contact (2.8.1.2.)
  5. Intentionally and illegally using a ball of another position (3.1.2.4.)
  6. Illegally removing or distancing a ball from the pitch (3.1.2.7.)
  7. Intentionally kicking the quaffle illegally (3.1.3.2.)
  8. Intentionally kicking a bludger illegally (3.1.4.2.)
  9. Intentionally possessing more than one bludger (3.1.4.2.)
  10. Repeatedly possessing or guarding the third bludger (3.1.4.2.)
  11. As a non-seeker, interacting with a seeker during any seeker floor (3.1.6.3.)
  1. Unsportsmanlike conduct, including:
  1. Repeatedly delaying the game, by any method or methods (1.3.5.)
  2. Feigning an injury (1.3.5.)
  3. Tapping an opponent with a bludger in order to deceive (2.6.1.2.)
  4. Willfully ignoring being knocked out (2.6.2.2.)
  5. Running backwards in an attempt to gain immunity from physical contact (2.8.1.8.)
  6. Pretending to be fouled (2.9.1.9.)
  7. Recklessly endangering a spectator (3.1.2.6.)
  8. While off the pitch, throwing the quaffle further away from the pitch with the intent of delaying the game (3.1.2.8.)
  9. Raising a hand with a closed fist and not recovering the third bludger, with an intent to deceive (3.1.4.2.)
  10. Playing dangerously (3.1.2.9.)
  11. Using the verbal referee commands with intent to deceive opposing players (3.2.1.1.)
  12. Showing disrespect to an official or persistently questioning the referees’ decisions (3.2.1.3.)

2.9.5. Sending Off Offenses

2.9.5.1. Sending off offenses - A player or substitute is sent off if he commits any of the following offenses:

  1. Receiving a second caution in the same game
  2. Egregiously illegal physical contact (2.8.1.3.)
  3. Intentionally interacting with any play while serving penalty box time (2.9.7.4.)
  4. Playing egregiously dangerously (3.1.2.9.)
  5. Committing serious foul play (3.1.2.10.)
  6. Hindering a seeker who has snatched the snitch from returning to the pitch (3.2.3.5.)

2.9.5.2. Excessive force - “Using excessive force” is defined as when a player exceeds by far the necessary use of force and is in danger of injuring his opponent. A player who uses excessive force must be sent off.

2.9.6. Special Offenses

2.9.6.1. Special offenses - Some fouls, known as special offenses, result in a punishment that does not fit into another category. In each of these cases, play is stopped and any balls that a penalized player possessed, including balls possessed at the time the foul was committed, must be turned over to the opposing team’s closest eligible player to the spot of the offense before play is resumed and any penalty box time begins.

These fouls and their punishments are listed here:

  1. Substitutes violating substitution procedure: Player substituting in and player substituting out are both cautioned; however, only the player entering play serves penalty box time (1.5.2.)
  2. Illegal player/set of players in play: Captains cautioned, but person who replaces last offending player serves the penalty box time (3.1.1.3.)

2.9.7. The Penalty Box

2.9.7.1. Penalty Box conditions - A player or substitute is sent to his team’s penalty box for any of the following offenses:

  1. Receiving a caution.
  2. Being sent off (his substitute is sent to the box).
  3. Committing any foul on a player in his offensive keeper zone while that player is taking a shot at an unguarded hoop.
  4. Committing any foul on a player in possession of the quaffle in his offensive keeper zone as the only defensive player in the vicinity of the offensive player or hoops.
  5. Committing any foul on a player in possession of the quaffle in his offensive keeper zone from behind when one or fewer other defensive players are in the vicinity of the offensive player and hoops.

2.9.7.2. Time of penalty - All penalty box offenses result in one minute in the penalty box for the offending player, except for a sending off, which results in two minutes in the penalty box for the offending player’s replacement.

2.9.7.3. Stopping play - Play is stopped while the player is sent to the box. If the offender is a keeper, she must switch headbands with one of her chasers in play (effectively switching positions) before she goes to the box. Penalty time begins as soon as the head referee resumes play.

2.9.7.4. Penalty box interaction - Players in the penalty box are considered in play for the purposes of the gender minimum rule and positions, but are not allowed to participate in play in any way.

Penalty: Red - The penalty for intentionally interacting with any play while serving penalty box time is a red card.

2.9.7.5. Tracking penalty time - The scorekeeper keeps track of the penalty box time, and any player in the box must return to play as soon as the time expires. Penalty box time stops when play, and the game clock, is stopped. When play resumes again the game clock and penalty time both restart. One player with the least amount of penalty time remaining is released from the box whenever the opposing team scores a goal.

2.9.8. Unusual Penalty Box Situations

2.9.8.1. Substitute in the box - If a team has a substitute sent to the box, that team must play a player down.

If a substitute is ever sent to the penalty box, one of the players from his team that is in play must give the penalized player his headband and leave the pitch. The captains of the offending team chooses which player to switch out, obeying the two gender minimum rule.

2.9.8.2. Keeper sent to box, no chasers in play - If a keeper is sent to the penalty box, but all of her chasers are already in the penalty box, she must trade headbands with any other player on her team who is in play.

2.9.8.3. Keeper sent to box, no teammates in play - One keeper must be in play for each team at all times.

In the extremely unlikely event that six or more players are already in the penalty box when a keeper earns penalty time (or the seeker is unavailable), a new keeper replaces her. Any player who is released while 6 or more teammates remain in the box (or five, if the seeker is still in play) returns to the sideline, rather than joining play.

3.1. Players

3.1.1. Team Composition

3.1.1.1. Rosters and players - Each team is made up of at least seven players. Only seven players from each team are in play at any time. Three of those players must be chasers, two must be beaters, one must be a keeper and one must be a seeker. One keeper is compulsory in play, even when there are fewer than seven players on the pitch. If a team has less than 7 players arrive to it’s game, the team automatically forfeits, in accordance with Article VIII Section 3 and Article IX Section 4 of the Emerson College Quidditch Constitution.

3.1.1.3. Two minimum rule - Each team must have at least two players in play that are of a different gender identity than at least two other players; that is, excluding the seeker, a team may not have 5 or 6 players of the same gender in play. The gender that a player identifies with is considered to be that player’s gender. We as a community are accepting and understanding of those who don't identify with the binary gender system, acknowledge that this does not imply that our players all identify as "male" or "female," and would like to welcome people of all identities and genders into our league. Because the seeker may spend the majority of the game off the pitch, seekers do not count toward the number of required gender-specific players. In the event that a team cannot field a full team in terms of gender minimum due to injury or players being sent off, the team may continue to play with fewer players, with the missing player still counting in terms of gender minimum. If no more than 1 player who identifies as a different gender arrives at the start of the game, the team will be allowed to play under the discretion of the head referee and with the consent of the opposing team.

Penalty: Special - If there is ever an illegal player or set of players in play, in terms of eligibility, gender, or position, the referee must stop play and the offending team must correct the illegal situation. The resulting penalty is a caution for the team’s captains (but they are not sent to the penalty box), one minute in the penalty box for the person who replaces the last offending player, and forfeiture of quaffle possession to the other team.

3.1.2. General Player Rules

3.1.2.1. Running - A player may run for an unlimited amount of time, whether or not he is carrying any ball.

3.1.2.2. Passing - A player may pass a quaffle or bludger to any player eligible to play that ball. A ball may still be played if it hits the ground. It may be passed or bounced along the ground.

3.1.2.3. Stealing - Players may attempt to steal quaffles or bludgers from opposing players using any legal means necessary.

3.1.2.4. Using balls of another position - Players are forbidden to hold possession of, touch, kick, throw, or in any way use the ball of another position. Possession is defined as when a player has complete and sole control of a ball. A chaser may get in the way of a bludger, but may not swat it or otherwise propel it; this rule does not prohibit a chaser or keeper throwing or propelling a quaffle at a bludger or opponent. A beater may not intentionally position herself to block the quaffle, but if the quaffle hits her while she is otherwise fielding her position, there is no penalty.

Penalty: Yellow - Any player who intentionally and illegally uses a ball of another position must be cautioned.

3.1.2.5. Pitch boundaries - A player who is off of the pitch must immediately return to the pitch, unless he would otherwise be allowed to leave the pitch. A player may not intentionally leave the pitch except under the following conditions:

  1. A seeker may leave the pitch at any time and for any reason, after any seeker floor has expired.
  2. Any player may leave the pitch boundary to directly pursue a ball he is eligible to possess that is beyond the boundary. This includes defending against an opponent who possesses such a ball.
  3. Any player physically forced beyond the pitch boundary is not subject to penalty, so long as he returns to the pitch immediately.
  4. A beater may leave the pitch boundary if she possesses a bludger in order to pursue any other player who is off of the pitch. However, a beater may not leave the pitch to pursue a seeker until two minutes after the seeker floor ends. If there is no seeker floor, the beater may not leave to pursue a seeker until two minutes after Brooms Up.

Penalty: Back - It is a back to hoops offense to intentionally and illegally leave the pitch, remain off of the pitch, or carry a ball off of the pitch.

3.1.2.6. Boundaries and spectators - Play must be stopped whenever players are at risk of contacting spectators (approximately five feet) or dangerous terrain (also five feet). If play must be stopped due to a risk of contacting spectators, any player with a ball restarts where they were were when play was stopped.

Any other players start off inside the pitch boundary, at the closest point to where they were when play was stopped.

Penalty: Yellow - A player who recklessly endangers a spectator is subject to a caution.

3.1.2.7. Throwing a ball off or away from of the pitch - It is illegal to intentionally propel a ball off the pitch without attempting to score, complete a pass to a player who is on the pitch, or knock out an opponent (at the referee’s discretion). It is illegal to propel a ball which is already off the pitch further away from the pitch without the intention of completing a pass or knocking out an opponent.

Penalty: Yellow - Illegally removing or distancing a ball from the pitch as above results in a caution.

3.1.2.8. Throwing the quaffle while off-pitch - It is legal for a player who is off of the pitch to shoot the quaffle at the hoops or pass it to a teammate who is on the pitch. It is illegal to pass the quaffle to a teammate who is off of the pitch, or to intentionally throw the quaffle to any point that is not on the pitch.

Penalty:Warning/Back/Yellow - It is a warning to throw the quaffle illegally while off pitch, multiple offenses results in a back to hoops. It is a cautionable offense to throw the quaffle farther away from the pitch with the intent of delaying the game.

3.1.2.9. Playing dangerously - It is illegal for a player to play in a dangerous manner at any time. This includes playing recklessly, with complete disregard for danger to his opponent.

Penalty: Yellow/Red - Playing dangerously is a cautionable offense. Particularly egregious dangerous play may result in a red card.

3.1.2.10. Serious foul play - It is illegal to commit serious foul play, including but not limited to directing extreme or abusive language and/or gestures towards any person.

Penalty: Red - A player who commits serious foul play must be sent off.

Penalty:Warning/Yellow/Red - A player who uses explicit language or gestures must be warned, or receive a yellow card for repeat offenses. A player who directs extreme or abusive language towards any person must receive a red card.

3.1.2.11. Positions overview - The entries below are summaries. The following pages contain detailed descriptions.

  1. 3 Chasers - These players must move the quaffle down the pitch by running and/or passing, with the aim of throwing or kicking it through the opposing team’s hoops to score ten points.
  2. 2 Beaters - These players must throw or kick the bludgers at opposing players in order to temporarily knock them out of play.
  3. 1 Keeper - These players must defend their team’s hoops in order to prevent the other team from scoring.
  4. 1 Seeker - These players must chase down the snitch runner and remove the snitch from her, scoring 30 points and ending the game.

3.1.3. Chasers

3.1.3.1. Chaser overview -

Chasers in play, per team: Three

Game ball used: Quaffle

Headband color: White

Objective: Throw, kick, or in any way pass the quaffle through the opposing team’s hoops to score ten points.

3.1.3.2. Using the quaffle -

  1. Scoring - Chasers must throw, kick, or pass the quaffle through the hoops to score. They can be as close or as far away as they like to make the shot. It is permissible for any part of the chaser’s body to accompany the quaffle through the hoops. Holding on to the rim is not recommended. Chasers may score from either side of the hoop.
  2. Kicking - Chasers are allowed to kick the quaffle once. After the quaffle has been kicked by a player it must then be picked up before anyone on his team is allowed to kick it again (other than a keeper in her own keeper zone).
  3. Blocking - Chasers may use the quaffle to block incoming bludgers. If they are successful and are not hit anywhere on their bodies or brooms with the bludger, then the deflection is complete and the bludger has no effect, even if the quaffle is dropped during the deflection. It is legal to bat a live bludger away with the quaffle in an attempt to block a knockout. Using a held quaffle to intentionally interact with a dead bludger, or one that is still in the possession of an opponent, is an illegal interaction.

Penalty: Yellow - Intentionally kicking the quaffle illegally results in a yellow card.

3.1.4. Beaters

3.1.4.1. Beater overview -

Beaters in play, per team: Two

Game Ball Used: Bludger

Headband Color: Black

Objective: Throw the bludgers to disrupt the flow of the game by “knocking out” other players.

3.1.4.2. Using the bludger -

  1. The knockout effect - Beaters may throw or kick a bludger at an opposing player of any type in an attempt to “knock her out” (see 2.6. The Knockout Effect).
  2. Kicking - Beaters are allowed to kick a bludger once. After a bludger has been kicked by a player it must then be picked up before anyone on her team is allowed to kick it again. A beater may not kick a bludger while in possession of a second bludger.
  3. Catching - Beaters may catch bludgers that are thrown at them by opposing players. If a beater catches a thrown bludger, the knockout effect does not occur for that beater and she may continue play as normal. Any teammates hit by the bludger before it was caught are still knocked out. Note that a caught ball has no effect on the thrower.
  4. Deflecting - Beaters may use a bludger to block incoming bludgers. If a beater is successful and is not hit anywhere on her body, then the deflection is complete and the bludger has no effect, even if a bludger is dropped during the deflection.
  5. Possession - Beaters may be in possession of only one bludger at a time. A beater may temporarily possess two bludgers if she is in the process of catching a bludger thrown at her by an opponent. In this scenario, she must drop the extra bludger immediately to avoid penalty. Possession is defined as when a player has complete and sole control of a ball.
  6. The third bludger - Any team in possession of two bludgers may not guard the third bludger and must allow the other team to recover it. A beater is said to be guarding the third bludger when she is near the bludger and making a clear effort to prevent the opposition from recovering the bludger, at the referee’s discretion.
  7. Third bludger immunity - A beater recovering the third bludger may obtain immunity to the knockout effect until said beater has gained possession. To do so, the beater must raise her hand, fist closed, while actively pursuing the third bludger. The beater must then immediately proceed to recover the third bludger, taking no other actions until she recovers the bludger or it is otherwise moved.
  8. Bludger vs. quaffle - Beaters may not use a bludger they are holding to affect the trajectory of the quaffle. This rule does not prohibit throwing or kicking a bludger at the quaffle.

Penalty: Yellow - Intentionally kicking a bludger illegally is a yellow card offense.

Penalty: Yellow - Intentionally possessing more than one bludger, except when catching a second one as explained above, is a cautionable offense.

Penalty: Back/Yellow - Possessing or guarding the third bludger is a back to hoops offense; repeat offenders must be cautioned.

Penalty: Yellow - Raising a hand with a closed fist and taking any actions other than attempting to recover the third bludger following the specified guidelines, with the intention to deceive, is a cautionable offense.

3.1.5. The Keeper

3.1.5.1. Keeper overview -

Keepers in play, per team: One

Game Ball Used: Quaffle

Headband Color: Green

Objective: Prevent opponents from throwing the quaffle through the hoops.

3.1.5.2. Outside the keeper zone – While outside the keeper zone the keeper is subject to all of the same rules as a chaser (as well as rules regarding the keeper), including but not limited to the knockout effect. The keeper may leave the keeper zone and may move as far down the pitch as she likes. The keeper is allowed to score with the quaffle.

3.1.5.3. Inside the keeper zone - A keeper with any part of her body behind or touching the keeper zone line is considered to be in the keeper zone. While inside the keeper zone, the keeper is subject to all of the same rules as a chaser with the following exceptions:

  1. The keeper may kick the quaffle any number of times while in her own keeper zone.
  2. When the keeper is in sole possession of the quaffle while in her keeper zone, opposing players may not attempt to steal it from her. If the keeper attempts to steal the quaffle while in her keeper zone, the keeper must gain sole possession of the quaffle before this rule comes into effect.
  3. While in her keeper zone, the keeper is immune to the knockout effect. Beaters may continue to throw bludgers at the keeper for the purpose of distraction, but the keeper is not subject to the knockout effect if she is hit.
  4. The keeper is allowed to block a shot in a way that would be considered goaltending for any other player. See 2.4. Goaltending for more information.

3.1.5.4. Keeper restart - After a goal has been scored, quaffle play is restarted on the referee’s whistle as soon as the keeper has possession of the quaffle. Keepers in particular need to be wary of delaying the game by failing to advance the quaffle for an extended period of time. See 1.3. Stopping Play for more details.

3.1.6. The Seeker

3.1.6.1. Seeker overview -

Seekers in play, per team: One

Game Ball Used: Snitch

Headband Color: Yellow

Objective: Snatch the snitch!

3.1.6.2. Snatching the snitch - The seeker follows the snitch runner on foot and attempts to gain possession of the snitch by removing it from the back of the snitch runner’s shorts. The snitch must be fully removed from the snitch runner and the snitch runner must not be ruled as down in order for the snatch to be considered successful. See 2.7 The Snitch Snatch for a full list of what a good snitch snatch entails.

3.1.6.3. Seekers during the seeker floor - During any seeker floor, seekers are forbidden to interact with play. Instead, they may wander the edge of the pitch until the scorekeeper announces the end of the seeker floor. Similarly, other players are forbidden from interacting with the seeker until this floor has ended.

Penalty: Yellow - A seeker who interacts with play during a seeker floor must be cautioned.

Penalty: Yellow - A non-seeker who interacts with a seeker during a seeker floor must be cautioned.

3.1.6.4. Seeker interactions - Seekers are subject to the knockout effect. Seekers may not use or touch any game ball besides the snitch. Seekers are subject to the physical contact rules (see 2.8, Physical Contact).

3.1.6.5. Seeker contact with the snitch runner - A seeker may have limited physical contact with the snitch runner. A seeker may not initiate physical contact with the snitch runner beyond the type of contact specified in 2.8.2. "Stiff Arm." He may not intentionally grab or hold any part of the snitch, other than the ball itself. He may not push or shove a snitch with both arms. Under no circumstances may a seeker charge or physically wrap a snitch. Any contact a seeker initiates in violation of this rule is considered illegal physical contact.

3.1.6.6. Seekers during stoppages - A seeker does not have to stop during a stoppage of play unless the snitch is on the pitch and the seeker is near enough to the pitch to notice the stoppage. See 1.3. Stopping Play for more information.

3.2. Officials

3.2.1. Head Referee

3.2.1.1. Authority of the head referee - Each game is controlled by one referee who has full authority to enforce and interpret the rules of the game in connection with the game to which he has been appointed.

Penalty: Yellow - Using the verbal referee commands with intent to deceive opposing players is a cautionable offense.

3.2.1.2. Powers and duties – The following are the powers and duties of the head referee:

  1. Enforces the rules of the game.
  2. Controls the game in cooperation with the assistant referees.
  3. Performs all duties of the head referee listed throughout the rulebook.
  4. Performs the duties of any assistant referees that are not present.
  5. Helps to establish a time for the snitch to return to the pitch.
  6. Ensures that game balls meet the requirements of 4.3. Game Balls.
  7. Ensures that the number and combination of players meets the requirement of 2.1. Players.
  8. Ensures that the game equipment meets the requirements of 4.5. Equipment.
  9. Communicates rules to the team captains prior to play.
  10. Informs the audience of the presence of the snitch and seekers among them before the game begins.
  11. Monitors the snitch runner and ensures the snitch runner is mindful of the seekers’ safety.
  12. Stops the game if, in his opinion, a player is seriously injured and needs to be removed from the pitch. An injured player may only return to the pitch after the game has been resumed.
  13. Allows play to continue if a player is, in his opinion, only slightly injured.
  14. Ensures that any player bleeding from a wound leaves the pitch and is replaced by a substitute. The player may only return after receiving permission from the referee, who must be satisfied that the bleeding has stopped.
  15. Stops, suspends, or abandons a game because of any external interference. This includes stopping play to remove any ball that has entered the pitch from another pitch.
  16. Ensures that no unauthorized persons enter the pitch.
  17. Punishes the more serious offense when a player commits more than one offense at the same time.
  18. Takes disciplinary action against players guilty of back to hoops, special, cautionable, and sending off offenses.
  19. Acts on the advice of the assistant referees regarding unseen incidents.
  20. Hands a quaffle to the keeper after a goal has been scored against her if the keeper requests one.
  21. Indicates the start of a game or overtime period.
  22. Provides the appropriate authorities with a game report that includes information on any disciplinary action taken against players and/or team officials and any other incidents that occurred before, during, or after the game. It also includes the final score, who snatched the snitch, regular time, and overtime time if applicable.

3.2.1.3. Decisions of the head referee - The decisions of the head referee regarding facts connected with play, including whether or not a goal is scored and the result of the game, are final. The referee may only change a decision on realizing that it is incorrect or, at his discretion, on the advice of an assistant referee, provided that he has not resumed/restarted play or terminated the game.

Penalty: Yellow - Showing disrespect to an official or persistently questioning the referees’ decisions is a

cautionable offense.

3.2.2. Assistant Referees

3.2.2.1. Appointment of assistant referees - The head referee appoints six assistant referees, scheduled by the Gameplay Director (see Article VI Section 2 of the Emerson College Quidditch Constitution). These assistant referees are 2 bludger referees, 1 snitch referee, 2 goal referees, and 1 scorekeeper. If any assistant referee position is not filled, the head referee inherits the responsibilities of that position.

3.2.2.2. Goal referees - Two goal referees may be appointed by the head referee. Their duties, subject to the decision of the head referee, are:

  1. Indicating whether a shot is to be ruled as a goal or a miss.
  2. Retrieving any loose quaffles that are out of play if they are inaccessible to players or need to be returned to a player.
  3. Fixing any hoops that are broken while play continues, so long as it does not interfere with play.
  4. Offering advice to both the bludger referees and head referee if requested.
  5. Assisting the head referee in ensuring that substitutions occur properly, and informing him if they do not.

3.2.2.3. Bludger referees - Two bludger referees appointed by the head referee. Their duties, subject to the decision of the head referee, are:

  1. Indicating when a player has been struck by a bludger.
  2. Warning beaters who are in possession of more than one bludger.
  3. Warning beaters who may be guarding the third bludger.
  4. Ensuring that all beaters are meeting the requirements of 3.1.4. Beaters.
  5. Offering advice to the head referee when misconduct or any other incident occurs out of his view.
  6. Indicating to beaters the location of any bludgers that are not possessed, upon request.
  7. Returning a bludger to the pitch from off-pitch, if it has not been pursued or possessed by a beater for an extended period of time.

3.2.2.4. Snitch referee - A snitch referee appointed by the head referee. The snitch referee assumes the duties of a bludger referee while the snitch is off pitch. Beginning at any time when the snitch returns to the pitch  his duties, subject to the decision of the head referee, are:

  1. Following both seekers for as long as they are together off the pitch, and returning to the pitch if and when they split up.
  2. Blowing his whistle (two short blasts) to indicate a good snitch snatch when a seeker has successfully accomplished one.
  3. Indicating when a snitch runner has been ruled down and is unsnatchable.
  4. Indicating when snitches are free to be snatched after the snitch runner gets back up.
  5. Ensuring that all seekers are meeting the requirements of 3.1.6. The Seeker.

3.2.2.5. Scorekeeper - A scorekeeper appointed by the head referee. His duties, subject to the decision of the head referee, are:

  1. Keeping track of the game’s score.
  2. With the head referee’s permission, blowing an airhorn each time the head referee confirms a goal.
  3. Keeping track of penalty box time.
  4. Keeping track of overtime time, if necessary.
  5. Keeping track of the total time that the game has lasted.

3.2.3. Snitch Runner

3.2.3.1. Role of the snitch runner - The role of the snitch runner is to prevent the snitch ball - a tennis ball inside a sock hanging from the back of the snitch runner’s shorts - from being snatched by either team’s seeker. The snitch runner is not a member of either team; she may be conceptualized as an additional assistant referee. The snitch runner should be dressed in all yellow or gold. The snitch runner is not a player.

3.2.3.2. The snitch’s boundaries - The snitch runner and seekers are not bound by the pitch. They must remain on the Common, bordered by Boylston, Tremont, Park, Beacon, and Charles.  Snitch runners and seekers must adhere to this perimeter, or another perimeter predetermined by the head referee should games be played elsewhere.

3.2.3.3. Spectacles - Snitch runners are encouraged to be creative in their evasion tactics. The following restrictions are relatively loose to allow snitch runners to heighten the intensity of a snitch battle for spectators. Sometimes, a snitch runner brings a heightened level of spectacle into a game (say, by riding a bike or throwing water balloons at players). If the snitch runner intends to do something like this, the head referee must be informed before the game begins.

3.2.3.4. Return to the pitch - The head referee may use the snitch runner to regulate the length of the game by establishing a time at the beginning of the game for the snitch runner to return to the pitch after being released. Such time must not be announced to either team, but must be kept secret by the officials and snitch runner. Snitch runners are generally recommended to return to the pitch after approximately fifteen minutes, although this time should be varied so that seekers cannot anticipate the snitch’s return.

3.2.3.5. Reporting the snatch - If the snitch is snatched off the pitch and the snatch is not seen by the snitch referee, the snitch runner is responsible for determining if the snatch was good. The snitch runner must self report a snitch snatch if the successful seeker does not return to the pitch to report the snatch immediately, and the snitch runner should immediately report to the pitch regardless once the snitch has been snatched. No player is allowed to hinder that seeker’s return in any way.

Penalty: Red - Any opposing player who hinders a seeker who has snatched the snitch from returning to the pitch must be sent off.

3.2.3.6. Snitch code of conduct - Snitches are expected to abide by the following requirements and suggestions, in order to ensure the fairness of the game and the safety of the players and spectators.

3.2.3.7. Snitch requirements - A snitch runner, in executing her duties as an official and representative of the game, must follow certain rules to ensure the safety of players and integrity of the game. The head referee has the authority to remove and replace a snitch runner. He should remove any snitch runner for repeatedly or egregiously breaching these standards. A snitch must abide by the following requirements: A snitch

  1. Must not intentionally injure anyone
  2. Must not make play recklessly or dangerously
  3. Must not play with a bias to one team, and as such:
  4. Must not show a bias in staying near one team's side of the pitch intentionally
  5. Must not move a hoop, which becomes unplayable when dislodged
  6. Must not unequally rearrange the balls before the game begins
  7. Must not rearrange players’ headbands before the game begins
  8. Must never score with the quaffle (a goal intentionally scored by the snitch runner does not count)
  9. Must obey the head referee regarding unusual spectacles
  10. Must not intentionally go to the ground, so as to be ruled “down,” unless injured or unable to play

3.2.3.8. Snitch suggestions - Part of the snitch runner’s job is to make the game fun and exciting for everyone. In performing that responsibility, a snitch runner should keep the following in mind. Especially when the game is close:

  1. Do not take off the seekers' headbands.
  2. Do not cause one seeker to dismount off pitch and leave the other; this can be unfair to one team.
  3. Do not hang out around one team’s hoops for an extended period of time; that makes it much easier for that team to get the snatch than the other.
  4. Do not hold onto the snitch ball itself. This prevents teams from snatching it, which is unfair to everyone.
  5. Do not leave the pitch towards the end of the game. The longer the game goes, the more you should constrict your actions to ensure that the game ends eventually.
  6. Do not hide in a location or manner that makes it dangerous or impossible for a seeker to reach you. You do not want to get caught, but more importantly, you do not want to see anyone get hurt.

3.2.3.9. Physical play - The rules forbidding specific types of fouls do not apply to the snitch runner.

Instead, she is expected to follow the snitch code of conduct as outlined above. No specific types of physical play are outlawed for snitches, but they must respect the safety of all persons by never playing recklessly or dangerously.

3.2.3.10. Safety - The snitch runner is responsible for the safety of seekers and spectators during the chase.

She should use common sense to avoid harming seekers, be aware of her surroundings, and avoid collisions with spectators. Any overly aggressive or irresponsible snitch runners must be closely monitored by the referees and reported to the Gameplay Director, and may be removed.

3.2.3.11. Ruled as down - A snitch runner is ruled as down when any part of her body other than her feet touches the ground. Snitch runners are not allowed to fall intentionally, but if one does, she is nevertheless unsnatchable. When a snitch runner is down, the snitch is unsnatchable. The seekers must allow the snitch runner to rise to her feet, release all parts of the snitch runner’s body/clothing and snitch ball, and allow an additional three-second head start as counted off by the snitch referee before they can directly pursue the snitch again. The three second head start is not granted when play is restarted after a stoppage in play unless the snitch was down before the stoppage in play occurred.

Penalty: Back - Pursuing the snitch as a seeker before the three-second head start has been counted off is a return-to-hoops offense.

4.1. The Pitch

4.1.1. Pitch Markings

4.1.1.1. Pitch shape - The pitch is an oval and should be marked with either lines or a series of cones. While these lines create the desired shape of the pitch, they do not strictly bind the players to those boundaries.

4.1.1.2. Sidelines and backlines - The two longer curves of the oval are called sidelines. The shorter curves of the oval are called backlines.

4.1.1.3. Midfield line - The pitch is divided lengthwise into two halves by a midfield line that joins the midpoints of the two sidelines. The center mark is indicated at the midpoint of the midfield line.

4.1.1.4. Halves - The pitch is divided into two halves by an imaginary vertical line that joins the midpoints of the two backlines.

4.1.2. Dimensions

4.1.2.1. Dimensions - The arc length of the sideline must be greater than the arc length of the backline.

Length (imaginary vertical line) 48 yd (44 m)

Width (midfield line) 33 yd (30 m)

4.1.3. The Keeper Zone

4.1.3.1. Keeper zone lines - Two lines are drawn connecting the sidelines and are parallel to the midfield line. Measuring from the backline, these lines intersect the vertical line.

Keeper Zone Line 12 yd (11 m)

4.1.3.2. Extent of the keeper zone - The keeper zone line imaginarily extends infinitely outwards. The area from this line extending infinitely in the direction of the backline is the keeper zone.

4.1.3.3. Offensive vs. defensive keeper zone - A team’s own (or defensive) keeper zone is the one containing their hoops. A team’s offensive keeper zone is the one containing the hoops that they are trying to score through.

4.1.4. The Penalty Boxes

4.1.4.1. Penalty box shape - Each team has a penalty box. The penalty boxes are outside of the pitch boundaries on the same side of the pitch as the scorekeeper. Each penalty box is an irregular figure with the edge of the pitch as one of its sides. The first side is five yards long, parallel to the midfield line and intersecting the edge of the pitch. This side is five yards away from the midfield line. The second side is also five yards long, perpendicular to the midfield line going towards the keeper zone. The third side is parallel to the midfield line, closing the figure with the edge of the pitch as the final side.

4.1.4.2. Own penalty box - A team’s own penalty box is the one closest to its side of the pitch. Penalty box size and placement may be adjusted to meet the needs of the scorekeeper.

4.1.5. Substitute Areas

4.1.5.1. Substitute areas - Each team has a substitute area. The substitute areas are outside of the pitch boundaries. Each substitute area is an irregular figure. The following are the boundaries of a substitute area:

  1. The edge of the pitch, within the keeper zone.
  2. Two line segments of five yards extending off of the pitch along the keeper zone line, intersecting the pitch and parallel to the midfield line.
  3. Two line segments of twenty yards, one each intersecting the ends (off of the pitch) of the line segments in (b) above, extending perpendicular to the midfield line and away from it.
  4. One line segment connecting the ends furthest away from the midfield line of the line segments in (c) above.

4.1.6. Ball Marks

4.1.6.1. Ball marks - Four ball marks are placed on top of the midfield lines. The first two ball marks are placed 1.5 ft (46cm) on either side of the center mark. The other two ball marks are placed on either side of the center mark, halfway between the sideline and the center mark.

4.1.7. Additional Pitch Lines

4.1.7.1. Goal lines - Two lines are drawn connecting the sidelines and are parallel to the midfield line. They are positioned equidistant from the backline and the keeper zone line.

Goal Line 6 yd (5.5 m)

4.1.7.2. Starting lines - Two lines are drawn connecting the sidelines and are parallel to the midfield line.

They are between the goal line and the midfield line, 92 inches (7 ft 8 in, or approximately two broom lengths) in front of the goal line.

Starting Line 8 yd 20 in (7.8 m)

4.2. Hoops

4.2.1. Specifications

4.2.1.1. Hoop composition - Three upright and self-supporting hoops that, as a group, are equidistant from both sidelines are positioned on each goal line. For the purposes of the knockout effect and return-to-hoops offenses, any hoop base is not considered part of the hoop.

4.2.1.2. Hoop shape - For each set of hoops there are three different post heights. These heights must be 3 ft (.9 m), 4.5 ft (1.4 m) and 6 ft (1.8 m). A hoop must be fastened to the top of each goal post. The inner diameter of each hoop must be between 33” and 40”, and all hoops used in a game must be uniform.

4.2.1.3. Hoop positioning - The tallest hoop must be placed in the center and the other two hoops are placed 92 inches away (7 ft 8 in, or approximately two broom lengths) on either side. Facing either set of hoops from midfield, the three-foot hoop must be on the left and the 4.5-foot hoop must be on the right.

4.3. Game Balls

4.3.1. Quaffle

4.3.1.1. Quaffle - The quaffle is a volleyball. All volleyballs used in a game as quaffles must have the same characteristics regarding circumference, weight, color, and inside pressure. The quaffle is:

  1. Spherical.
  2. Made of a flexible, smooth leather or leather-like cover of 12 or more panels with a separate bladder.
  3. Not less than 65 cm (25.6 in) or more than 67 cm (26.4 in) in circumference.
  4. Not pumped up all the way, nor flat so that a player could grip a bulk of the leather in one hand.
  5. The quaffle must maintain its spherical shape.

4.3.2. Bludgers

4.3.2.1. Bludgers - The bludgers are dodgeballs. All dodgeballs used in a game as bludgers must have the same characteristics regarding circumference, weight, and inside pressure. Bludgers are:

  1. Spherical.
  2. Made of a flexible rubber-like cover.
  3. 8.5 inches in diameter.
  4. Not pumped up all the way, nor so flat that a player could grip a bulk of the rubber in one hand. The bludger must maintain its spherical shape.

4.3.3. Snitch

4.3.3.1. The snitch - The snitch is a tennis ball held inside of a sock tucked in the back of a snitch runner’s shorts or fastened to them by Velcro.

4.3.3.2. Snitch ball - The ball is:

  1. Spherical.
  2. Made of a uniform outer surface consisting of fabric cover.
  3. 21 cm (8.5 in) in circumference.

4.3.3.3. Snitch sock - The sock is:

  1. 12-16 inches in length.

4.4. The Broom

4.4.1. Specifications - Any player in play must be mounted on a broom. A broom consists of a wooden or plastic pole between 36 and 48 inches long with or without plastic, corn, or wooden bristles attached to the end. The recommended broom length is 46”. In order to preserve fairness, all players must be mounted on brooms of equal length and weight in regular season play.

4.4.2. Broom safety - All brooms in play must be safe, both for the players using them and for their opponents. Any brooms with splinters or sharp points are not allowed. If any broom breaks during the course of play, it must be replaced before its player may make any play.

4.4.3. Brooms - The requirement to use brooms of equal length and weight may be waived upon agreement by both teams captains.

4.5. Equipment

4.5.1. Safety - A player must not use any equipment or wear anything that is dangerous to himself or another player (including any kind of jewelry).

4.5.2. Mandatory equipment - While in play, each player must be equipped with the following:

  1. A broom
  2. A colored headband (worn on the head) distinguishing the player’s position
  3. A shirt or jersey. These must be of the same color and likeness for players on the same team.

4.5.3. Recommended equipment - Each player is recommended but is not required to be equipped with the following:

  1. Mouth guards
  2. Shatter resistant goggles
  3. Sneakers (cleats are only allowed when stated, any type of metal cleats is not allowed)
  4. Gloves

4.5.4. Additional equipment - Any additional equipment must be approved by the head referee before the game. Any equipment that the referee determines to be dangerous or unfair to either team must not be permitted.

Penalty: Yellow - If a player is found to be using illegal equipment after the game has started, that player must be cautioned. This does not include equipment that breaks or is otherwise altered due to the course of play.

4.5.5. Infringement of equipment rules - In the event of any accidental infringement of the rules governing equipment:

  1. Play is not stopped.
  2. The player at fault must leave the pitch to correct his equipment immediately.
  3. Any player required to leave the pitch to correct his equipment must not reenter (although he may be substituted for) without the head referee’s permission.
  4. The head referee must check that the player’s equipment is correct before allowing him to reenter the pitch.

Penalty: Yellow - A player who has been required to leave the pitch because of an equipment infringement and who reenters without the referee’s permission must be cautioned.

Penalty: Yellow - Any player who intentionally alters any equipment that is part of the game, including the game balls and hoops, may be cautioned.

4.5.6. Headband lost mid-play - If a player’s headband comes off for any reason during the middle of a play, the player may complete the play before replacing the headband. In this circumstance, any goal scored, knockout accomplished, or snatch completed by the player would count. Any player who loses his headband this way is still in play until the next stoppage, including a goal scored for chasers, or upon being knocked out. At that time, the player must replace the headband before he is considered in play, the same as with any other infringement of equipment.

Emerson College Quidditch Rulebook - Page