Lesson 7
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Teo ai dadau -  Seven and counting

In the previous chapter we encountered the basic numerals from one to ten. When the word for "ten" nini is combined with these basic numerals, the tens are formed:

 sun - two yem - three pan - four jom - five vai - six teo - seven dia - eight sasta - nine sun + nini   yem + nini  pan + nini   jom + nini   vai + nini   teo + nini   dia + nini  sasta + nini = sunini - twenty= yenini - thirty= panini - fourty= jonini - fifty= vainini - sixty= teonini - seventy= dianini - eighty= sastanini - ninety

Basic numerals are placed directly after the tens:

 11 - nini kwa 12 - nini sun 13 - nini yem 14 - nini pan 15 - nini jom 16 - nini vai 17 - nini teo 18 - nini dia 19 - nini sasta 21 - sunini kwa 22 - sunini sun 23 - sunini yem 24 - sunini pan 25 - sunini jom 26 - sunini vai 27 - sunini teo 28 - sunini dia 29 - sunini sasta 34 - yenini pan 45 - panini jom 56 - jonini vai 67 - vainini teo 78 - teonini dia 89 - dianini sasta 92 - sastanini sun

7.1 Hala Yunus?

 hashi - how? like what? in what manner? yunkule - to look like wen - to be tall, high shau  - like this fafau - close to, near, nearly, about chaido - teahouse lu - next to nukodo - post office chauta - just, right then nuchi - to leave, get out of a building lai - there parado - bank nuvu - to walk sintai - then, that very moment lara - to stay, keep deche - until nuno - road, way him - to listen lutum - to pass, go past, pass by kaudo - coffee house, café kizado  - restaurant pekido  - greengrocer's fanaila  - train station nubo - to enter, take (a means of transportation) fanai - train podo - shop, store kele  - to look for, search Nam - God jamia - to kill hachu - where from?

As you see, a lot of words turned up ending in -do in the text above:

 chaido - teahousenukodo - post officeparado - bankkaudo - coffee house, cafékizado  - restaurantpekido  - greengrocer'spodo - shop, store

Now please compare these words with the following:

 chai - teanuko - letter, mailpara - to save, save upkau - coffeekiza  - to eatpeki  - vegetable's chaido - teahousenukodo - post officeparado - bankkaudo - coffee house, cafékizado  - restaurantpekido  - greengrocer's

It looks like the -do suffix denotes the notion "buiding" or "house". In fact, it means "build, construct" and adding it to another root produces a compound word. Compare the following words containing the root do with the roots that were added to it::

 jando - to builddora - to live at, dwelldola - city, towndoko - adresssado  - artificial, constructedpodo - shop, storeyudo - house, building -jam-  to make, do-ra-  sit, reside at-la-  be at, place-ko-  writing-sa-   shape, form-po-  trade, commerce yu-  person, human

The entire Kah vocabulary is built with roots like these which are coined together in order to form words. Most words consist of two or three roots joined together forming a new semantic unit:

 kizaki + zafood + taketo eatmunkimun + kicause + foodto feedparadopa + ra + domoney + sit + housebanksankanesan + ka + necolor + speech + birdparrotsadokasa + do + kashape + construct + languageartificial language, conlang

7.2 Sankane nong tengi lara

 Nur: -Nen, sintai tim pau sankane ye wai. Yu na huyu?Nour: -Okay, now you must give that parrot back. Whose is it?Yunus: -Nong lo! Keju lera yu!Yunus: -Oh no! I want to keep it!Nur: -Nong tengi lera. Wanyo dozia meo yeme, win sunini jom ai kwo wiwinya kwi. Nour: -You can't keep it. We already have three cats, twenty five horses and a zillion chickens. Yunus:  -Eye, yuyung nong ke boyun.Yunus: -Then nobody would notice.Nur: -Mama eo ke. Mama ho jamia li!Nour: -Mom would!. Mom is so going to kill you! Yunus:  -Yoi! Ke tinki! Yunus: -Oh dear! He would starve! Nour: -Wa je nong.Nur: -I don't think so.Yunus:  -Eom ke tim kiza lia chu nuno sisi...ewe boi!Yunus: -Or he would have to eat only worms from the street...even dirt!Nour: -Yu unga nenje. Ke chele aki layo, chu uyo. Li pau shuki.Nur: -It's a smart animal. It would find food everywhere, from everybody You gave it candy.Yunus:  -Uyu la munki bau ye mau ha? Yun wu pesa yunyo!Yunus: -Are people feeding those dogs too? Look how skinny those are!Nour: -Aye chumun yuyung nenju bau ye. Nur: -That's because nobody likes those dogs.Yunus:  -Tente yuyung nenju sankane mau. Yunus: -Maybe nobody likes the parrot too.  Nur: -Yu nenyun. Hashi ke tengi nong nenju?Nour: -It's beautiful. How could they not like it?Yunus:  -Li nenyun mau. Nong nenju li toyo. Yunus: -You're pretty too. I don't like you all the time.Nour: -Nen. Uyu nong nenju win, mosone eom milua? Nur: -Fine. Do people not like horses, pigeons or peacocks?Yunus:  -Kwita weyun milua tas la nuno ha? Yunus: -Have you ever seen a peachock loose on the streets?Nur: -Aa, nong...Nour: -Er, no...Yunus:  -Aye chumun uyo otinki mia. Yunus: -That's because they are all starved to death.Nour: -Yunus zai, sankane ho nong tengi lara. Yu dochu uyu. Nur: -Dear Yunus, the parrot really can't stay. it belongs to someone.Yunus:  -Ha ho? Yunus: -Really?Nur: -Reshi lo! Eye, sankane ye na huyu?Nour: -Why sure! Now, whose parrot is it?Yunus: -Nong jo yoyong. Yu lo chele wa. Nong tengi zachu tilulu. Ke randun wai.Yunus: -I have no idea. It found me. I can't get it off my shoulder. It would bite me again.Nur: -Wanen. Tontoye wa be mama denu jamia...Nour: -Great. Now mom is going to kill me...

 lera - to keep, hold on to dozua - to keep, tend meo - cat win  - horse kokwo - chicken wiwinya - a "zillion", a whole bunch of, myriad yuyung - nobody, noone boyun - to notice tinki - to starve, die in need of food lia - worm ewe - even, still boi - dirt, smudge unga - animal nenje - smart, intelligent chele  - to find, discover layo - everywhere munki - to feed bau - dog pesa - skinny, thin chumun - because, since nenju - to like, love nenyun - to be beautiful, pretty, handsome toyo  - all the time, always, everytime mosone - pigeon, dove eom - or milulua - peacock kwita - ever, ever before tas - to be free, loose otinki - to be starved mia - to be dead lara - to stay, remain, keep dochu - to belong, belong to zachu - to take away, take from, remove from randun - to bite wanen - great, fantastic, wonderful

This conversation contains a lot of words for domestic animals. Some more animals are listed below:

 bau - dog wil - pig mul - cow  kal - crow gau - donkey kwo - chicken win - horse goi - frog kal - crow mambau - wolf naim - rabbit

When the word for "dog" bau is combined with the root -ka- for "speech" we get bauka meaning "to bark". There are quite some combinations of animal names with the root -ka- producing such compounds:

 bauka - to bark wilka - to squeal mulka - to moo kalka - to crow gauka - to bray kwoka - to cluck winka - to whinny meoka - to meow goika - to croak (like a frog)

7.3 Sankane mau weka Faransaka

 Yunus: -Oi pon dodil!Yunus: -Come on, ring the doorbell!Nur: -Awau tehau. Awau ho tehau.Nour: -This is ridiculous. This is really ridiculous. Yunus: -Eye keju en janka mama ayo?Yunus: -Then do you want to tell mom everything? Nour: -Sus! Muhim dodil. Uyu la de. Gevu! Gevu lo! Ge!Nur: -Shh! I rang the doorbell. Someone's coming. Run! Run! Quick!Nur: -Nong tengi jeho wa la jam awau.Nour: -I can't believe I'm doing this.Yunus: -Haya la to? Huyu la jamil doki?Yunus: -What's happening? Who is opening the door?Nur: -Bas pepye. Wa lo odoi. Li le tiro jom sisi.Nour: -Stop trembling. It's me who is in trouble. You are only five years old.Yunus: -Ha ho? Li gevu ge tunti wa.Yunus: -Oh really? You run faster than I do.Nour: -Ai mama nong jejeng. Jo ahenje wau chu wa. Nur: -And mom is not stupid. She'll know this idea came from me.Yunus: -Ka en wa jejeng ha?Yunus: -Are you saying that I'm stupid? Nur: -Om hopu. Li nong ho jetum.Nour: -Let's be honest. You are not exactly a genius.Yunus: -Tontoshi tim la ujetum eno mulara sankane le tanum ku doki...Yunus: -As if it takes a genius to leave a parrot holding a sign in front of the door...Nour: -Haya lo?Nur: -Excuse me?Yunus: -Yayang. Yun, ujetum. Mama boyun yu.Yunus: -Nothing. Look, genius. Mom noticed him.Nour: -Echu mama lo jamil doki ha? Wu wanen.Nur: -So it was mom who opened the door huh? How very great.Sankane: -Mai li! Bonjour! (*kaza Faransaka*)Parrot: -Hello! Good day! (*speaking French*)Nour: -Sankane ye chauku kaza Faransaka maika mama ha?Nur: -Did that parrot just greet mom in French?Mama: -Oh, bonjour! Quoi de neuf? (*kaza Faransaka*)Mom: -Oh good day! What's up? (*speaking French*)Sankane: -Super. Avez-vous des bacs pour moi? (*kaza Faransaka*)Parrot: -Super. Do you have some fags for me? (*speaking French*)Yunus: -Weka Faransaka. Ho chechau. Mama ho nenju Faransaka.Parrot: -It speaks French. We nailed it. Mom really loves French.

 pon - to push, press dodil - doorbell tehau - to be ridiculous muhim  - to sound, make heard, ring, play (a song, instrument etc.) gevu - to run ge - quick, fast jeho - to believe to  - to happen jamil - to open doki - door pepye - to tremble, shiver odoi - in trouble le - to have, own, hold tiro  - year tunti - than jejeng - dumb, stupid ahenje - idea, new conception hopu  - honest, fair jetum - to be brilliant tontoshi - as if ujetum - to push eno - in order that, that, so mulara - to leave, leave behind tenum  - sign, board wanen - great, splendid, wonderful, fantastic kaza - to speak, use a language chauku - just, just before weka - to speak, know a language Faransaka  - French, the French language chechau - to nail it, hit the nail right on the head, to get it just right

A new use for the word lo came up in the previous conversation. It seems to emphasize the word it was placed after:

Nur: Wa lo odoi.

Nour:  It's me who is in trouble.

Nour: -Echu mama lo jamil doki ha?

Nur: -So it was mom who opened the door huh?

More examples of such emphasis are:

wa lo kiza shuki yo - it's me who ate all the candy

vuvu lo pepye  it's my legs that are trembling

sankane lo kaza Faransaka  - it was the parrot who spoke French

Yunus lo nong mulara unga - it wasn't Yunus who left the animal

upopo lo nong nuchi chaido - it wasn't the vendor who left the teahouse

Jan lo nenju Merih - it is John who loves Mary

This word lo can be placed after verbs too in order to form an imperative-like form. A sentence like gevu lo! can be translated as "run I tell you!".

gevu lo! - run!

yun lo! - look!

nuchi lo!  - get out of here!

tustu lo! - let go!

nura lo! - sit down!

de lo!  - come here!

Also, it can be combined with adjectives:

sus lo! - be quiet!

nunung lo! -  sit still!

hopu lo!  - be honest!

Or interjections:

eo lo! - am too! is too!

nong lo! - is not! not so!

hea lo!  - watch it! attention!

ha lo! - huh? you don't say!

ho lo! - yes, really! I'm telling you!

Of course the translations presented are a mere description and not a literal translation, as there are no direct translations possible between two languages in many instances.

In the text, we also encountered the word Faransaka "french". It is coined together from the roots  faransa "french" and ka speech to form Faransaka  "French (language)". Compare the following words:

 Ingil - EnglishHan - Han-ChineseAraba - ArabEspanyan - SpainRus - RussianPutugal - PortugueseBangal - BengaliMalayu - MalayDoichi - GermanNihon - JapaneseItal - Italian Ingilka - English languageHanka - Mandarin ChineseArabaka - Arabic languageEspanyanka - Spanish languageRuska - Russian languagePutugalka - Portuguese languageBangalka - Bengali languageMalayuka - Malay languageDoichika - German languageNihonka - Japanese languageItalka - Italian language

The following words have been coined together from familiar roots:

 -yu-   person, human + -ka-  speech =-do-  building + -ki-  mouth, food =-do-  building + -dil-  jingle, ring =-ge-  quick + -vu-  foot, down =-wan-  big + -nen-  good =-mai-  greet + -ka-  speech =-nen-  new + -je-  think =-min-  bad + -za-  take =-je-  think + -bo-  inside =-se-  mustle + -ki-  mouth, food =-ke-  intend + -le-  have, hold =-jam-  do, make + -mia-  dead =-ben-  child + -bau-  dog = yuka - languagedoki - doordodil - doorbellgevu - to runwanen - fantastic, greatmaika - to greetnenje - smart, intelligentminza - to stealjebo - to understandseki - meatkele - to search, look forjamia - to killbembau - puppy

A very important root in the perspective of the numeral system, is -mbe designating "part". When combined with the word for "three" yem it looks like yembe "half", "a third part". Compare the combinations of a numeral with -mbe and their meaning below:

 # Kah + -mbe translation 1 kwa kwambe whole, entire 2 sun sumbe half 3 yem yembe one third 4 pan pambe one quarter 5 jom jombe one fifth 6 vai vaimbe one sixth 7 teo teombe one seventh 8 dia diambe one eighth 9 sasta sastambe one ninth 10 nini ninimbe one tenth 11 nini kwa nini-kwambe 1/11 12 nini sun nini-sumbe 1/12 13 nini yem nini-yembe 1/13 14 nini pan nini-pambe 1/14 15 nini jom nini-jombe 1/15 16 nini vai nini-vaimbe 1/16 17 nini teo nini-teombe 1/17 18 nini dia nini-diambe 1/18 19 nini sasta nini-sastambe 1/19 20 sunini suninimbe 1/20 23 sunini yem sunini-yembe 1/23 30 yenini yeninimbe 1/30 40 panini paninimbe 1/40 57 jonini teo jonini-teombe 1/57 90 sastanini sastaninimbe 1/90 100 mel melembe 1/100, one percent 1000 pol polombe 1/1000, promille 2349 sumpol yemel panini sasta sumpol-yemel-panini-sastambe 1/2349

And with these numbers, we can extend our vocabulary regarding telling the time. We already encountered round figures such as::

 ata rio na panit's four o'clock ata rio na kwait's one o'clock ata rio na jomit's five o'clock

And now we can expand this with:

 ata asumbe ze ayemit's half past three ata asumbe ze adiait's half past eight ata apambe ze ateoit's a quarter past seven ata anini ze ajomit's ten past five ata anini yem ze ayemit's three thirteen ata asunini jom ze avaiit's twenty five minutes past six ata apambe ku anini-kwait's a quarter to eleven ata anini ku ajomit's ten to five ata ajom ku anini-sunit's five to twelve

These are the short forms. A sentence like ata nini ku ajom (literally "the time is ten before five") can be specified as well: ata sirio nini ku rio na jom (literally "the time is ten minutes before the fifth hour"). Similarly the full forms of the phrases above are:

ata sumbe ze ayem (short form)

ata sumbe ze rio na yem (long form)

it's half past three

ata sumbe ze adia (short form)

ata sumbe ze rio na dia (long form)

it's half past eight

ata pambe ze ateo (short form)

ata pambe ze rio na teo (long form)

it's a quarter past seven

ata nini ze ajom (short form)

ata sirio nini ze rio na jom (long form)

it's ten past five

ata nini yem ze ayem (short form)

ata sirio nini yem ze rio na yem (long form)

it's three thirteen

ata sunini jom ze avai (short form)

ata sirio sunini jom ze rio na vai (long form)

it's twenty five minutes past six

ata pambe ku anini-kwa (short form)

ata pambe ku rio na nini kwa (long form)

it's a quarter to eleven in the evening

ata nini ku ajom (short form)

ata sirio nini ku rio na jom (long form)

it's ten to five

ata jom ku anini-sun (short form)

ata sirio jom ku rio na nini sun (long form)

it's five to twelve

AM en PM are obsolete terms as Kah uses a 12-hour clock which starts at dawn (6:00 AM according to the convention in most countries) and again at dusk (6:00 PM).

When a 24-hour notation is needed, dawn is set to 0:00, dusk to 12:00 and counting up to 24:00 / 0:00 at dawn again. This has the consequence a new date starts at dawn.

In the 12-hour system, the phrases la ninta for "in daytime" and la manta "at night" are added in order to specify which part of the day is talked about. Of course specifications like la ninku "in the morning", la baninta "in the afternoon" or la zekita "in the evening" can be used as well.

Now please make the following exercises:

1) Please translate the following lines to Kah:

1. Do you speak Kah?

2. Not at all. I think constructed languages are ridiculous.

3. Even smart animals do not really speak a human language.

4. Do parrots really understand French?

5. What does your mother look like?

6. I would like 68 grams of stuffed raisins.

7. Let's come to the tea house at three o'clock

8. Do you think you can run faster than me?

9. There are pigeons everywhere at the train station.

10. Do you speak Kah?

11. Not at all. I think constructed languages are ridiculous.

12. Even smart animals do not really speak a human language.

13. Do parrots really understand French?

14. What does your mother look like?

15. I would like 68 grams of stuffed raisins.

16. Let's come to the tea house at three o'clock

17. Do you think you can run faster than me?

18. There are pigeons everywhere at the train station.

2) Please finish the directions through the labyrinth:

-Nubo nuno na kwa de zano

-De yino

...

3) Please check the example below:

 go                        speech = nuka - to deliver a message, go tell

Now arrange the roots on the jigsaw pieces below in order in order to produce the Kah equivalents of the following words:

-Hungarian (language)

-school

-gas station

-bus station

-to flatter

study                         speech

go                          vehicle                  house

long                         water                     speech

Hungarian                     house

sweet                   place

4) Please translate the following times to Kah:

1.   5:30

2.   2:37 PM

3.   12:45

4.   1:25 AM

5.   17:59

6.   15:15

7.   3:30 PM

8.   9:15

9.   13:35

10. 0:01

5) Please translate the following lines into English:

1. Ata pambe ze ajom.

2. Ata sunini sasta ku asasta.

3. Ata sirio yem ze rio na pan.

4. Ata rio na sasta la manta, echu hamun nong zon ha?

5. Tinti wa tonzon la rio na dia

6. Om nuku kiza la rio na vai.

7. La Sastamaro na nini la sirio kwa ku rio na pan la zekita.