Matthisk Heimensen

Week 3 assignments

Requirements Engineering

William Hudson, User stories don't help users: Introducing Persona Stories

Ad Hudson: Construct in systematic way at least two types of personas for one role (student / reader or writer)

Front side

Name

Bas de Graaf

Photo

Age

19

Backstory, interests, motivations

Bas is a student in his second year of the UvA bachelor program Computer Science. While not encountering textbooks on a daily basis Bas does have to do some reading for several courses. Bas has a mild form of dyslexia which sometimes is a pain when reading difficult material. Travelling from his hometown of Woerden Bas loses a lot of time in the train everyday.

Goals in using your solution

  • Bas wants to be able to learn required readings quicker than he does at the moment
  • He wants to be assisted in some of his learning disabilities
  • He wants to have a more immersive experience while reading his textbooks

Back side

Age, education, experience (ranges)

19 student at the UvA following the Bsc program Computer Science in his second year. Not a lot of experience with reading textbooks, almost no experience with eTextbooks

Products/services used (how often)?

Has only experimented with eTextbooks once or twice

Behaviors and recruitment questions

  • Living with his parents student
  • Not very socially active

Front side

Name

Phillip Tegelstad

Photo

Age

24

Backstory, interests, motivations

As a phd student Phillip has been reading textbooks for the last 6 years of his life. Philip is a huge environmentalist and tries to waste as few paper as possible. Being a phd student Philip also gets the opportunity to teach bachelor and master students and create educational materials such as textbooks.

Goals in using your solution

  • Interested in creating dynamic content for students
  • Distributing written material easier
  • Not carrying around any paper

Back side

Age, education, experience (ranges)

24 year old phd student at top european university. Has been reading eTextbooks for 6 years and is also a (co) author of several papers and books. More than 10 years experience with normal textbooks

Products/services used (how often)?

Has only experimented with eTextbooks once or twice

Behaviors and recruitment questions

  • Creator of content
  • Environmentalist
  • Academic

Essentialism (pp. 1-8)

The needs and requirements for the new system can already be found in the current system. The current system can be seen as an suboptimal solution, made with technology and ideas from the past. Write a short essay explaining this in terms you find this paper.

Aristotle one of the early advocators of essentialism (mainly in his book Categoriae) believed that the essence of an object is to be found in the object itself.

Essences are those properties of the objects without which the object ceases to be what it is[1]

The essence, E, of an object, o, is a property (or set of properties, which can be treated as a property) such that we cannot conceive of o as lacking E, In case O is a general term, we say that any instance of O, call it o, without E is not an O.[1]

The best example of this idea is a human, take a human and remove a leg or its hair and you still have a human. However if we were to remove reason from the human it would no longer ‘categorize’ as human.

This same idea could be applied to our theory of ‘system-as-is’ opposed to ‘system-to-be’ both contain needs and requirements which make it fall under a certain category. We do not take away any properties (needs and requirements) from the system-as-is so it would no longer categories under the same category of the system-as-is. But we can expand on certain properties and create a system-to-be.

Smith, M. K. ‘Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning’

For each of the views and insights of Argyris, explain how you could cope with this when you would do try to understand how an organization works and what can be improved.

Argyris gives us insight into the way individuals guide their actions. This is explained through the theory-of-action (also called espoused theory) and the theory-in-use. The espoused theory is the course of actions we would think we take in a certain situation. And the theory-in-use is the actual course of action we take in a certain situation. These actions are based on our governing variables “those dimensions that people are trying to keep within acceptable limits”[2]. On the basis of this principle Argyris developed the theory of double-loop learning “In double-loop learning, the entities (individuals, groups or organization) question the values, assumptions and policies that led to the actions in the first place;”[3] 

Two models are developed that (when mapped to organizations) can help us understand how organizations worked and how they can be improved. These are models I and II. in model I “the theories-in-use are shaped by an implicit disposition to winning (and to avoid embarrassment)[2]  it inhibits double-loop learning and individuals base their future actions only on the outcome of previous actions and not on a reflection of their governing variables. Model II “is where the governing values associated with theories-in-use enhance double-loop learning[2] 

An important aspect to understand is that an entire organization also has an espoused theory and a theory-in-use, the organization has certain goals it wants to achieve and can take certain actions to achieve these goals. Another part that helps us understand how we apply Argyris theory to organizations, is that organizations exist of individuals and that all these individuals have an image of the organizations’ theory-in-use. If these individuals apply model I and learn through defensiveness we get an organization type I, this type of organization will not function very well individuals within this organization will only reflect on their actions in a single-loop fashion and according to Argyris the “systems can begin to malfunction”[2]. If an organization where to consist of individuals acting under model II we would have a more open organization and better communication between participants, the overall feedback on goals and actions would greatly improve.

References

[1]

http://155.97.32.9/~phanna/classes/ling5030/webpostings/notestwodogmas/node6.html

[2]

Smith, M. K. ‘Chris Argyris: theories of action, double-loop learning and organizational learning’ (pp. 1-11)

[3]

Organizational Learning (Wikipedia)