ACADEMICA TURISTICA - TOURISM AND INNOVATION JOURNAL
ZYGMUNT WAŚKOWSKI: Experience Marketing As an Accelerator of Customer Satisfaction on the Sport Tourism Market
Sport events are a driving force of the sport tourism market. The way they are organized as well as their attractiveness have a significant influence on the number of participants, therefore the organizers look for solutions that will ensure the highest attendance possible. The concept of experience marketing is a popular one and perfectly fits the needs arising from the management of sport events. Thanks to this concept the organizers can offer tourists what they seek most: emotions and experience. This article describes how the concept of experience marketing is used by the organizers of international marathon runs. The conducted research made it possible to establish that this concept is widely applied and the marketing tools used are numerous. On the basis of a detailed problem analysis, a model of managing sports events with the application of experience marketing was developed. The model distinguishes three phases of organizing a run: before, during, and after the event.
Keywords: experience marketing, sports tourism, sports events, marathons
JANEZ MEKINC, IZTOK BONČINA: Safety and Security in Space Tourism
The purpose of the study is to shed further light on the understanding of safety as one of the most important aspects of space tourism. From the safety perspective, the development of spaceflight tourism is hoped to contribute to a deeper and more comprehensive understanding of safety factors in commercial space travel, and thus, to the more sustainable development of this new tourism industry. Therefore, it is important to discuss, even at this embryonic stage of space tourism, that planning and implementation of future tourist flights into space must consider all possible safety factors and minimize risks.We see limitations in the fact that space tourism is a new phenomenon and a new research field, which is now fostering the theoretical and methodological foundations of its development. As a result, research into space tourism and the safety of commercial space flight is limited. A typology of space tourists is practically non-existent; therefore, any comparison of space tourism safety with other types of tourism is inadequate. This study focuses on the analysis of new safety strategies for space tourism; the experiences and knowledge obtained from previous forms of adventure and extreme tourism have been considered.
Keywords: space tourism, security, safety, space flight, risk
ARMAND FAGANEL, ROBERTO BILOSLAVO, ALEKSANDER JANEŠ: The Aquaculture Industry and Opportunities for Sustainable Tourism
Tourism is an important industry in the growth of gdp in many countries, while aquaculture covers more than half of the demand for fish in the developed world. The demand and competition for farmed fish are increasing worldwide, as is the awareness of the importance of the further development of sustainable small business. In this view, innovation is crucial to promoting sustainable business models that can achieve a solid economic performance and at the same time take care of the natural environment. This article contributes to the literature on sustainable business models with a descriptive case study of the complementarity of a single fish farming company and tourism activities. The case study of a sustainable business model in aquaculture has been analysed with the use of a business model canvas that links various market-oriented elements of a business model with different stakeholders’ needs.
Keywords: aquaculture, tourism, brand, development, sustainability, business model canvas, co-natural processes
EVA PODOVŠOVNIK, MIHA LESJAK: Visitors’ Expectation and Satisfaction with Planica 2015 FIS World Cup Ski Jumping Finals
Planica is a valley inside Triglav National Park in Slovenia where the best ski jumpers have been to compete on the biggest ski jumping hill in the world meeting every year for more than 40 years. Partly financed by the Fund of the European Union, the Nordic Center Planica has recently been renovated, and the fis World Cup ski jump finals took place there in 2015 for the first time since its renovation. To understand visitors’ satisfaction and future expectation, research with a self-administered questionnaire in which 618 visitors were surveyed has been conducted. Respondents were asked to evaluate their expectations and satisfaction about different elements of the event. The main hypothesis claimed that respondents’ expectations about the event affect their satisfaction with it. The hypothesis was tested using regression analysis. The main results confirmed the research hypothesis supporting the fact that visitors’ expectations about the major sporting event influence their satisfaction with the it. With the Nordic Center reconstruction, Planica had a second chance to redevelop its image. Therefore, it is highly recommended that the organizer continue to monitor the visitors’ expectations and satisfaction levels to be able to offer the optimal service experience.
Keywords: Planica, sporting events, expectation, satisfaction, visitors
KATJA ČANŽAR, MARJETKA RANGUS: Influence of the Centralization of Public Services on the Crisis of Tourist Services
For the previous eight years, there have been trends in Slovenia to centralize state institutions in bigger towns, as opposed to smaller ones. State institutions are typically placed in bigger urban environments. One part of this environment is the Municipality of Brežice, which is ranked among the top four among Slovenian municipalities offering overnight stays and is seen as a critical administrative and employment centre in its region. The tourist service market in urban environments also depends on local consumers and civil servants that use these services in and outside the tourist season. The purpose of the research is to determine the dependence of tourist service providers on local consumers and civil servants. The tourist sector is often subjected to seasonal variations that cause significant risks for tourist providers. In this research, we are attempting to determine to what extent the use of services by civil servants allows tourist service providers to survive throughout the year, in particular during the off-season. The results of the research show that the centralization of public services affects the change of location of service use, which is significantly connected with the workplace location. The data collected show that civil servants’ service use throughout the year enables the survival of tourist service providers outside the tourist season. The centralization of public services can consequently cause a crisis of tourist services in the urban environment since the locals and those employed in urban centres provide constant, even non-seasonal, demand and enable providers to survive throughout the whole year.
Keywords: centralization, civil servant, Municipality of Brežice, tourism and travel-related services
MAJA URAN MARAVIĆ: Classification System in Slovenia
An accommodation classification system is a tool to sustain a high quality of accommodation services and to inform tourists about it. There are numerous hotel classification systems worldwide, and many are frequently amended. The purpose of this study is to collect destination stakeholders’ opinions about the changes to the existing accommodation classification system and how best to implement them. Opinions were collected via an online questionnaire, mailed to the web addresses of 1,475 accommodation providers, tourism organizations, and classification assessors in Slovenia. The results are presented using descriptive statistics. Findings show that the majority of respondents support a mandatory classification system,which should be used for informing tourists and not for taxation purposes. Respondents believe that the system should be administered by the relevant government ministry. They accept the idea that only national experts should assess accommodation facilities. The majority of respondents favour a harmonized European system of hotel classification: Hotelstars. Tourism is an evolving process, which requires frequent changes and adaptation of tourism stakeholders. Successful implementation demands collaboration of all stakeholders involved.
Keywords: accommodation classification system, hotel industry, Slovenia, Hotelstars
MARINELA KRSTINIĆ NIŽIĆ, ZVONIMIRA ŠVERKO GRDIĆ, ANDREJA HUSTIĆ: The Importance of Energy for the Tourism Sector
This paper studies the problems and specific issues related to tourism and energy consumption. The purpose of this paper is establishing the cause and effect relationship between tourism and energy consumption and determining whether the increase in the number of tourists increases energy consumption. The paper analyses the following EU countries with similar economic climates: Croatia, Slovenia, Slovakia, Hungary, and the Czech Republic. The analysis of the secondary data from statistical databases (Eurostat, WTO, IEA) using indicators such as the number of overnight stays, GDP and energy consumption, serves to establish the relationship between energy and tourism. In all observed countries, programme activities in the previous period were directed toward energy management capacity building and measures with a lower cost of implementation, such as educational and informational projects. This resulted in significant energy savings in the service sector,which is further demonstrated in the empirical part of the paper. The results indicate an increase in the number of overnight stays in all analysed countries, and show an evident direct impact of tourism on GDP. However, in some countries, an increase in the number of overnight stays does not increase energy consumption. These results indicate that some countries (Slovenia) have a more developed economy and therefore higher energy consumption, compared to some other countries (Croatia). This research provides reliable and actual qualitative and quantitative data about the problems of energy and tourism, as well as the overview of indicators in selected countries, demonstrating the cyclical relationship between tourism, economy, and energy.
Keywords: tourism, energy consumption, economic development, GDP
JUSTYNA MAJEWSKA, SZYMON TRUSKOLASKI: Spatial Agglomeration and Interrelation between KIS and Tourism: The Case of Poland
The aim of this research is twofold: (1) to identify clusters of tourism and of Knowledge Intensive Services (KIS) providers as inter-regional agglomerations, including the scope and strength of spillovers between Polish districts, and (2) to investigate the spatial relations between regional tourist development and kis providers’ localization. To measure inter-regional agglomeration phenomena, we apply spatial statistics of autocorrelation (local Moran’s Ii statistic): Local Indicators of Spatial Association (LISA). We also use contingency tables to study the relationship between tourism development and the localization of kis providers in Polish districts. We use data collected by the Polish Central Statistical Office for 2009 and 2015 in 380 Polish districts (firms registered in sections I and J of nace classification and the number of tourists staying overnight). We observe statistically significant spillover effects in tourism supply in both urbanization- and localization-type clusters as well as the convergence processes of agglomeration in urbanized regions in relation to tourism and kis clusters. Moreover, we find that mature tourism destinations are characterized by both low and high intensity of KIS, depending on the type of clusters (urbanized or localized). The highest percentage of districts with high growth in tourist development refers to the medium and high share of KIS providers. The results indicate a positive correlation between the share of KIS providers in districts’ economies and dynamic growing tourism destinations. They also emphasize the need for research on the role of KIS (including ICTS) at different stages of tourism development and enhancing regional innovativeness.
Keywords: Knowledge Intensive Services, tourism destinations, agglomeration, clusters, spillover effects, Polish districts
JANJA GABRUČ: Multi-Channel Funding of Social Tourism Programs: The Case of the Association of Friends of Youth
MARTIN FILI, DEJAN KRIŽAJ: Electronic Word of Mouth and Its Credibility in Tourism: The Case of Tripadvisor
ZORANA MEDARIĆ, JANJA GABRUČ, MATEJA SEDMAK: Social Tourism Benefits for Seniors
TINA OREL FRANK: Recent Research in the Field of the Interrelation of Foreign Languages and the Field of Tourism: Report from the 3rd International Conference Foreign Languages and Tourism
This paper presents the main Human Resources Management (hrm) distinctives for Portuguese hotel units.We attempt to understand the role of various hrm practices promoted on organizational performance and their effect on the behaviour of coworkers and quality service in hotel units; some reflections on the future trends in this field are offered. This phenomenon has a particular relevance in the Portuguese context, because this country is known to have had a growing tourism industry in recent years. However, little is known about hrm departments’ contributions to their Human capital management and development. This paper is one of the first to focus specifically on Portuguese hotel units and it also seeks to present findings that stem from the Human Resources Managers’ perspective. This paper is based on qualitative case studies; the data were collected through semi-structured interviews with 12 human resource managers from 12 hotel units located in Portugal. The results show that although there is not effective hrm, current hrm practices are sufficient to encourage pro-environmental behaviour in their staff, and they have a direct effect on customer satisfaction and competitiveness of the sector. However, managers recognize there is a need introduce some change in the short-term to promote the better performance of staff with effects on customer satisfaction and competitiveness of the sector in Portugal. According to these results, the paper discusses the major theoretical and practical implications for future research in the hrm field.
Keywords: human resources management practices, human capital, tourism, hotel industry, Portugal, exploratory study
VICKY KATSONI: An Investigation of the Tourism Distribution Channels in the VFR Segment
This study contributes to the understanding of the Visiting Friends and Relatives (vfr) travel segment, as it focuses on the use of tourism distribution channels as information sources for consumer travel behaviour in the vfr segment. Demographics and trip characteristics of the vfr travel segment were also analysed, according to trip organization (package holiday/self-guided holiday), time used to decide about the trip, type of accommodation, travel companion, and booking; the findings justify the significant and profitable role of vfr in commercial accommodation. The data are representative of the province of Arcadia, Greece, serving as the research field of a longitudinal study. The findings underscore the important role that vfr travel holds in commercial accommodation, confirming the ‘hybrid’ nature of vfr travel, and highlight the importance of social identity issues involved in vfr travel, as well as indicating an emerging role of the diasporas in their return visit(s) to the homeland. As such, the findings would seem to promote a marketing strategy of organized governance that takes into account identification and focuses on a ‘sense of belonging’ and community, tailored to the characteristics of this particular target market and aligned with the distribution channels they use, as evidenced in the research findings.
Keywords: VFR travel, consumer behaviour, distribution channels, tourism marketing, tourism segmentation
TANJA LEŠNIK ŠTUHEC, VID ŠTUHEC: Quality Systems for Tourism in Protected Areas and Their Application to the Pastures of Pohorje
The systematic integration of agricultural and tourism products and services from the pastures of Pohorje under the ‘From Pohorje’ brand ensures consistent quality in both a bottom-up and top-down manner. The stakeholders were involved in (i) three regional workshops, which involved analysis of the supply and demand for general products and services, as well as tourism products, in conjunction with Pohorje’s environmentally protected area; (ii) a fourth workshop for establishing supply chains and a marketing approach, and (iii) a fifth workshop for designing action plans for product providers in conjunction with Pohorje pastures. Guidelines have been developed within the ALPA project for ensuring quality and establishing supply chains and marketing for products, tourism services and tourism products in addition to 20 action plans for providers in conjunction with the Pohorje pastures. The pastures represent an excellent starting point for an eco-destination on Pohorje that offers unique experiences. The quality of all products and services must be comprehensively planned, implemented and evaluated. Promoting networking for integration and establishing organized supply chains can provide a critical mass of quality products from and experiences of the Pohorje pastures. Systematic, strategic and operative marketing of the destination ensures that products have a certain ‘homey’ feel, and are targeted at specific groups. Pohorje Vision 2030 offers an opportunity for developing sustainable management, in which the Pohorje destination acts in concert with the protected area. The public communication system and an efficient point of-sale network under the ‘From Pohorje’ trademark can convince stakeholders that investments in the pastures and activities related to them not only pay off but also have a significant multiplier effect.
Keywords: pastures, tourism products, quality system, vision pohorje 2030
VOJKO KALUŽA, ŠTEFAN BOJNEC: Human Capital and Organizational Climate in Travel Agencies
Human capital and organizational climate play a crucial role in performance in travel agencies. Therefore, this research has given great importance to the constructs for variables of the human capital and the organizational climate, focusing on the sub-samples of owners/managers/leaders, and other employees. In-depth survey interviews were conducted in January 2015. The study was intended to determine the relationship between human capital and organizational climate in travel agencies in Slovenia. According to the Standard Classification of Activities 2008 (skd, 2008) at the Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia, the principal activities of travel agencies are travel agency, tour operator, and other reservation service and related activities. The quantitative study is based on an analysis of questionnaires of 103 travel agencies and their offices: 336 respondents are categorized as owners/managers/leaders and other employees, which participated in the study.We concluded that a relationship exists between the human capital construct variables and the organizational climate construct. Amongst the variables of the human capital, the variable application of knowledge from personal experience is the most influential. It is in a relationship with all organizational climate variables except career development. In contrast, the most influenced variable amongst the organizational climate variables is leadership, which is in a relationship with six out of nine variables of human capital.
Keywords: human capital, organizational climate, travel agencies
ANITA SILVANA ILAK PERŠURIĆ, ANA TEŽAK DAMIJANIĆ: Tourists’ Attitudes towards Ecologically-Produced Food
The purchase and consumption of ecologically-produced food is on the rise in the food markets of Europe. Consumers are becoming more aware of their health and well-being and, therefore, consuming ecologically-produced foods and drinks is a reflection of becoming more conscious about one’s health and a lifestyle statement. The consumption of ecologically-produced food fosters healthier eating habits and a higher quality of life in comparison to consuming conventionally-produced food. Furthermore, such consumption relies on attitudes of responsibility towards ‘Mother Nature,’ connection to nature, saving the planet and protection of the environment. Therefore, such consumers are more socially responsible and conscious about the future of planet Earth. Regarding economic tourism, ecologically-produced food is seen as a part of what is on offer in terms of gastronomy. The availability and range of products from ecological production differs from destination to destination. In the Croatian case, ecologically-produced foods and beverages are quite a new trend. Istria as a destination leads these trends in terms of what is available, whereas they are scarce elsewhere. Therefore, in our research, we have attempted to validate the potential of ecologically-produced food on offer in tourist facilities in accordance with tourists’ preferences. With respect to the scientific project, ‘Valorisation of selective forms of tourism in the sustainable development of rural spaces,’ a survey was conducted with a sample of tourists with the intention of determining their interest in ecologically-produced food during their stay in Istria. We examined 1,028 questionnaires and determined that tourists have different attitudes toward ecologically produced food depending on the land of its origin and certain sociodemographic features.
Keywords: tourists, ecologically-produced food, Istria
MARIJA ROK, SONJA SIBILA LEBE: Enhancing Graduate Employability
The purpose of this paper is to deepen the understanding of the development of student employability competences and indicate possible solutions to improve the employability potentials of graduates in the case of a faculty of tourism. We carried out a cohort study on the competitiveness of students entering the labour market and desk research on the activities of the institution in this field. The research yielded areas of limited students’ competences and some deficiencies or challenges within the institution.
Keywords: employability, labour market, graduate, higher education, case study
ATHANASIOS KOUTRAS, ALKIVIADIS PANAGOPOULOS, IOANNIS A. NIKAS: Forecasting Tourism Demand Using Linear and Nonlinear Prediction Models
In this paper, we propose and evaluate linear and nonlinear prediction models based on Artificial Neural Networks (ann) for tourism demand in the accommodation industry. For efficient forecasting, the Multilayer Perceptron (mlp), Support Vector Regression (svr) and Linear Regression (lr) methods that utilize two different feature sets for training have been used. The major contribution of the proposed models is focused mainly on better forecasting accuracy and lower cost effort. The relative accuracy of the Multilayer Perceptron (mlp) and Support Vector Regression (svr) in tourism occupancy data is investigated and compared to simple Linear Regression (lr) models. The relative performance of the mlp and svr models are also compared to each other. Data collected over a period of eight years (2005–2012) showing tourism occupancy and the number of overnight stays in the hotels of the Western Region of Greece is used. Extensive experiments have shown that for time series describing a subset of the number of overnight stays, the svr regressor with the rbf kernel (svr-rbf), as well as simple lr models, and the mlp regressor for occupancy time series respectively, outperform other forecasting models, when tested for a wide range of forecast horizons (1–24 months) and present very small and stable prediction errors.
Keywords: support vector regression, multilayer perceptron, artificial neural networks, tourism demand forecasting, forecasting model, time-series
ZDENKO CEROVIĆ, IVANA IVANČIĆ: Issues Facing Faith-Motivated Tourism Expenditure
Religious tourism is becoming a significant part of general tourist fluctuations. It is expected that this type of tourism will only grow due to developing trends in tourist motivation. In contrast to the increase of tourist flow in faith-motivated tourism is the fact that expenditure in this sector is very low. Considering the importance of religious tourism, the aim of this paper is to detect problems and questions related to faith-motivated tourism expenditure. By analysing these problems and questions, potential solutions and responses can be provided. This paper will use the example of the City of Rijeka to investigate faith-motivated tourism expenditure as well as tourist expenditures not primarily motivated by faith; as well as attempt to find the weakest link in tourism expenditure by means of statistical analysis. The results will clearly show that tourism expenditure is fairly low, espe-o cially with regards to faith-motivated tourist expenses; these findings will be used to create a model for a positive increase in faith-motivated tourism expenditure.
Keywords: religious tourism, tourism expenditure, issues, Rijeka
MARKO KUKANJA: Restaurant Quality Measurement Based on Marketing Factors – The Managers’ Perspective
The importance of quality has been recognized in most service industries, as it generates revenues and has a strong impact on customer behaviour. The measurement of restaurant service quality has attracted increasing attention from hospitality researchers since the implementation of the Conceptual Model of Service Quality and the SERVQUAL instrument in the mid-1980s. As a fairly new topic, it requires frequent and critical monitoring that would shed light on current research and make needed adjustments regarding the methodological research process and inquiry focus. Previous studies have highlighted the importance of several quality factors in guests’ assessment of restaurant quality. However, to date no study has examined the marketing perspective (7P) of service quality. Because there is no consensus in the scientific literature regarding which marketing quality factors matter in assessing the quality of the dining experience, this paper describes and tests the development of a marketing-oriented Restaurant Quality Model. Food quality often seems to be accepted as the fundamental component in determining the quality of the dining experience; however, several studies have identified that other quality dimensions are also important in delivering quality. Special attention was therefore devoted to a marketing perspective and the restaurant managers’ perception of what customers expect from a quality service, because managers’ perceptions can represent a major gap in delivering quality service, according to the literature (Parasuraman, Zeithaml, & Berry, 1985). A sample of 207 valid questionnaires obtained from managers of different restaurant facilities in Slovenia is analysed. The results show that according to managers the most important marketing quality dimensions for ensuring restaurant quality are 1) people, 2) promotion, placement and price, and 3) product (food), while other marketing factors are not statistically significant in determining restaurant quality. Research results also reveal that the results of numerous studies are mutually inconsistent and contradictory. This research has raised many questions in need of further investigation. It is suggested that future research focus on the analysis of the gap between consumers’ expectations and management’s perceptions.
Keywords: Restaurant quality, service quality management, F&B management, marketing mix, Slovenia
ALEKSANDAR RADIĆ: Crisis Management in Cruise Tourism: A Case Study of Dubrovnik
Purpose – The main purpose of this research was to investigate the existence of crisis management within Dubrovnik stakeholders of cruise tourism. Design/Methods/Approach – In this paper, the author decided to use two paradigms: pragmatism and positivism, which are usually followed by quantitative techniques of data collection. A structured questionnaire enabled the author to collect quantitative data that were processed by descriptive statistics. Findings/ Practical implications – From this research we have determined that most of the Dubrovnik stakeholders of cruise tourism do not have a developed system of crisis management and have not developed leadership in crisis management either. Taking into account the information that we obtained in this study, the author’s opinion is that it is necessary to offer a strategic framework of leadership in crisis management that could be used by small and medium-sized cruise tourism stakeholders in Dubrovnik. Research limitations – The main limitations of this research paper were that only one cruise company was interviewed and that the author of this research paper was not able to verify whether there was indeed a crisis management strategy in the organizations that claimed to have one. Originality/value – This article depicts current trends in crisis management among Dubrovnik stakeholders of cruise tourism and offers a strategic framework for leadership in crisis management that could be used by small and medium Dubrovnik stakeholders of cruise tourism.
Keywords: Cruise tourism in Dubrovnik, Crisis management, Crisis leadership
JAN ORŠIČ, BLAŽ BREGAR: Relevance of the World Economic Forum Tourism Competitiveness Index for International Association Events: The Case of New EU Member States
This paper focuses on the most lucrative type of tourism: business tourism, particularly association events and the effects of specific factors on the process of selecting destinations for these events. The research is based on various statistics to comprehensively establish a connection between association events and the international competitiveness of 13 countries that joined the EU in or after 2004. Even though they all vary in size, development and geographic location within Europe, the results show that the countries’ economies and association events have a strong connection and that positive influences of this segment of tourism can be felt throughout the destinations.
Keywords: Association events, international competitiveness, destination marketing organisations, new Europe
JAN ORŠIČ, BLAŽ BREGAR: Relevance of the World Economic Forum Tourism Competitiveness Index for International Association Events: The Case of New EU Member States
This paper focuses on the most lucrative type of tourism: business tourism, particularly association events and the effects of specific factors on the process of selecting destinations for these events. The research is based on various statistics to comprehensively establish a connection between association events and the international competitiveness of 13 countries that joined the EU in or after 2004. Even though they all vary in size, development and geographic location within Europe, the results show that the countries’ economies and association events have a strong connection and that positive influences of this segment of tourism can be felt throughout the destinations.
Keywords: Association events, international competitiveness, destination marketing organisations, new Europe
JANEZ MEKINC, POLONA MÜLLER, MARIANA REBERNIK: An Integrated Approach to the Development of Tivoli Park Competitiveness
The purpose of this research is to analyse the facilities and services of Tivoli Park, its cultural heritage, and natural endowments. Using a quantitative method with structured interviews, 120 interviews with park visitors, who were also residents of the city of Ljubljana, were carried out. The findings suggest that the park has many elements that are not part of the integrated services of the park and, as such, appeal to a very broad range of visitors. Tivoli Park has two aspects: sports and recreation, and culture and nature. New development should include promenade concerts, performances by small vocal and musical groups, and art and photography workshops. Events and thematic trails should reflect new landscape design trends. One of the most significant challenges is the integration of communication technologies and sustainable park development. All stakeholders, cooperating in an interdisciplinary approach, should create a comprehensive Tivoli Park landscape park management plan.
Keywords: tourism, park, sustainable development, cultural heritage, protected area
TADEJA JERE JAKULIN: Systems Thinking on Complex Tourism Systems
The complexity of tourism systems requires holistic and accurate decision-making. Systems thinking became a mode of thinking in the last century; it is a point of view that approaches tourism and its challenges as a whole. Through systems methodology, methods of modeling and simulation, we present a survey of tourism systems as a very important branch of welfare through feedback loops and a simulation model. Such a model usually consists of a causal loop diagram. Simulation becomes a multidisciplinary approach to solving problems of complex systems. This paper demonstrates that simulation results are evaluated with the group decision-making support system and with expert systems. Conclusions derived from a model understanding and model simulation give optimal results to the decision-makers. Thus, systems thinking principles lead towards thinking of cooperation and co-creation in tourism and life in general.
Keywords: systems thinking, tourism, complex systems, MODSIM, modelling, simulation
DEJAN KRIŽAJ, EVA HORVAT: Assessing Innovation Potential in Slovene Culinary Events
Due to the general scarcity of tourism innovation statistics and information sources in tourism, this analysis focuses on different types of successful micro-tourism organizations and employs case study methodology to study innovation potential in Slovene culinary events. After analysing current culinary and innovation research trends, four events web pages and their media coverage were analysed through a case study approach using qualitative content analysis. Three innovation attribute groups were formed, totalling 23 descriptors of innovation-related activities of the organizers and the events. In the results section, all the attributes are described for each studied case. The discussion section identifies common characteristics, particularities, and implications designated in relation to the innovation potentials of culinary events in Slovenia and in general.
Keywords: tourism innovation, culinary events, national tourism promotion
MARKO KUKANJA, TANJA PLANINC: Restaurant Quality: A Cross-National Comparison between two Neighbouring North Mediterranean Tourist Destinations – Portorož and Opatija: Domestic Customers’ Perspective
The purpose of this paper is to investigate similarities and differences in the perceived quality on the part of domestic customers’ in restaurants in Opatija (Croatia) and Portorož (Slovenia). Opatija and Portorož have a long common history, as they were important Austro-Hungarian and former Yugoslav North Mediterranean tourist destinations. These neighbouring and competitive tourist destinations now belong to two different European states: Slovenia and Croatia. In accordance with a previously conducted research in Opatija, research based on the same methodology was repeated in Piran. The Slovene and Croat sampling frames consisted of 156 valid questionnaires in each destination. Domestic customers that had eaten in restaurants were used as respondents. Exploratory factor analysis was conducted to determine quality attributes that best explain customers’ quality expectations and perceptions in both destinations. The study identified six attributes that best explain customers’ expectations regarding service quality. Surprisingly, the research findings show similar (almost identical) crucial attributes in both destinations, as well as a negative quality gap, which results in poor and insufficient restaurant service quality. Restaurant managers should, therefore, emphasize the importance of identifying customers’ expectations that significantly determine their business success and constantly measure their quality performance. This study is of great interest to managers, as its results may be implemented in restaurant and destination quality strategies. It would be of interest to see if similarities exist among other destinations that are decidedly different from those in Slovenia and Croatia.
Keywords: Domestic customers, restaurant industry, service quality, DINESERV, Opatija, Portorož
MITJA PETELIN, MIHA LESJAK: PageRank Grade Evaluation of Independent Slovenian Restaurant Websites
When considering Slovenian independent restaurants, whether they understand the importance of their websites must be determined. A neglected marketing strategy, a restaurant website, in this case, is a path towards disconnection with customers and means lost profits. The authors of this paper decided to perform a simple evaluation of how good their websites are in terms of the PageRank al-i gorithm, which defines search engine page results. Using the PageRank checker, comparison among best gourmet restaurants 2013 of the city of Ljubljana in Slovegnia (according to the ‘In Your Pocket’ city guide) was made. Low grades reveal a lack of investment in the field of search engine optimization.
Keywords: Evaluation, Website, Independent Slovenian restaurant, PageRank
ALEKSANDRA BREZOVEC: Re-imagining Heritage Interpretation
DORIS GOMEZELJ OMERZEL: The Tourism Industry Competitiveness And Innovativeness Indices– A Comparative Study
The aim of this paper is to compare five tourism destinations: Slovenia and its four neighbouring countries (Italy, Austria, Hungary and Croatia). The travel and tourism industry is growing throughout the world and is a vital component of many countries’ economies. However, each country’s government tourism strategies and organisations of its tourism industry are distinct. This paper presents some statistics for these destinations and analyses the role of tourism in the countries’ economy. It also presents the preliminary results of broader research in the area of innovativeness in tourism. Contrasts and similarities at the national level are highlighted.
Keywords: tourism, competitiveness, innovativeness, comparative study
VICKY KATSONI: ICT Applications in the Hotel Industry Through an e-CRM Systems Theory Approach
As the investment in and adoption of Information and Communications Technology (ICT) has become an indispensable component of the tourism and hospitality business sector, researchers increasingly seek to understand and communicate the significance of the new technologies, to investigate and interpret developments in ICTs, and to attempt to forecast the way ahead for both industry and technological development. This paper explores areas of ICT literacy and e-CRM (Electronic Customer Relationship Management) in the hotel industry, and draws attention to the need to support and promote ICT through an e-CRM systems theory approach in all the departments in the hotel sector, as the most effective tool for an effective marketing management policy for the ultimate goal of providing a holistic and coherent message towards tourists. It asserts that a collaborative marketing management network of information flows between businesses through ICT and e-CRM use should be vigorously developed in the hotel industry, as it enables the formation of cooperation in new, efficient ways to access unique or innovative resources. The whole approach should be based on trust and a business culture that values cooperation and ongoing dialogue between different hotel departments and the external business environment.
Keywords: ICTs, tourism, hotel industry, e-CRM
SABRINA FRANCESCONI: Multimodal Creativity in (Anti)Tourism Texts
This paper argues and seeks to demonstrate that the tourist-travel dichotomy traces a debatable and contestable discursive space, often articulated via anti-tourism stances. This notion is epitomized in innovative and creative multimodal domain-specific texts, whose generic configurations transcend traditional boundaries and question stable and rigid conceptual and generic distinctions. Such instances consistently occupy an increasingly hybrid, blurred and opaque contact zone, which needs to be explored with a relevant and appropriate methodology. Acknowledging the crucial role of multimodality in processes of genre change and innovation, the feasibility of multimodal analysis for tourism-travel text examination is here claimed. Hence, the meaning-making contact and interaction of different modes and modal resources will be inspected in three creative instances,: a static poster, a dynamic digital travel diary and a website. All texts have been chosen as they provide evidence of multimodally projected creative (anti)tourism discourse. The following questions will be raised. Which modes and modal resources are deployed in the multimodal ensembles? How do they interact? Which meanings do they express? Albeit differently in terms of syntagmatic and paradigmatic configurations, the three texts multimodally project an (anti)tourism discourse with ultimate tourist purposes, inviting viewers to visit the destination or to book the accommodation option.
Keywords: multimodality, meaning-making, creativity, (anti)tourism texts
GYÖNGYI PÁSZTOR, IZABELLA BUZOGÁNY: The Reinvention of Architectural Tradition: The Case of a Transylvanian Saxon Community
The average Transylvanian Saxon village is a forgotten one. Having lost their Saxon populations, most of them have disappeared from the tourist map. However, there are a few successful cases where specific local features and German identity have been rediscovered, and the architectural heritage is well-marketed as a backbone for new, post-modern forms of tourism. An iconic case is that of Viscri (Weisskirch/Szászfehéregyháza), a globally famous site, due to the efforts of the Prince of Wales. The village is proud to have a UNESCO-listed fortified church built in the 13th century, along with dozens of local Saxon peasant houses and guild mansions (some of which now belong to Prince Charles of Wales). All these and the history built around the heritage of stone combined with the natural environment makes Viscri a very attractive rural tourist venue. This study focuses on the role of architectural heritage in the development of local tourism, based on the practice of reinventing traditions. Thanks to tourism, not only have several guesthouses been started, old types of craftsmanship have reappeared, and the social ties between the Roma and ethnic Romanian populations have even been tightened, but some abandoned – otherwise valuable – houses have been renovated and connected to the branded housing stock.
Keywords: tourism, architectural heritage, story, Saxon village, Transylvania, history
MIRJANA KOVAČIĆ, MIHA MARKELJ, ALEN JUGOVIĆ: Cultural and Historical Resources as a Factorfor the Development of Sustainable Tourism:A Case Study of Lighthouses in the Northern Adriatic
Lighthouses are distinct cultural landmarks and have a fundamental role in maritime safety, but it is rare to see them used as tourist attractions anywhere in the world. Tourism on the Adriatic coast is predominantly based upon the concept of sun, sea and sand. In order to diversify the already existing products and attractions, selective forms of tourism have to be taken into consideration. The purpose of this research is to present a new form of selective tourism that is based on the integration of lighthouses in the tourism sector. The paper will thus analyse lighthouses in Croatia that have been included in the »Stone Lights« project to determine whether their cultural and historical value has become devalued because of their integration into tourism services. Additionally, the research will examine the possibility of implementing the project with similar lighthouses in Slovenia and Italy.
Keywords: tourism, selective tourism forms, cultural and historical resources, lighthouses, Croatia, Italy and Slovenia
KATARINA MUŠIČ, JANEZ MEKINC, HELENA CVIKL: An Analysis of Tourist and Passenger Vessel Accidents in the Slovenian Sea
Tourism is acutely dependent on safety, as it is one of the most important competitive advantages; this is true for nautical tourism and tourist transportation on tourist and passenger vessels. This paper presents the first comprehensive analysis of tourist and passenger vessel accidents in the Slovenian Sea for the period from 2007 to 2011, using data provided by the Maritime Administration of the Republic of Slovenia. On the basis of statistical data, we analysed the relationship between the number of vessels and the number of accidents; the causes and number of accidents, and the distribution of accidents, according to months and years. The research problem was devised to reveal the causes and common characteristics of tourist and passenger vessel accidents, thus enabling the creation of proposals for measures to reduce them. This paper presents a historical overview of the worst maritime accidents, their causes, and their consequences. Equally important is establishing the research problem, the international regulations, and the fundamental elements of the legal basis for the provision of maritime safety in Slovenia. The analysed results show that there are relatively few maritime accidents involving tourist and passenger vessels; the usual reasons for the accident were avoiding other vessels and docking in port, the consequence of human error, and strong tramontana winds, as natural causes. The methodology for monitoring and recording statistical information about accidents including tourist and passenger vessels is inadequate, and urgent improvements are required for an in-depth analysis.
Keywords: safety, Slovenian Sea, vessels, maritime accidents, tourism, nautical
IZTOK BONČINA: A Review of Space Tourism Research
Since 2001, when the first tourist flew to the International Space Station and then six others after him, space tourism can be considered a reality. Although space tourism remains in its pioneering stage, it has been attracting research studies since the beginning of the 1990s. As a relatively new tourism industry, it is opening up new aspects of research in the fields of technology, economics, sociology, law, medicine, safety, insurance, and others. The purpose of this paper is a comprehensive review of the research areas of space tourism. The available scientific articles, books, contributions to scientific conferences, symposia and workshops dealing with space tourism have been reviewed. Following careful analysis, we have identified the most important space tourism research trends, as well as the scientists who have contributed the largest number of publications. We have also recognized the under-represented areas that would be suitable for further studies.
Keywords: space; tourism; flights; orbit; literature
DORIS GOMEZELJ OMERZEL: Entrepreneurial and Customer Orientation as Predictors of Innovativeness in Tourism Firms
Entrepreneurial orientation and customer orientation are two separate yet complementary strategic orientations that influence the innovation activities of firms. Empirical studies have separately analysed the dimensions of entrepreneurial orientation and customer orientation in relation to firm-level innovation activities. Scholars have focused to the relationship between customer orientation, entrepreneurship orientation and innovativeness in different organizations, but only a few such studies exist in the tourism sector. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a preliminary study of the field of innovation in tourism. Entrepreneurial orientation and customer orientation as predictors of innovativeness in tourism firms are introduced, and the results and findings of the analysis and some perspectives on tourism innovation are presented.
Keywords: tourism, innovation, entrepreneurial orientation
GORAZD SEDMAK, TINA KOCIPER: Factors Influencing Travel Package Prices
The aim of this paper is to define the factors influencing travel package prices offered by Slovenian tour operators and the impact of each factor. A hedonic pricing model for package travels offered on the Internet was developed, and implicit prices of different package features were estimated via the employment of hedonic regression. Previously, similar research was done only for restricted geographical areas, using data obtained from tour operators’ brochures. In the present research, the model was built on the basis of web-accessible information, while different travel destinations throughout the world were taken into consideration. The type of destination and its character were determined to influence package travel pricing. The results also highlight that those packages bearing more cultural experience potential can be sold at higher prices.
Keywords: hedonic price theory, web offered travel, regression analysis, Slovenia
ANTON GOSAR: Trends and Recent Development of Tourism in Istria
Prior to the fall of the Iron Curtain, the Northern Adriatic, a space then shared by Yugoslavia and Italy, made headlines in European geopolitics and economy due to the new nation-states’ border issues. In the post-WW2 era, it sparked conflicts followed by co-operation between communist and democratic societies, became the chief economic gateway of East-Central Europe through the large inland ports (Trieste, Koper, Rijeka), and became a major Mediterranean tourist destination with numerous resorts. It was simultaneously a manufacturing site, trans-shipment area and tourist destination. In the second half of the 20th century, the growth of tourism set new goals for the region. Instead of competition and rivalry, complementarities, and natural and cultural protection on regional and nation-state levels were sought. In this paper, the structure and problems of tourism development in selected areas of the Northern Adriatic region, in particular the Istrian Peninsula, driven by market economy forces, will be discussed. Istria has a long history as a desired leisure destination. In the 19th and the early 20th centuries, nobility and intellectuals became acquainted with the geography of the peninsula, its Austrian and Venetian heritage, and its multi-national Romance, Slavic and Germanic environments. At the dawn of the 21st century, the development of tourism, tourist visits, and their impact on societies and cultural landscapes can be compared to those Costa Brava and other tourist areas of the Mediterranean.
Keywords: Istria, Adriatic Sea, Slovenia, Croatia, Italy, History of Tourism, Tourism Development, Tourism Strategies
MIHA LESJAK, EVA PODOVŠOVNIK AXELSSON, MAJA URAN: The Perceived Social Impacts of the EuroBasket 2013 on Koper Residents
Major sporting events cause many socio-cultural impacts (positive and negative) that go beyond the scope of events and, consequently, affect a variety of aspects of relations of the local community (Cornelissen & Swart, 2006). This study analysed Koper residents’ perceptions of socio-cultural impacts on the biggest European sporting event in 2013, EuroBasket 2013. A total of 746 responses were collected, the results of which showed that respondents highly ranked positive cultural impacts, such as exchanges between tourists and residents, opportunities to learn about other cultures and better understanding of other nationalities. Negative social impacts caused by major sporting event, such us crime, vandalism and prostitution were ranked low by the respondents. In contrast, respondents identified traffic congestion and parking issues as highly ranked adverse social impacts caused by EuroBasket 2013. Additionally, the extent to which the socio-demographic characteristics of respondents, such as the length of residence in town, living close to the centre of the event, the sport-activity of residents, gender, economic status, education and age, may affect residents’ perceptions was also investigated. Based on the results, a future investigation on sport active residents as potential spectators and users of sport infrastructure is recommended. This study will also contribute to filling the research gap and allow further understanding of the nature of socio-cultural impacts caused by specific events and specific host destinations.
Keywords: socio-cultural impacts; major sporting events; EuroBasket 2013; local residents
TINA OREL FRANK: Neologisms in the Language of Tourism as Indicators of Innovativeness in Tourism
This paper is meant to highlight the often neglected connection between language and tourism. Languages reflect realities and, as such, they can be considered one of the strongest tools and an important indicator of human development and hence the development of tourism. In a journal dealing with innovations in tourism, we endeavour to achieve two objectives: firstly, to introduce lexical and terminological neologisms (roughly defined as new expressions) connected with tourism: these language structures obviously indicate paths of tourism development; and secondly, to alert the actors in tourism of new terminology. An era of robust globalization has put focus on researching the English language. The theoretical part of the paper sheds light on definitions of neologisms and the methods of their extraction, as well as touching upon the specifics of the language of tourism, while the practical section offers a selection of neologisms showing current path of tourism development. A semi-automatic method of neologism extraction was used to complete the list from different resources chosen according to the definitions of neologisms and characteristics of the language of tourism. This paper also attempts to highlight currently discussed sub-disciplines of tourism. For this purpose, we have additionally investigated the abstracts of one of the leading tourism journals, Annals of Tourism Research, and a journal dealing with innovations in tourism, Academica Turistica, Tourism Innovation Journal.
Keywords: language of tourism, tourism innovations, neologisms
TATJANA PIVAC, IVANA BLEŠIĆ, IGOR STAMENKOVIĆ, SNEŽANA BESERMENJI, JASMINA ĐORĐEVIĆ, MIHA LESJAK: Synergy of Culture and Tourism: Cultural Events as a Part of Cultural Tourism in Less-favoured Rural Regions. Case study: Vojvodina Province (Serbia)
Festivals are considered to contribute significantly to cultural and economic development. The Vojvodina province is a multi-ethnic area with traditional folklore and a variety of cuisines, from which numerous and various events of economic and entertainment content have emerged. The main subject of this paper is an assessment of how event tourism can affect rural development. How much does a rural event affect host communities? Can a small-scale event that takes place to a rural environment play a significant role to the socio-economic development of the region? The authors of this research have highlighted the 10 most significant cultural events. The research objective is to determine the attitudes of the local population with regard to the organization, realization and economic importance of cultural events.
Keywords: synergy, cultural events, local population, attitudes, rural region, Vojvodina province
JANJA GABRUČ: Social Tourism: Tourism Students’ Perception of the Phenomenon
The purpose of this paper is a presentation of the phenomenon of social tourism; its definition, different interpretations and models are presented; social tourism beneficiaries and the positions of social tourism in different societies, socio-economic impacts and benefits that social tourism brings for individuals and society are also revealed. An empirical study of tourism students’ perception towards social tourism was conducted in order to understand whether their understanding and attitudes toward the phenomenon change through educational intervention. The objective of the study was to identify whether a short educational course could influence tourism students’ perception and attitudes toward the social tourism phenomenon. In our experiment, although a better understanding of the non-commercial character of social tourism and its social goals and aims was indicated after the short educational course, students still displayed a prevailing orientation towards the business aspects of social tourism. From the tourism students’ perspective, social tourism is primarily perceived as a promising market niche and opportunity for future tourism development.
Keywords: social tourism, tourism education, perception/attitude change
SIMON KERMA, BARBARA LAMPIČ, DANE PODMENIK: Tourism as a Supplementary Activity on Organic Farms in the Primorska Region, Slovenia
The paper deals with tourism as a supplementary activity on organic farms in the Primorska region, in Slovenia. In the region, at the end of 2013, there were 99 organic farms with different types of supplementary activities, 44 of which had formally registered at least one form of tourist services. We analysed 27 organic farms by using a qualitative approach (structured interviews with the owners, content analysis of the brochures and relevant websites of the identified organic farms). In the research, we primarily focused on tourism supply, marketing and promotion analysis together with the plans for farm tourism. The aim of the research was to estimate farms’ contribution to sustainable regional development. Findings show that the supply of tourism services on organic farms in the Primorska region is highly diverse, and that the owners are mostly satisfied with tourist visits and outcomes of the farm. While tourism on organic farms in the northern (pre-Alpine) part of the region is relatively well developed, the southern part shows a different picture, with low numbers of such farms. One of the main findings is the detection of a high correlation and synergetic relationship between farm tourism and organic farming, which results in significant benefits for both activities. Developing tourism on organic farms has consequently (despite some obstacles and disadvantages) good regional potentials in the future.
Keywords: farm tourism, organic farming, ecotourism, development opportunities for rural regions, the Primorska region, Slovenia
ALEXEY KONDRASHOV, ONDŘEJ ŠIMA: Tourism as an International Trade Category: Evidence from the European Union
The tourism industry is expanding globally, and currently represents the third largest sector of the EU economy. However, tourism as a category of international trade has mostly remained unstudied. This study meets that need and has fulfilled the following objectives: to assess the contribution of the tourism sector to GDP in the EU member states and its relevance in international trade, and to verify the applicability of theoretical concepts of international trade to the tourism sector. This study has revealed that the share of tourism in country’s GDP and exports is related to the existence of comparative advantages. In the context of Ricardian and Heckscher-Ohlin models, it has been shown that comparative advantages and factor endowments are key determinants of international trade, as the exports and imports of travel reflect them. Moreover, it has been determined that geographic location is also an important contributor to a nation’s comparative advantages. These results can provide a new insight into tourism as an important export industry for individual European economies. The original contribution of this paper is that it provides a complex overview of the contribution of international tourism to the EU economies, and it extends the empirical literature in verifications of the applicability the classic theories of international trade to the EU tourism sector.
Keywords: tourism, GDP, EU, international trade, BoP, comparative advantage, Balassa index
NATAŠA ARTIČ: Influences on and Effects of the Innovation Processes in the Hotel Industry– Literature Review 2008–2013
Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to identify current research in the literature regarding different influences on and the effects of the innovation process in the hotel industry in the previous five years and to analyse data on the basics of research questions. Methods – The method applied in the paper applied is the “systematic literature review” of a limited time frame (the previous five years) in the field of innovation in the hospitality industry. Results – This paper improves knowledge of the influences and effects of innovation in the hotel industry in general (presentation in Figure 1); it presents the latest influences on and the effects of the innovation process from literature (presentation of literature review in the Table 1) and it gives particular attention to special approaches (such as open innovation) regarding upcoming trends in innovation activities in the hotel industry. Conclusion – A survey of different research examples of innovation processes in the hotel industry will show different approaches to innovation through different influences and effects. The findings add to the knowledge of hospitality innovation; supported with the effects, they show potential for the company’s performance. The survey also provides information about open innovation to the hotel industry as a future trend in hotel innovation processes. Further research is needed regarding the development of open innovation in the hospitality industry, as the financial pressures in hotels increase and the search for an innovative and sustainable influences or effects on companies’ performance will continue. The originality of this paper is in its systematic literature review of the previous five years.
Keywords: innovation, open innovation, hotel industry, influence, effect
REBEKA TOMŠIČ, DEJAN KRIŽAJ: A Method for Evaluation of Innovations Introduced in Slovenian Tourism: 2010–2012 Period
This paper outlines several innovation concepts as the basis for understanding the contextual and methodological processes involved in the research of innovativeness levels in the tourism industry. It examines the possibilities of analysing and introducing innovations in the tourism industry from a national perspective. The paper analyses existing methods used to analyse the level of innovativeness while searching for the efficient and rapid approach to measure the newness and impact levels of introduced innovations. For this purpose, a straightforward method was developed as an upgrade to the existing thorough research approach. The results were used to analyse Slovene tourism innovation in the 2010–2012 period at the national level and to demonstrate the relevance of the proposed method in estimated the innovativeness levels of the introduced innovations.
Keywords: innovativeness; level; measuring; researches; methodology
ZDRAVKO ŠERGO, ANITA SILVANA ILAK PERŠURIĆ, IVAN MATOŠEVIĆ: The Influence of Tourism on Deforestationand Biodiversity
Sustainable use of space is often influenced by human activities causing adverse effects on biodiversity. Human impact on land and its natural reserves is very obvious in the case of forests. International tourism as an income-generating human activity also affects biodiversity and forests. Therefore, this paper analyses international tourism arrivals as a factor influencing deforestation in a global framework. The Mankiw, Romer and Weil (1992) growth model is applied to estimate the rate of deforestation, using the rate of change of tourism arrivals, economic growth rate, and population growth rate. Descriptive and inferential analysis was used to explain the various cross-national data used in this paper.
Keywords: deforestation, convergence, real GDP per capita
MARIJA ROK: Students’ Communication with Employers:The Competitiveness and Employability Perspective
Purpose – This paper discusses the topic of the competitiveness of tourism and hospitality students on the job market. As the current economic recession continues, the tourism and hospitality industry (THI) in Slovenia faces an alarming decrease in revenue, and the employment crisis is expected to worsen. Higher education institutions (HEI) are concerned with the future of their graduates and, therefore, have to equip them with relevant skills, knowledge and attitudes, as well as raise their awareness of the importance of lifelong learning, i.e. formal, non-formal and experiential learning. Methods – Our discussion focuses on students in the second and third years of their studies at the faculty of tourism. The survey evaluates data regarding the amount and the quality of their competencies as well as their job marketability in order to assess their future competitiveness on the job market. Findings – The results indicate that students need to improve their competitive edge by striving to reach a higher level of competencies and to increase their competitive spirit so as to enhance their future opportunities on the job market. Originality of the research – Thus far, little research has been devoted to assessing students’ performances in increasing their competitiveness before graduation. This paper aims to provide a feedback tool for both students and the faculty about students’ achievements and their awareness of the importance of competence development as well as the ability to demonstrate and present their competencies to employers in the THI.
Keywords: tourism and hospitality industry, higher education, employability, competence, competitiveness
MIHA KODERMAN: Spatial Analysis of Second Homes in the Municipality of Piran
This paper examines the phenomenon of second homes in the municipality of Piran and analyses their role and position in the area. Since the 1970s, intense construction of second home units has been one of the main causes of the transformation in the morphology of several settlements in the municipality. The author spatially analyses the registered second homes in the area and presents selected characteristics of this type of housing stock (location, age and intensity of the phenomenon) on detailed scale maps. The analysed data were obtained from the statistical censuses, the Real Estate Registry of the Surveying and Mapping Authority of the Republic of Slovenia, and the Municipality of Piran.
Keywords: Slovenia, second homes, the municipality of Piran, spatial distribution, regional origins of the owners of second homes
TINA KOCIPER, PREDRAG LJUBOTINA, JAKA VADNJAL: Entrepreneurial Characteristics and Aspirations Influencing Career Choice in Tourism Family Businesses
Family background often influences a person’s career choice. The purpose of this study is to examine whether students originating from family businesses in the tourism sector have different entrepreneurial characteristics and aspirations than students coming from family businesses in other sectors. The underlying assumption was that tourism students who come from tourism family businesses may, due to the specific nature of their business, be influenced in a different way regarding Bandura’s four behavior factors: locus of control1, self-efficacy, independence and innovation. A balanced sample of 221 respondents surveyed was analyzed utilizing multi-nominal multivariate regression in order to distinguish three possible career path options: family business succession, founding one’s own business, or becoming a hired employee. The main finding is that there is a difference between the two groups in the inter-nal locus of control perception. Tourism students express lower levels of start-up intent generated by the internal locus of control. They may find it difficult to believe that an internal locus of control is possible in the tourism business. Through this parameter, tourism students express a lack of self-confidence. Students raised in a family business environment are affected by the parent’s absence due to business matters. It can be argued that an offspring from families in the tourism business may be more exposed to this effect during their adolescence, which could explain the differences. The main implication is that there is a broader impact of family business background on individuals’ entrepreneurial character, including the specifics coming from the nature of the tourism business; therefore more attentention should be paid to this issue in the further research in entrepreneurship in tourism.
Keywords: Entrepreneurial characteristics, entrepreneurial aspirations, family business, tourism, start-up, succession
IRENA WEBER: Dialoguing Children’s Travel: Chronotopes, Narratives and Guides
While there has been a growing level of quality research in the field of childhood studies both in the social sciences and humanities since the 1990s, there seems to be a remarkable gap in the topic of children and travel/tourism research. The paper aims to address the gap, in a limited way, by analysing the spatial and temporal dimensions of children’s travel in literature and specialized travel guides, relying on two chosen concepts: Bakhtin’s chronotopes, and the ancient Greek concept of kairos, interpreted by contemporary philosophy. The methodology used combines auto-ethnography, narrative and qualitative visual analysis.
Keywords: children’s travel;chronotopes;Kairos;narratives;travel guides
HELENA NEMEC RUDEŽ: Characteristics and Motivations of Wellness Visitors
This paper aims to explore wellness visitors in Portorož with regards to their socio-demographic characteristics and to identify their push motivators and activities carried out by them. Design/methodology/approach – A survey with structured questions was collected from 246 visitors to Portorož during the low season; 77 of them were identified as wellness visitors, and they were considered for further analysis on wellness visitors. Data were collected across several locations in Portorož. Descriptive statistics is used in empirical research. Findings – Wellness visitors to Portorož are mostly older, employed, and regular visitors to Portorož. They mostly desire to get fit and relax. Of particular interest is that wellness visitors in Portorož are mostly engaged in passive activities and activities offered in the hotel facilities. Originality – The paper provides an initial step in understanding wellness visitors in Portorož better and, therefore, contributes to the existing sparse literature on wellness tourism by adding the case of a Mediterranean destination during the low season.
Keywords: wellness;survey;wellness visitors;characteristics;motivations
PETRA ZABUKOVEC BARUCA, ALEKSANDRA BREZOVEC: The Responses of Responsible Tourists: Limitations
This article is based on the concept of responsibility in tourism from the perspective of the tourist. The aim of this paper is the consideration of the question of the suitability of responsible consumer behaviour, which is gaining in importance in the context of sustainable tourism development. Modern forms of responsibility in tourism (e.g. sustainable tourism, ethical tourism, eco-tourism, green tourism) have emerged as responses of tourism stakeholders in global economic, social and environmental issues since the turn of the millennium Such forms of tourism coming to the fore are taking responsibility for the impacts that tourism has on the social, economic and natural environments (Goodwin & Pender, 2005). Changes have always been an intrinsic part of human evolution, and in the modern world changes occur ever more rapidly. The tourist is the key actor in the network of tourism. This conceptual paper is based on an overview of scientific literature and a comparison between various concepts derived from empirical studies of responsible consumer behaviour.
Keywords: tourist;responsibility;prosocial consumer;consumer behaviour;sustainable tourism
ŽANA ČIVRE, TOMAŽ KOLAR: The Relevance of Consumers’ Need for Uniqueness
This paper addresses the relevance of the psychological concept termed “need for uniqueness” (NFU) in the tourism context, for which the lack of its theoretical examination and empirical verification is evident. In order to address this gap, we define, conceptualize and empirically examine the CNFU concept on the sample of young adults in order to verify its potential relevance as a segmentation variable. The results obtained provide support for two hypotheses: 1) that segment of tourists who travel via a travel agency exhibits lower level of CNFU than that segment that travel via self-organized arrangements, and 2) that segment of more knowledgeable tourists exhibit higher levels of CNFU. Findings suggest that various components of CNFU have distinctive roles as segmentation variables and provide support for the theory of uniqueness, suggesting that tourists seek to be moderately (but not extremely) distinct from others. This paper concludes with a brief discussion of managerial implications and limitations.
Keywords: consumer behaviour;uniqueness theory;consumers’ need for uniqueness;tourism
MARKO KUKANJA: The Quality of the Dining Experience
The importance of quality has been recognized in most service industries, as it generates revenue and has a significant impact on customer behaviour. Measurement of the quality of restaurant service has attracted increasing attention from hospitality researchers since the implementation of the DINESERV model in the mid-1990s. As a fairly new topic, it requires frequent and critical monitoring, which would shed light on current research and make needed adjustments in terms of methodological research processes and the focus of inquiry. However, to date, there have been few systematic reviews of this body of work. As such, this study aims to fill this void by conducting a qualitative analysis of research on restaurant quality since the mid-1990s. Particular attention has been devoted to a marketing perspective and different marketing attributes (food, people and price), as there is no consensus on which marketing attribute is the most important in assessing the quality of the dining experience. Food quality often seems to be accepted as the fundamental component in determining the quality of dining experience, but several studies have identified service quality (people) to be the most important factor in the restaurant industry. A qualitative study with a grounded theory approach has been used via analysis of the relevant scientific literature. Data of guests’ perceptual responses has been collected from restaurant quality-related articles retrieved from major academic databases. Based on an extensive literature review, the findings reveal that restaurant quality research remains at the stage of developing industry tailored-research models. The research results also reveal that the results of numerous studies are mutually inconsistent and contradictory. Therefore, it is not possible to simplify and highlight just one quality attribute as the most important. Scholars should, therefore, adapt their research techniques to different environments and types of catering facilities. This research has raised many questions in need of further investigation. Future research should include a broader range of quality dimensions. It is suggested that the association of different marketing attributes be empirically investigated in future studies.
Keywords: restaurant industry;marketing attributes;dining experience;service quality.
GREGOR BALAŽIČ, ŽIGA NEDIŽAVEC: The Heritage of Socialism in Škofja Loka as an Opportunity for Tourism Development
In recent years, the heritage of socialism has found its way into the tourist services of many eastern European cities, where it is being successfully marketed through various tourist products. Since this kind of heritage is also present in Slovenia, we believe that by developing these kinds of tourist products, together with their appropriate presentation and organization, socialist heritage tourism services could be offered by the municipalities of many Slovene towns and cities, including Škofja Loka, the subject of this paper. We have used qualitative semi-structured interviews with four selected tourism stakeholders in the region and have obtained their positions regarding the integration of socialist heritage into the tourism range of services in the municipality of Škofja Loka. We also present the heritage of socialism and proposals for new sustainable tourist products based on the relics of socialism.
Keywords: heritage of socialism;Škofja Loka, sustainable tourist products;tourism stakeholders;tourism development
TINA ŠEGOTA, ZLATKO JANČIČ: Are You Feeling Nostalgic, Neighbour?
Despite the fact that Slovenia is one of the most important emissive tourism markets for Croatia, little is known about the travel-related behaviour of young Slovenian travellers and their connection to the phenomenon of Yugo-nostalgia. This study focuses on the potential of segmentation of the neighbouring travel market in relation to the influence of the nostalgia factor. More specifically, the objectives of the study are: (1) to determine travel motives for visiting Croatia among young Slovene travellers; (2) to define segments (clusters) of visitors based on destination perceptions; (3) to determine the influence of Yugo-nostalgia on travel motivation. The findings of the study indicate that young visitors can be divided into four different segments with similar characteristics based on destination perception and the influence of Yugo-nostalgia. The results of the study could be applicable to tourism destination strategies and advertising on the part of destination management.
Keywords: travel motivation; destination perception; market segmentation; Yugo-nostalgia, Slovenia, Croatia.
MAJA TURNŠEK , BOJAN KUREŽ, BOŠTJAN BRUMEN, MAJA ROSI, MARJETKA RANGUS: The Political Economy of Social Media: What Does it Mean for Tourism? The Case of YouTube
The research presented here builds on theories of the political economy of (new) media. The objective of this paper is to overcome two ‘blind spots’ in the current literature on social media and tourism. The first is the role of social media intermediaries, such as YouTube (YouTube llc) in the mediation of communication amongst tourists, hosts and the tourism industry. The second is the role of social media in tourism as a social force, by enabling communication amongst tourists and hosts. We borrow analytical tools from the political economy paradigm and thus focus upon the ownership structures, political regulations and modes of transforming communication into marketable products (commodification) by YouTube llc. These are analyzed as factors that influence tourism both as an industry and as a social force.
Keywords: tourism; social media; YouTube; political economy
IVAN TURČAN, DORIS GOMEZELJ OMERZEL: Competitiveness of the Pomurska Region as a Tourist Destination
Major differences exist between the regions of Slovenia. Despite the Pomurska region being the least developed region (according to many statistical indexes), it is an attractive tourist destination. This research deals with the competitiveness of the Pomurska region as a tourist destination. An overview of the main concepts is discussed in the first part of the paper, and the characteristics of the region are also presented.The aim of the research is to analyse the position of the Pomurska region in the minds of tourism service providers. The answer is obtained via an analysis of individual factors of competitiveness. Research hypotheses are evaluated on the basis of simple paired t-test between the dimensions of the competitiveness of a tourist destination, which we have computed from several variables using the method of principal components. All the three hypotheses were confirmed, i.e. the Pomurska region as a tourist destination is (1) more competitive in the field of ‘natural and cultural resources’ than in the field of ‘created resources,’ (2) more competitive in the field of ‘resources’ than in the field of ‘management,’ and (3) more competitive in the field of ‘supporting resources’ than in the field of ‘created resources’.
Keywords: tourist destination; competitiveness; competitiveness model; Pomurska region
ARMAND FAGANEL, NATAŠA SLAK VALEK: Planning and development of the Golf Destination
The purpose of this paper is to better understand golfers’ expectations and experiences in Slovenia and to propose the development of a golf tourism destination strategy. The methods used are a hierarchical cluster analysis with Ward’s method, the analysis of variance (anova), comparative method, literature review and case study. Based on 900 golfer surveys, we identified four behavioural market segments, and assessed the country’s potential to become known as a golf tourism destination. It has been ascertained that Slovenia has atypical golfers. Having in mind the recent social changes, tourism stakeholders must plan the viability of destination development for decades ahead. As the number of golf courses increases, golfers will be seeking unique experiences. Slovenia is easily accessible, positioned centrally to the majority of European countries, and road connections are excellent, but there is a lack of regular flights to the main airport. Tourism strategy developers will be able to use the findings in their planning phases of determining Slovenia as a tourism destination. This paper will also be of immense interest for planners in other countries and sport disciplines.
Keywords: tourism; segmentation; marketing strategy; golf destination; Slovenia
ALEKSANDRA BREZOVEC: Communicating Sustainability-Led Innovation in Tourism: Challenges and Potentials
This paper deals with the challenges and potentials of building knowledge of sustainability-led innovation in tourism. Sustainability-led innovation is becoming essential to many sectors, including tourism. It is defined as the creation of new markets, products, services or processes driven by social, ethical and environmental issues. The tourism sector holds considerable amounts of knowledge about the ecological and social impacts of tourism, yet this knowledge is rarely communicated more broadly to society, or with the aim of designing not only sustainable tourism but also a sustainable society. In order for sustainability ideas and practices to transform tourist behaviour and the tourism sector as a whole, a deeper and broader communication movement is proposed in this study. A cross-sector literature review is used to elicit the main challenges posed by sustainability-led innovation for tourism, and to propose effective forms of communication about sustainable innovation in tourism. Forms of corporate social responsibility (CSR) communication are discussed, through which participants may directly experience familiar themes of sustainability in tourism.
Keywords: Sustainability-led innovation; tourism; CSR Communication
MARINELA KRSTINIĆ NIŽIĆ, JELENA ĐURKIN: Development of Database on Beaches: Case Study
Since both contemporary tourists and local communities are interested in the profile and the quality of beaches, the need for a transparent database of information on beaches arose, for both tourists and the local community. The purpose of this paper is to discuss elements for developing a database on beaches as a useful source of information for visitors, as well as local people. After a short review of literature on the subject, the case study method is used to present the best practice example from the management and spatial planning of Croatian beaches. The Croatian Ministry of Environmental Protection, Physical Planning, and Construction, in cooperation with the Institute of Oceanography and Fisheries of Split and with the Croatian Environment Agency, has developed a database on water quality for swimming, a web application for the entry, processing, and valorisation of data, along with reporting and public information on seawater bathing quality data for the Croatian Adriatic beaches. This paper analyses this database, and the authors suggest a design of the system of parameters appealing for tourists (i.e. capacity of the beach, parking possibilities, sports and other facilities on the beach) and their continuous monitoring and entry into the database. Thus, the necessary security measures, standards of tidiness, supply contents, and standard graphic representation could be formed in order to make beaches recognisable. The main conclusions of the paper relate to the need for the development of a database on beaches and suggest improvements for existing databases in terms of integration with GIS browsers as well as creating a new set of indicators and other data available, with the purpose of market valuation of space, environmental protection, and growth in the quality of tourism demand and supply.
Keywords: database development; innovation; tourism; spatial planning
JOHN K. WALTON: Responsible Tourism before ‘Responsible Tourism’? Some Historical Antecedents of Current Concerns and Conflicts
This article discusses the historical antecedents of what is now called ‘responsible tourism,’ taking into account the relationship between this concept and ‘sustainable tourism.’ It uses a comparative case-study methodology to identify and analyse precursors of ‘responsible tourism’ from the mid-eighteenth century onwards. Case studies cover the English Lake District, the English coastal resort of Whitby, the Spanish spa resort of Mondariz Balneario, the development of ‘social tourism’ in Mar del Plata (Argentina), and the Atlantic island of Lanzarote (Canary Islands). Each of the illustrative examples engages with different, but overlapping, aspects of ‘responsible tourism,’ and the article concludes that (despite the perils inherent in looking for the historical roots of a current concept) the approach taken is viable and conducive to a better understanding of the issues, not least because each case displayed its own distinctive complications and cross-currents. The final, extended case-study, which examines the role of the artist César Manrique in the rise of Lanzarote as a tourist destination between the 1950s and the 1990s, provides a particularly satisfying illustration of how the key elements of ‘responsible tourism’ might take root and develop under the right cultural and political circumstances, long before the concept had actually been articulated, and offer a genuine opportunity for policymakers to learn from historical example.
Keywords: responsible tourism; history; destinations; literary tourism; coastal tourism;spa resorts
GORAZD SEDMAK, TINA KOCIPER Competitiveness and Responsibility of Tourist Destinations
This paper deals with the competitiveness of tourism destinations in connection with destination management organizations (dmo) and corporate responsibility. The primary aim of the research was to assess the overall competitiveness of the north Adriatic seaside resort of Portorož and to identify the elements whose performance the destination should improve in the future in order to enhance its competitive position. The secondary aim was to evaluate whether Portorož is oriented towards responsible tourism. Specifically, in many respects responsible tourism makes destinations more competitive. The results of the study show that the destination has some unexploited potentials to become more competitive and responsible.
Keywords: competitiveness; tourism responsibility; seaside destination; Portorož
HELENA NEMEC RUDEŽ, PETRA ZABUKOVEC BARUCA: An Empirical Research on the Ecological Orientation
Ecologically-oriented destinations require knowledge and understanding of the ecological attitudes of the tourists visiting them. This paper examines the ecological orientation of tourists in the Slovenian seaside destination of Portorož, with a focus on the low season. More specifically, the environmental awareness of tourists in Portorož and their perception of the ecological orientation of Portorož are investigated.Structured questionnaires were used to interview the tourists in selected locations in Portorož. The research found that the tourists consider the ecological orientation of a destination as neither important nor unimportant in their choice of destination. Furthermore, the tourists perceived its ecological orientation to be at an average level.Comparisons between hotel and non-hotel guests are also observed.
Keywords: ecotourism; destination; ecological orientation
CARINA KING, SOTIRIS HJI-AVGOUSTIS, JINMOO HEO, INHEOK LEE: Quality of Life of Indianapolis Residents: The Role of Cultural Tourism and a Sense of Community of Low Season Visitors to Portorož
Urban regeneration and cultural development strategies have become increasingly integrated (Worpole, 1991), and cultural tourism, in particular, is increasingly used as a strategic tool to meet the needs of visitors and local residents (Yang & Shin, 2008). Indianapolis has focused on arts and culture by launching a cultural tourism strategic initiative to enhance visitors’ cultural experiences, improve residents’ quality of life and foster a stronger sense of community. The Indianapolis example may provide support for the case that cultural heritage tourism can enhance local values,contribute to positive social attitudes and strengthen the sense of local identity (Coccossis, 2009). This study attempts to measure public support for the city’s cultural tourism strategy by investigating the relationship of Indianapolis’ residents’ awareness, perceived benefits, and enjoyment of cultural tourism with the sense of community and quality of life via a structural model approach. A total of 350 Indianapolis residents who attended downtown cultural and sporting events participated in the study via convenience sampling in 2011. The overall fit indices for the hypothesised model suggest that the model was a fair fit. Residents who felt a greater sense of community and acknowledged greater benefits than their counterparts were more likely to rate their quality of life as better. Tourism development administrators should involve residents in the planning stages, more effectively communicate indirect host community benefits, and address how social costs, if any, would be mitigated.
Keywords: quality of life; cultural tourism; sense of community
TANJA PLANINC, ŠTEFAN BOJNEC, GORDANA IVANKOVIČ: Measuring Performance in the Hospitality Sector: Financial vs. Statistical Data
This paper analyses achievements of the hospitality sector in the Slovenian tourism industry by comparing statistical developments and certain financial data results.The analysis was performed for the 1995–2011 period. The statistical results were relatively favourable in terms of the number of tourist arrivals, overnight stays and accommodation facilities. However, the empirical analysis confirmed that less favorable financial results in the Slovenian hospitality sector were achieved even before the economic crisis in 2008. The analysis showed that there is a statistically significant correlation only between certain financial and statistical indicators.
Keywords: hospitality sector, Slovenia, performance measurement, financial indicators, statistical data
KSENIJA VODEB, ZORANA MEDARIĆ: Local Community Perceptions of Tourism Impacts on The Slovenian Coast
Tourism is a lived experience of tourists, hosts and destinations. There is a vast body of literature dealing with the interrelationship between the local perception of impacts and the level of tourism development. Some authors warn about the dual image of tourism, especially in relation to community benefits and costs; others report about tourism as a double-edged sword for the host community. However, it is not enough to be familiar with the impacts, but there should be knowledge of HOW to incorporate this information in the tourism development strategies and help managers to predict and plan the future development. A local community involved in the tourism planning process has a more positive perspective; it is more cooperative and has better opportunities of active participation than a community with a passive role. Therefore, many scholars propose a thorough reflection on and consideration of the residents’ opinions and attitudes in the tourism destination planning process. This article is based primarily on the results of a quantitative survey; however, it is part of an extended research, upgrading the examination of tourism impacts on the Slovenian coast with a qualitative survey. The article investigates the perception of socio-cultural impacts of tourism among the local population in the Slovenian coastal region. The quantitative survey among 711 local residents shows a positive attitude towards tourism, especially socio-cultural impacts such as a wider offer of cultural events, the respect of heritage and enrichment of the local community experiences.
Keywords: socio-cultural impacts of tourism, Slovenian coast, sustainable tourism development, social carrying capacity
ZORAN KLARIČ: The Pressure on the Coastal Area as a Factor of Sustainability of Croatian Tourism
Among many aspects of tourism sustainability, especially noteworthy is pressure on the coastal area, i.e. the number of accommodation establishments compared with the length of coastline and total area of the particular geographical units (counties, municipalities, towns or islands). This work elaborates changes in the pressure on the coastal areas in the previous ten years in the entire Croatian coastline in order to show the differences regarding the pressure on the coastal strip and the total areas of coastal administrative units. The first part analyses the number of beds in comparison with the length of coastline and the total areas of Croatian counties with some approximations for smaller spatial units. The second part reports on an analysis of data about secondary homes compared with the previous data in order to show that the pressure from this type of accommodation is in many areas more dangerous than the pressure caused by commercial tourist accommodation. The concluding part summarises all the previous results, emphasising the differences between various forms of pressures on the coastal areas and pointing out the parts of Croatia that are under especially dangerous pressure from tourism and housing development.
Keywords: sustainability, pressure on coastal areas, Croatian coastline, length of coastline, accommodation establishments, secondary homes
MIHA KOZOROG, SAŠA POLJAK ISTENIČ: The Challenges for Responsible Recreation in the Protected Area of Triglav National Park: The Case of Mountain Bikers
Triglav National Park is the largest protected area in Slovenia that is established for the conservation of an area’s natural and cultural heritage. However, it is also destined for recreation that is subject to specific regulations in order to respect certain environmental guidelines. This ethnographic paper discusses strategies mountain bikers employ to negotiate the existing rules regarding the recreational use of the park’s lands; in addition, the authors propose solutions to diminish their demands with the aim of ensuring quiet space for the park’s wildlife.
Keywords: recreation management, recreation conflict, mountain biking, masculine heroism, wild animals, zoning of protected areas, Triglav National Park
JON EBERSOLE: A plastics index for the food services industry
Sustainability is an increasingly powerful slogan for environmental consciousness in business and commerce. For all its benefits in enabling our current living standards, the use of plastic has proven to cause significant health and environmental damage. For the tourism industry, food services are of obvious aesthetic importance and are largely marred by the use of plastic items. This article explores the growing interface between all these factors as an increasing segment of tourists bring their health and environmental awareness with them to the dinner table. A co-creative approach to addressing the mounting plastic refuse problem is proposed, with potential benefits to participants. The proposal here is simple: (1) note the plastic items at a place setting, and (2) seek a sustainable alternative.
Keywords: food services, health, plastic, pollution, sustainability
HELENA NEMEC RUDEŽ: Segmentation in tourism: a holistic approach for future research
This paper provides an overview of segmentation research issues in the field of tourism. Several gaps in tourism segmentation research are highlighted. Research in this area is usually limited to identification of market segments. Hence, it does not address questions about compatibility, financial issues, possible resources or the implementation of segments into marketing practice. To date, there is a lack of comparative analysis of segments in tourism, in terms of both different time periods and competing destinations. Following the identification of gaps in tourism segmentation research, a holistic approach to segmentation in tourism is presented as a tool for filling these gaps. The proposed approach is an ongoing, cyclical process that can be applied by tourism destinations and tourism suppliers.
Keywords: segmentation, tourism, research
MARKO KUKANJA, SAŠA PLANINC: The impact of economic crisis on the motivation to work in food service: The case of the municipality of Piran
This study examines factors that help to attract, retain and motivate employees in the hospitality industry. The survey was conducted in the municipality of Piran, the most developed Slovenian municipality and an important tourist centre in the northern Mediterranean. The aim of this study was to determine the key factors that motivate people to work as servers. Respondents were asked to rate the six key factors that motivated them to work in the catering industry. The findings show that in times of economic crisis, money is the most important motivating factor. Other significant motivational factors identified are strongly associated with worker age and type of catering facility. Our findings are consistent with attribution-based motivational theories, which are based on the theory of choice, stating that individuals are primarily motivated by the factor that meets their most important need. Motivational theories whose tenets underpin our research are briefly discussed. Practical considerations for managers of catering businesses, that is, how to selectively engage and motivate different groups of employees in different types of facilities, are discussed in conclusion.
Keywords: Food service workers, motivation, recession, municipality of Piran
ALEŠ GAČNIK: Gastronomy heritage as a source of development for gastronomy tourism and as a means of increasing Slovenia’s tourism visibility
Since gaining its independence in 1991, the Republic of Slovenia has seen greatly increased interest in cultural heritage and the identity of cities and especially villages. Almost every village sees its future in the development of tourism based on local heritage and identity, in a variety of ethnographic, ethnological, folklore, and cultural events and festivals. Local gastronomy specialties are becoming an integral part of tourism. But Slovenia’s history is seasoned with a romantic, nostalgic and uncritical attitude to our cultural heritage. It is presented as an idyllic memory of the beautiful and unforgettable lives of our predecessors. A significant improvement in quality took place in the period after Slovenia joined the EU (2004), as international tourists started to view Slovenia as a forgotten, hidden jewel of Europe, or rather as cultural Europe in miniature. Our rich and diversified heritage in gastronomy and wine-making, in modern form, are becoming an increasingly important medium of international tourism visibility. The proliferation of innovative culinary and wine festivals represents the fastest growing trend in heritage tourism. Slovenia is the meeting point of the Alps, the Mediterranean and the Pannonian Plain. This is clearly mirrored in the country’s gastronomy and in the Gastronomic Strategy of Slovenia (2006) listing 24 gastronomic regions of Slovenia with 140 representative dishes. Such a gastronomic platform influences the content of food and wine events and festivals, and contributes to the international gastronomy and tourism visibility of the country.
Keywords: cultural heritage, gastronomy heritage, gastronomy culture, food events, wine events, festivals, gastronomy tourism, heritage tourism
MARIJANA SIKOŠEK: A review of research in meetings management: some issues and challenges
The aim of the paper is to provide a clear overview of existing research in the field of the meetings industry in international space and to open an academic discussion on the issues of this field in Slovenia. Through the method of literature analysis, we determine the position of the meetings industry in relation to business tourism and leisure tourism, explaining the most frequent definitions of meetings and pointing to the fragmentariness of the meetings industry, recognising it as a special research challenge. The existing research on the meetings industry is focused on five basic areas (economic impact of meetings, convention site-selection process, destination marketing, convention and visitors bureau (CVB) operations, and advances in technology). We also acknowledge the emergence of a completely new question of sustainability of meetings, or the “greening” of meetings. Due to lack of research on the meetings industry in Slovenia, researchers face some issues and challenges, and the increasing importance of the activities in the tourism sector creates a gap in research that needs to be filled, starting with the need to consider the depth and breadth of research. Due to the fragmentation of the meetings industry, we first need to establish appropriate terminology and conduct an in-depth analysis of the conditions in the area of the supply and demand of meetings facilities, perform an economic evaluation of the possible impacts of meetings and analyse the decision-making factors that shape the processes of selecting convention sites. Researchers in Slovenia also need to tackle new questions such as the greening of meetings. We have no doubt that the tradition of the meetings industry in Slovenia makes it necessary for us to encourage its development with research and ensure the continuing expansion of knowledge.
Keywords: meetings industry, convention events, congress tourism, business tourism, meetings management research, tourism research
JANEZ MEKINC, MAŠA BUDNAR RADILOVIĆ, BOŠTJAN BIZJAK: The impact of the financial crisis on business events at natural spas – the Slovenian case
To determine the impact of the economic downturn that officially hit Slovenia in 2009 on the number, purpose, type and budgets of business events held at Slovenian natural spas. The study’s aim is to develop guidelines in the field of business events management at Slovenian natural spas. The research was carried out among key representatives from Slovenian natural spas who play an active role in managing events. Data were via a questionnaire that collected information about the purpose, number and type of events for business clients at Slovenian natural spas. The number of business events held at Slovenian natural spas has not changed during the economic crisis; however, the number of events held to increase stakeholders’ loyalty and those held to communicate to the wider public has increased. Based on these findings, we can conclude that organisation managers are aware of the importance of good, solid, long-term relations with business clients for maintaining a successful trade (especially in the time of crisis). Since business events have the potential to be very profitable for the natural spas, we suggest that they adjust their programming and outreach to focus on business clients. The demand for business events is increasing; there is a commensurate need for effective marketing of business packages and offers.
Keywords: economic crisis, financial crisis, business event, business clients, natural spas
ROBERT INBAKARAN, BABUP GEORGE, MERVYN JACKSON, FILIPE RODRIQUES E MELO: Identifying resort tourism market segments based on visitor demographics: a study
This paper reports the findings of a study conducted in Goa, India, with the objective of segmenting resort visitors based on demographics. Four distinguishable segments are identified: relaxing regulars, tasters, honeymooners and exploring novices. Noticeably, these segments also provide vital insights into resort tourist motivation. Differences among the segments are identified and recommendations for resort marketing are provided.
Keywords: Resort tourism, motivation, segmentation, marketing, India
NATAŠA SLAK VALEK, EVA PODOVŠOVNIK AXELSSON: Who spends more: sport-active versus active tourists
This study empirically investigated the influences of gender, age and educational level on the main motive for travel, which then explored the relationship of these influences to travel spending. Furthermore, sports-active tourists were compared with other tourists who are interested in active travel. Active traveling, in this present study, includes tourists with other main motives of traveling, but not those whose main motive is “rest and relaxation”. Slovenian tourists traveling within Slovenia and those traveling abroad were compared. We found that men, younger tourists and better educated tourists mainly choose sports related travel. Further research explains the influences of the main motives for travel spending and revealed who tends to spend more between sports-active tourists and other active tourists. For a potential sports-tourism destination is it vital to know the presented data. The implications of the results are discussed in the context of sport tourism marketing.
Keywords: sport tourism, active tourists, travel expenses, sports tourism marketing
SERGEJ GRIČAR, ŠTEFAN BOJNEC: Adoption of the euro and catering industry prices:The case of Slovenia
This paper focuses on the Euro adoption in Slovenia and its transmission to catering industry prices. The empirical approach uses three different methodologies: the principal component analysis, factor analysis and regression analysis on the monthly statistical data collected during the period from 2000 to 2007. In the regression analysis the dependent variable is used as the differential between the catering industry price index and the consumer price index. The regression analysis confirmed that the catering industry price index and the differential of the catering industry price index and the consumer price index, respectively, are positively associated with wages, tourist arrivals, and with the Euro adoption, respectively. The two common components are identified by using the principal component analysis: first, the general level of prices and wages in the catering industry and second, the Euro price adoption and later Euro price stabilization, and demand for catering industry services. We also used factor analysis to check the robustness of the principal component method results.
Keywords: Euro adoption, catering industry prices, wages, Slovenia
MARJAN TKALČIČ: The superior-subordinate relationship and work climate in the Slovenian tourism industry
The purpose of this paper is to find out how managers, executives and operational workers evaluate the superior-subordinate relationship and what is the work climate and what influence does the work climate exert on the quality of work in Slovenian tourism organizations. Based on our empiric quantitative research, conducted as a questionnaire-based survey, some characteristics of the sample organizations and respondents were explained using the descriptive method. For comparison, evaluation and interpretation of individual causal relations, we have applied the correlational-explanatory method. We have identified the relevant factors on the level of the relationship where the employee is placed, his identification with the organization, the involvement of their personal goals with the common goal of the organization, their understanding of their assigned tasks, decision-making and implementation thereof, as well as success in achieving goals. A significant contribution to a good work climate comes from the management team, whose professional correctness in resolving conflicts has a bearing on the motivation of employees to engage in responsible and efficient work. Good relations and a pro-active attitude among the team members is a pre-requisite for the innovative and creative work of an individual.
Keywords: human resources management, relationship superior-subordinate, work climate, Slovenia
SUZANA MARKOVIĆ, SANJA RASPOR, JELENA KOMŠIĆ: Service quality measurement in Croatian wellness tourism: An application of the SERVQUAL scale
The purpose of this study is to contribute to the conceptual and empirical knowledge of service quality in wellness settings. The aim is to provide a theoretical background of the main concepts of interest and to empirically assess customer expectations and perceptions, as well as to determine the overall quality of wellness services. Data were collected using a self-administered questionnaire, based on the dimensions of the SERVQUAL scale (Parasuraman, Zeithaml & Berry, 1988). The questionnaire was divided into three parts. First, the respondents’ expectations regarding service quality in wellness settings in general were measured. The second part examined the respondents’ perceptions of service quality in wellness centers in Croatian hotels. The third part of the questionnaire consisted of demographic questions. Factor analysis and reliability analysis were conducted to identify key factors of wellness service quality and to test the reliability and consistency of the measurement scale. The results revealed high customer expectations and perceptions of wellness service quality. Moreover, three factors were identified that best explained expected wellness service quality and all were highly reliable. On the other hand, two highly reliable factors were identified regarding the perceived quality of wellness services.
Keywords: service quality, SERVQUAL, statistical analysis, wellness tourism, Croatia
LIM KHONG CHIU, OMAR. A. ANANZEH: Evaluating the relationship between the role of promotional tools in MICE Tourism and the formation of the touristic image of Jordan
Several factors have been shown to have a vital role in the formation of the touristic image of destination. Promotional tools are considered a critical factor in destination image formation. This study aims to evaluate the role of promotional tools utilized to promote MICE tourism on the formation of the touristic image of Jordan. The differences in the perceptions of local and international MICE participants on the importance of promotional tools in terms of their sociodemographic characteristics were also examined. The T-test, ANOVA and simple regression analysis are used to test the hypotheses. Results show the significant differences among MICE participants’ perceptions on the importance of promotional tools and the role of promotional tools to influence the touristic image of Jordan. The results of the study could be assessed by event planners, event organizers, and other MICE event stakeholders, as well as enriching the limited research in MICE tourism in developing countries.
Keywords: MICE tourism, promotion, destination image, cognitive image, affective image
PETRA ZABUKOVEC BARUCA, ŽANA ČIVRE: How do guests choose a hotel?
Predicting consumers’ hotel choice is influenced by several different factors. The consumer decision-making process in hotel choice selection is influenced by hotel product, received information, and personal preferences. This study focuses on different factors which represent the reasons for consumer’s decision making in hotel selection and market segmentation with regards to the analysis of hotel attributes (factors) sought by international consumers. The findings of the study indicate that hotel guests can be divided into four different segments (clusters) with similar characteristics based on the reasons why customers choose a particular hotel. The results of the study can be applicable in defining an appropriate mix of marketing strategies on the part of hotel management.
Keywords: hospitality industry, consumer decision process, hotel selection, consumer segmentation, cluster analysis
INETA LUKA, AGITA DONINA: Challenges of tourism education: Conformity of tourism curriculum to business needs
This study was conducted in the fourth largest tertiary education institution in Latvia, which also provides higher education in the field of tourism. The purpose of the research is to study stakeholder needs and to evaluate the knowledge of tourism students, as well as the level of skills and abilities necessary for work in tourism business and to determine opportunities for curriculum development. The study is comprised of three stages: context analysis; a survey of 262 tourism students and 192 employers applying a similar Likert Scale questionnaire; comparing findings with the findings obtained in similar studies in other countries and elaborating conclusions and suggestions regarding curriculum improvement. A quantitative approach conducting primary data analysis (descriptive statistics) and secondary data analysis (Levene’s Test for Equality of Variances, Anova test) is applied to study stakeholder opinion. Findings of the study reveal the knowledge, skills and abilities necessary to succeed in tourism business. It indicates that the present curriculum corresponds to the requirements of the industry and student needs. Students highly value the knowledge acquired and the skills and abilities developed during their studies. The employers’ high evaluation of student knowledge, skills, and abilities verifies this fact. The curriculum might be improved by creating modules of related courses, applying a cross-disciplinary approach to studies, using corresponding teaching-learning methods and creating a supportive learning environment, initiating autonomous learning for the students and motivating them for studies.
Keywords: tourism curriculum, knowledge, skills, abilities
ZOLTAN BUDJOSO, CSABA SZUCS: Beer tourism – from theory to practice
Due to the interest in the development of gastronomy and the food and beverage culture of different countries and regions, culinary travel is gaining in popularity all over the world and gastronomic tourism has become an independent product on its own within tourism. Beer tourism has become an integrated part of gastronomic tourism. The purpose of this paper is to place beer tourism, which attracts a growing number of visitors, as a product into the system of tourism as well as to review its outward forms and future development possibilities.
Keywords: gastro tourism, theory, beer tourism, practice
RODOLFO BAGGIO: The mechanism for spreading online reputation
Acquiring a good reputation and being able to convey to an audience the good image of a company or a destination is a vital issue in today’s virtual world. The quality of what is transmitted and the influence of social networks through which the promotional or marketing messages are spread are the major elements at play.This work examines the second issue: how messages are spread over a social network. Through a series of numerical simulations this paper highlights the main factors affecting the diffusion of information in a social networked group and clarifies the role played by different actors with respect to the influence and importance of their position in the network.
Keywords: online reputation, social networks, information diffusion
MILOŠ BIGOVIĆ: Quantifying seasonality in tourism: a case study of Montenegro
The purpose of this paper is to quantify seasonal variations in tourism and to benefit from an understanding of seasonality. The investigation was based on data regarding the number of tourist arrivals in Montenegro and the approach is based on five measures –seasonal range, coefficient of seasonal variation, seasonality ratio,seasonality indicator and the Gini coefficient. The results of quantifying show a pronounced seasonality that is constant with only negligible variations over time. There are no vital discrepancies among the results obtained using different measures. These findings suggest the following: to understand the nature of seasonality it is enough to use only one measure and there is no need for a holistic way of measuring.
Keywords: seasonality, tourist arrivals, measures, Montenegro
SIMONA ŠAROTAR ŽIŽEK, SONJA TREVEN, MATJAŽ MULEJ, MARTINA VANER: The integrative and innovative model of HRM in slovenian tourism
Tourism is important for the worldwide economy as well as for Slovenia. It is vital to strive to become a country with a developed culture of tourism comparable to other European countries within the next ten years. It is important to develop a modern model of human resources management by which Slovenian tourism shall exceed the gap between various educated personnel and the offer on the labour market and to acquire top professionals. Changing values, higher education and experiences, as well as the increasing needs and requirements of new consumers in tourism require an educated, communicative and innovative labour force capable of creating value for consumers. It is therefore necessary to employ highly qualified workers for the distribution, operation and management of the tourist product which depends on the knowledge, capabilities and abilities of the employees. The development and qualification of human resources aiming at improvement of individual’s efficiency is of key importance. For the layout of the model of HR-management, attention should be paid to other important aspects as well.
Keywords: management, tourism, Human Resources Management, model of HR-management, model of HR-management for Tourism
HELENA CVIKL, JANEZ MEKINC: Safety and security as systematic component of wellness centres in Slovenia
The following study presents a legal review of all formal and technical regulations which directly or indirectly affect the safety standards in wellness centres in Slovenia in a systematic and comprehensive manner. One can define the significance of security as a competitive advantage in wellness oriented business activities. As well,security is becoming more and more important in the marketing of wellness oriented businesses as well as other tourism services. Due to the specific nature of wellness oriented offers, there are many different segments of security incorporated therein. Among these are care and concern for the health of guests, for their personal safety, the safety of their property and probably most importantly, care for the security of their personal information.It is this last element which enables guests to place their trust in a particular wellness centre since careful protection of personal information ensures the personal safety of guests.
Keywords: wellness, security, personal integrity, quality, technical standards
ANDREJ RASPOR: The use of techniques for increasing servers’ tips
In a 1996 article in Cornell Hotel and Restaurant Administration Quarterly, Michael Lynn introduced the idea that restaurant managers could increase tips for there servers, and therefore reduce turnover, by training servers to engage in one or more of seven tip-enhancing behaviours. Since then, the list of tip-enhancing behaviours has expanded. We tested fourteen techniques to increase tips. The study was carried out among 294 employees or 197 waiters in the Slovenian catering industry in order to find out how they use these techniques and which methods can bring about an increase in their tips. The study showed that Slovenian waiters don’t use any of these techniques, and that waiters who do use them tend to receive tips more often. The findings imply that managers and employees should be informed of these techniques in order to increase tips and their overall income.
Keywords: waiters, tip, tipping behaviour, catering industry
A VIEW FROM PRACTICE:
EDNA MRNJAVAC, CHRISTAN STIPANOVIĆ, NADIA PAVIA: Directing changes with the aim of improving Croatian hotel management companies
When it comes to the re-conception of contemporary Croatian hotel management companies, the new business culture should be based on dynamic forces, change, transformation, perfection and qualitative innovation. The priority is to raise awareness about the importance of change, to encourage change, to actively proceed towards the future and to use one’s ingenuity to cross barriers. Changes are taking place right now, and will also take place in the future. Important tools in competition are inventions based on intellectual capital. Being competitive implies understanding one’s customers and anticipating their desires and needs (it does not suffice to adapt to contemporary taste, but a new offer and proactive marketing should be ahead of the curve). This paper defines tourism trends in the 21st century and assesses the competitiveness of Croatian tourism. Research in this particular case represents an innovation of offer in Croatian hotel and tourism management companies as a qualitative response to a globalized offer of foreign brands.
Keywords: change, innovation, intellectual capital, Croatian hotel management companies, reengineering
NEVEN ŠERIĆ, SILVIJA VITNER MARKOVIĆ: Brand management in the practice of cross-border
A common brand management of cross-border tourist destination provides the ability to efficiently consolidate competitive advantages to multiple destinations. A brand management for such areas is in the function of unifying the overall tourism through a recognizable tourist brand. The creation of a joint tourist brand of border areas helps to create competitiveness and a higher differentiation of the comprehensive tourist product in the global tourist market. The vision, based on the long-term aims of managing a recognizable tourist brand, helps the overall economic development of the area. To jointly manage the brand cross-border tourist destinations effectively it is necessary to achieve a synergy of tourism destinations. One possible approach is to design a specific model which brings together all the available resources of the area. This introduces a cluster concept which is a useful platform in creating an efficient marketing strategy. Such an approach encourages faster and more efficient social-economic integration. The presented research is based on the author’s model developed for an efficient evaluation of tourist resources on the Croatian-Slovenian border. Research was done through the future perspective of the development of the border area of the Karlovac County (CRO) and Southeast Slovenia (SLO) with the aim of creating a recognizable cross-border tourist product. Economic contribution is efficient tourism branding of different cultural border areas. The aim of the paper is to point out the possibility of brand management for cross-border tourist destinations on the basis of common and partial elements of recognition of the area.
Keywords: management, branding, cross-border, tourism, development
MEHMET ERGUL, COLIN JOHNSON, ALI SUKRU CETINKAYA, JALE BOGA ROBERTSON: An Exploratory Study Linking Turkish Regional Food with Cultural Destinations
Food and tourism may be considered as two interrelated elements that bring people and cultures together on many different occasions. Research indicates that food could be viewed as a peak touristic experience and a major tourist attraction. The main purpose of this paper is to identify and evaluate the significance of food tourism for Turkey and to create a number of innovative regional food related itineraries that would be replicable. Four main results emerged from the analysis of the interviews. The major recommendations from the study include developing an action list for the Turkish Ministry of Tourism, developing new food tourism itineraries and creating an official food guide. The findings of the study could be used as a base for further exploring the application of new technologies in food destination sectors.
Keywords: Food tourism, Turkey, regional cuisines, innovation
ALFONSO VARGAS-SÁNCHEZ, FRANCISCO RIQUEL-LIGERO: An institutional approach to the environmental practices of golf courses
As it is well known, the number of golf courses has increased exponentially in many tourist destinations, which has generated a public debate about its environmental impact. In many Spanish destinations such as Andalusia, this sport has become one of the products with greater pull in their tourism offer, with significant economic impact in this territory. All this has prompted the generation of a highly institutionalized context.This paper attempts to analyze this context in a sample of golf courses located in the Spanish region of Andalusia and to test empirically the relationships between environmental practices and institutional context with its corresponding coercive, normative and mimetic mechanisms. Finally, its relationship with the performance of these organizations is established, testing if a direct or indirect relationship exists through the search for legitimacy, as suggested by the Institutional theory.
Keywords: Institutional theory, golf, tourism, environmental management
ANA VIZJAK, DANIELA GRAČAN, ANDREJA RUDANČIĆ-LUGARIĆ: Intelligent systems in the international economy
The scientific, technical and information-communication revolution has had a significant effect on the general changes occurring in the modern economy, determined by places, roles and the contributions of modern systems. The existing intelligent operating systems in turn establish the conditions necessary for the further development of modern society in general. The factors which refer to the above statement result in the need for key changes in the previously existing level of knowledge, abilities, creativity, innovativeness, motivation, and the productivity of human resources which work and create new technical-technological conditions. They should adjust to the newly-created situations better and faster, as well as provoke and develop new changes. This especially refers to leading entrepreneurial, managerial, expert and other specialised human resources of enterprises, whose obligation it is to introduce its business to the market and to achieve the best economic effect possible. After successful international activities undertaken by the World Trade Organisation (WTO), the role of small and medium-sized enterprises in the international economy has been growing stronger. The need for further successful operations by economic and other entities in new, creative conditions should be based on contemporary scientific achievements which should make use all the benefits of intelligent systems. Nowadays, an increasing number of companies are using modern technologies in their business operations and internet technology is a very significant part of this process.
Keywords: intelligent systems, economy, co-operation, innovativeness, human resources
VIOLETA BULC: Innovation ecosystem and tourism
The creation of an innovation ecosystem is becoming an important facilitator of sustainable development of any industry or community. In my article I intend to show the constituent elements of an innovation ecosystem within sustainable development models and suggest how this could be applied to tourism. Special emphasis will be placed on participants, tools, principles and types of innovation that can be present in such an ecosystem and I will draw examples from business and social environments. The article will also include recommendations on various courses of action and a list of issues that need to be addressed when the principles of innovation communication are applied to a specific environment.
Keywords: innovation, innovation ecosystem, innovation communication, sustainable development, and tourism
GORAZD SEDMAK, TANJA PLANINC: The effect of the economic crisis on tourist behaviour
In 2008, the world was struck by the largest economic crisis since the Great Depression of the 1930s. The collapse of several branches of industry, growing rates of unemployment and uncertainty also affected the flow of tourism. While for some tourist destinations, the decrease of the tourist arrival numbers was almost fatal, others did not suffer any substantial losses. The reason lies in the different income elasticity of demand in various tourist segments and in the very complex dynamics of the flow of tourism. Since a part of the demand side only exchanged destinations traditionally visited with the nearer and/or cheaper ones, a partial loss of one segment in these destinations was replaced by visitors usually visiting more distant destinations. The results of a survey carried out on a sample of (potential) Slovenian tourists are presented in the article. Reactions to the ongoing crisis were measured and compared for different segments of interviewees. Understanding their decision-making patterns can help the tourism industry and the destination management organizations in developing tourism products that are less sensitive to changes affecting income.
Keywords: tourism, consumer behaviour, economic crisis, income elasticity
JANJA ŠTOKELJ, ALEKSANDRA BREZOVEC, DORIS GOMEZELJ OMERZEL: Marketing information systems in tourism companies
This paper presents a survey of the characteristics of marketing information systems (MkIS) and marketing information usage within Slovenian tourism companies. In order to investigate the overall status of MkIS, a questionnaire based on theoretical background and previous research was created. The study focused on marketing information management investigation – gathering, processing, distribution, usage and storage of information. Furthermore, it examined whether the information systems have been used by marketing departments and if the MkIS has been used for decision making. Finally, the level of satisfaction with MkIS was evaluated. The results of the survey's descriptive analysis were compared to those of preliminary studies on MkISs. In conclusion, the limitations of the study are presented and directions for future research are proposed.
Keywords: marketing, marketing information, information systems, tourism, Slovenia
ARMAND FAGANEL: Developing sustainable agrotourism in Central and East European Countries
Tourism is one of the fastest growing industries and is being accelerated by globalization. The fast spread of information communication technology, excellent infrastructure, changes in patterns of spending free time and the need to get away from the stress of the city are all factors that affect the emerging agrotourism industry. Today’s tourists are willing to pay for the preservation of the natural and social environments they seek to explore. Agrotourism is a softer way to develop sustainable tourism in rural areas and also acts as farm tourism; agrotourism is seen as a kind of rural tourism related to agriculture. Visitors become acquainted with the cultural landscape, local products, traditional cuisine and the daily life of the people, as well as the cultural elements and the authentic features of the area, while showing respect for the environment and for tradition. Agrotourism mobilizes the productive, cultural and developmental forces of an area, contributing to the sustainable environmental, economic and social development of the rural zone. The objectives pursued in this paper are to research important implications and trends of sustainable agrotourism development in central and east European (CEE) countries. Tourism as a quickly growing industry allowed many developing countries to integrate culture, landscape, agriculture products, and heritage as a part of their strategy in attracting tourists to these countries. We need to understand that as much as tourism needs globalization to grow as an industry, it is due to tourism that globalization became such an important aspect of interaction across places and countries. The main challenge that agrotourism faces is to sustain the growth of rural economies while ensuring the long-term protection of the social and natural environment.
Keywords: agrotourism, central and eastern Europe, Slovenia, sustainable development
IGOR STUBELJ, MATEJA JERMAN, PRIMOŽ DOLENC: Does the hotel industry create value for owners? The empirical analysis of residual income: The case of Slovenia and Croatia
This paper aims to analyze the residual income of the Slovenian and Croatian hotel industry for the period covering 2005–2008. The residual income not only looks at return on invested funds, but also implicitly compares it with the risk adjusted opportunity cost of such an investment. This parameter is therefore a better performance measure than simply accounting performance measures. The results of the analysis prove that residual incomes of Slovenian and Croatian hotels were far from being positive during the whole period. The obtained findings demonstrate that hotel companies in aggregate did not create value for their owners and that they did not generate enough profits to cover the appropriate cost of capital i.e. the cost of capital that takes into consideration the risk adjusted opportunity cost.
Keywords: residual income, hotel industry, tourism, risk-adjusted cost of capital, performance measure
EMIL JUVAN: Development of regional tourism organizations: Conditions, expectations and contradictions
This paper discusses perceptions of quality of the destination management functions within different tourism organizations and companies in three Slovene regions. The main objective is to identify current conditions, expectations and contradictions which might slow or even stop the process of the formation of regional tourism organizations thus establishing an integrated model of destination management (DM). Two hundred-forty businesses were included in the survey, representing over half of all tourism related businesses within the area. Major conclusions are that the perceived quality of DM functions is low; expectations go for a more integrated model of DM with some contradictions. The latter are more likely related to personal (i.e. micro) characteristics of the respondents, rather than organizational (macro) characteristics.
Keywords: destination management, regional tourism organizations, destination management functions, expectations, contradictions.
ŽIVA ČEH: Enhanced teaching of word combinations in tourism study programmes in Slovenia
The paper reports on a research into teaching English with special attention to word combinations recently conducted at the Faculty of Tourism Studies in Portorož, Slovenia. The study involved two groups of students studying English as a foreign language. We aimed to find out whether enhanced teaching of word combinations influences students' test results in general language tests. While the control group was taught with no special attention paid to word combinations, the experimental group received a considerable amount of exercises and the students were constantly reminded of the importance of word combinations in the English language. Both groups were tested at the beginning and end of the academic year with two tests, the Oxford Placement Test and the Test of English for International Communication and students also had to fill in Common European Framework Self-assessment Forms. The data analysis indicates that the experimental group scored better results.
Keywords: teaching English for specific purposes, language of tourism, word combinations
NADIA PAVIA, CHRISTIAN STIPANOVIĆ, EDNA MRNJAVAC: Innovation of business culture with the aim of developing Croatian tourism – case study of Valamar Hotels & Resorts
Croatian tourism must apply a new concept of development in order to transform natural resources (comparative advantages) into a competitive tourism offer based on innovation. The ultimate goal of this is to multiply profit and sustainable growth. The main impetus for development is the intellectual capital and new system of values based on knowledge and an individual approach to each customer. The education of a new generation of managers is the prerequisite for the development of tourism on the macro and micro level. The new managers should be able to anticipate and actively design the future and bring about changes. It no longer suffices to be up to date with the demand and follow the competition. Instead, one should introduce new content in order to achieve a leading position. Employees must aim towards self-realisation in order to make their company more competitive. It is necessary to constantly educate employees, introduce cross training techniques, authorisation in order to establish an organisation which is able to learn and thus advance. The importance of business culture is shown in this paper using the positive example of the development of the Croatian hospitality management company (Valamar Hotels & Resorts) based on management of knowledge and learning culture.
Keywords: business culture, learning organisation, intellectual capital, Croatian tourism, Valamar Hotels & Resorts
A VIEW FROM PRACTICE:
DEJAN KRIŽAJ, TINA HEDI ZAKONJŠEK: National mechanism for spurring innovation in Slovenian tourism
Innovation has been part of tourism since its beginnings but only recently has it attracted the attention of researchers and policy makers. In Slovenia a national mechanism has been developed to spur innovation in Slovenian tourism. The story began in 2004 with the Sejalec Award (Slovene for “sower”), an award for creative and innovative tourism achievements that contribute to the recognition of Slovenian tourism, continued with Bank of Tourism Potentials in Slovenia (BTPS) in 2006, Snovalec (Slovene for “creator”), financial support for inventive tourism ideas in 2009, and Innovative Slovenian Travel and BTPS Challenges in 2010. Numerous awards, including those of UNWTO and the European Commission prove that mechanisms for development and promotion of innovation in Slovenian tourism are heading in the right direction.
Keywords: tourism innovation, innovation systems, tourism policy
ACADEMICA TURISTICA - JOURNAL OF THEORY AND PRACTICE IN TOURISM ('08-'10)
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