All Answers are to be in Purple text

Documents for the first 6 questions are to be found on my website. It is called Handout-Documents Lowell Mills

Station 1: Lowell Bill of Mortality 1846 (Additional information)

Read through these definitions of some of the more common causes of death during the Industrial Revolution.

Asthma: illness that causes lungs to sell and narrow. Can be triggered by environment.

Cholera: Infection of small intestine, causes diarrhea and vomiting. Can lead to severe dehydration. Very contagious.  Can be spread through water.

Consumption, also known as Tuberculosis – infection in lungs, coughing up blood. Very contagious.

Croup: Infection in lungs, difficulty breathing, air passage is difficult. VERY contagious.

Hooping cough: Bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable violent coughing. Very contagious.

Measles: Virus disease infecting respiratory system. Causes high fever, rash, and runny nose/eyes. VERY contagious.

Typhoid fever: disease passed through contaminated drink, food. Causes fever, severe diarrhea, and rash. Very contagious.  Can be spread through water.

Life in Lowell Station Activity.

Directions in your groups you will be rotating around and looking at a variety of primary sources today that are related to life in Lowell. The purpose of this activity is for you draw conclusions of what life was like based on what you see from the images, numbers, and texts that are available to you. Work with care and focus. Help your partners out and try to come up with compelling follow-up questions that show real active thinking. The goal is for you to start at a station and rotate every 6-8 minutes. You must use your time wisely.

Document #1: Lowell Bill of Mortality - 1846

  1. Which illness was the biggest threat to children under the age of 5?  That when they were too close to the mill and cotton.                         
  2. Which illness was most common for adults between ages of 15-30 The mills as they get too close and get their hands/feet cutten off.


  1. Which illness was the 2nd most common for adults between the ages of 15-30? The second most common illness was involved with the cotton. 


  1. Thinking about what you know of life in Lowell for the mill girls and other workers of the Industrial Revolution, how might their living and working conditions perhaps play a role in why these diseases were often the cause of death? As they, “liked”, the room and the job, they decided to be happy for it. As in the letter it showed about the girl writing the letter to her dad and explaining as a mill girl, that she likes the place.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  2. What two additional questions do you have from looking at this primary source? My two additional questions would be, “In the letter she wrote to her father, why did she say she enjoys the place?”                                                                                                                                                                                                                

Document #2: An Idyl of Work (idyl = short poem)

1. One member of the group should read the whole poem aloud to the rest of the group.

2.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the SOUNDS: “Their work was speeding , clatter went the looms, click-clack the shuttles”. “Arms, hands, and heads, moved with the moving looms”.                                                                                                

3.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the machines of the mills: The spindles buzzing like ten-thousand bees. To disentangle broken threads, or climbed to where their countenances glistened pale among swift belts and pulleys.                                                                                                                                 

4.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the people of the mills: “A hundred girls who to and fro…”, “...watching for the scarlet mark that came up in the web , to show how fast their work was speeding.”                                                                

6.   Read the last 2 lines of the poem “Arms, hands, and heads, moved with the moving looms, That closed them in as if all were one shape, One motion.” What do you think this means? It is describing the work of theirs, and how they can put their hands and arms and head close to it. And could also get them cut off.          

Document #3: Review the Regulations of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Pay particular attention to the section highlighted.

What are 3-4 rules that the employees of the mill must follow to keep their jobs?  For each rule, why do you think this rule was important to the mill owners?

7. Rule 1

Why is it important to mill owner? To show the protection that they had faced.

Rule 2

Why is it important to mill owner? To keep the factory of the mill okay.

Rule 3

Why is it important to mill owner? To For the factory to know of their 2 weeks notice.

Rule 4

Why is it important to mill owner? For the regulation of the way they have to go for as they can get injured.

Document #4: Time Table of the Lowell Mills

8. According to the first line, how many hours a day are workers supposed to work in 1853? The workers did the same thing over over 12 hours. 

9. Look at the schedule from March to September.  

  1. What time does work start? Every 12 to 14 hours a day.                When does it end? At the last 14th hour.
  2. How much time do they have for lunch (called dinner in the 1840s)? At the 8th hour. or 45 minutes

  1. What might be difficult about having lunch in that time? (think about where lunch might be) That they had to be careful on where to eat and didn't have that much time.

10. Look at the section entitled “Bells”

  1. From March to September, what time does the first bell ring to wake girls up? ___4:30AM.____
  2. Why are there two other times for morning bells? For the lunch bells.
  3. Think—Why would the mills need two different schedules, March- September and September to March? _For different people who has different part of time.                                                                                
  4. How is the Saturday schedule different? _It starts at 6:00AM.                                                                                                                                                

11. What two additional questions do you have from looking at this primary  source? My additional question would be, “Is it worth it for them to wake up at 4:30AM?”                                                                                                                                                                                                

Document #5: Ladies’ Fur Store and J.H. Kimball Retailer Advertisements (these were advertisements made in local Lowell newspapers)

12. What do these sources tell you about life in Lowell for the people who lived there?  About the clothing.                                                                                                                                                                                                

13. Looking closely at the ads, who do you think are the potential customers for these stores? How do you know?  The owners of the mills factory, to get more money to keep their factory.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

14. Add  at least 2 other observations/connections _ Their guns, rifles, clothing are showing their debt.                                                                                                                                                 

Document #6: I Cannot Be a Slave.

15. Read the document, beginning with the ‘typical early morning scene in the boarding house’. As the bells ring, it all of a sudden shows that they were annoyed of the bell/rung that they hear.

16. What happened in 1836 in Lowell?  _        Over 1,500 walked out to hold a rally in a neighborhood park. Than showed        their singing.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         

17. What do the lyrics of the song suggest? It is showing that they could not be a save, in reference, that they shouldn’t be treated this way and earn so little money.                                                                                                                                                        

Document 7

The following is an excerpt from William Cooper's testimony before the Sadler Committee in 1832.  The committee, led by Michael Sadler, investigated working conditions in factories and mills.  

Sadler:  What is your age?

Cooper:  I am eight and twenty.

Sadler:  When did you first begin to work in the mills?

Cooper:  When I was ten years of age.

Sadler:  What were your usual hours of working?

Cooper:  We began at five in the morning and stopped at nine in the night.

Sadler:  What time did you have for meals?

Cooper:  We had just one period of 40 minutes in the 16 hours.  That was at noon.

Sadler:  What means were taken to keep you awake and attentive?

Cooper:  At times we were frequently strapped (whipped).

Sadler:  When your hours were so long, did you have time to attend school?

Cooper:  We had no time to go to school.

Sadler:  Can you read and write?

Cooper:  I can read, but I cannot write.

18.  Describe work conditions in the factory based on the testimony. That many people in the factory couldn’t know how to read nor write. And being tested for how long they have been working for.

19. How did the Industrial Revolution affect children working in the mills? It affected them by the safety that they have failed from. As they always get close to the cotton and the mills.

Document 8

The following is an excerpt from the testimony of textile worker Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee.

Sadler:  What is the nature of your illness?

Hebergam:  I have damaged lungs.  My leg muscles do not function properly and will not

                support the weight of my bones.

Sadler:  A doctor has told you that you will die within the year, is that correct?

Hebergam:  I have been so told.

Sadler:  Did he tell you the cause of your illness?

Hebergam:  He told me that it was caused by dust in the factories and from overwork and insufficient diet.

Sadler:  To what was your brother's death attributed?

Hebergam:  He was cut by a machine and died of infection.

20. Explain in Detail how  factory conditions impact the health of some workers? By that example, showing as they get cut up they can get infected.

21. Based on the photograph above, describe in detail  the work conditions for factory employees. That kids are tired of their work and they look tired, while cleaning and being careful over the machines.

22. What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on the environment? That usually they were close to the highway and ocean to the pacific on their factory. Also we can see a lot of pollution.