Unit 9: Plant Biology
Transport in the Xylem of Plants (9.1)
- How does gas exchange occur in transpiration?
- Describe factors that affect rates of transpiration:
- What controls the amount of water and gases entering and leaving plant cells?
- Describe & outline the steps of transpiration:
- How is water replaced in the plant due to transpiration through the root system?
- Describe the properties that allow water to be transported in the plant
- Describe the process of active uptake of mineral ions and how this causes absorption of water by osmosis
- Identify and explain adaptations of plants in deserts and in saline soils for water conservation (Xerophytes & Halophytes).
Completed during in class lab
- Draw the structure of primary xylem vessels in sections of stems based on microscope images.
Transport in the Phloem of Plants (9.2)
- Describe the purpose of the phloem in plants:
- Explain the transport of organic compounds from sources to sinks in plants
- Explain how active transport is used to load organic compounds into phloem sieve tubes at the source
- Describe how water allows transport along hydrostatic pressure gradients.
- Explain how high concentrations of solutes in the phloem at the source lead to water uptake by osmosis.
- Outline why raised hydrostatic pressure causes the contents of the phloem to flow towards sinks.
- Describe the structure-function relationships of phloem sieve tubes.
Completed during in class lab
- Identify of xylem and phloem in microscope images of stem and root (skill from a lab).
Growth in Plants (9.3)
- Identify differences between monocots and dicots
- Describe the general structure of plants:
- Identify different types of leaf tissues and their function:
- Describe the purpose of undifferentiated cells in the meristems
- Explain how mitosis and cell division in the shoot apex provide cells needed for extension of stems and development of leaves.
- Explain differences of purpose and growth between apical and lateral meristems
- Explain the use of hormones to control growth in the shoot apex.
- Explain how tropisms are used by plant shoots to respond to the environment
- Explain the influence of auxin on cell growth rates by changing the pattern of gene expression and ability to set up concentration gradients through efflux pumps.
- Explain micropropagation of plants:
Reproduction in Plants (9.4)
- Describe the changes in gene expression that produce flowering
- Explain why the switch to flowering is a response to the length of light and dark periods in many plants.
- Explain methods used induce short-day plants to flower out of season.
- Draw a half-view of animal-pollinated flowers:
- Describe the success in plant reproduction depends on pollination, fertilization and seed dispersal and explain each step.
- Identify and explain use mutualistic relationships with pollinators and plants in sexual reproduction.
- Skill: Drawing internal structure of seeds.