History of the World 9 is the ninth version of the forum-based History of the World game series. It is a play-by-post style geopolitical diplomacy game that starts at the beginning of man's history and progresses through scientific discoveries until the game is won by one or more players through various victory conditions. The game requires that players follow a certain number of rules to be played, which are listed as follows. The game is intended to be as simple as possible without sacrificing game-play.

Important Information

In History of the World it is important for players to communicate not only with the game's moderator, but with other players. Generally this is done within the game's thread itself, by post. However there are alternatives to this that may better suit players' playing styles.

IRC Chatroom

The IRC chat is where a lot of the fun happens. I try to be in as often as possible, usually in the evenings on weekdays and periodically throughout the day on weekends. A lot of the players like to hang out there and chat with each other. While the topic never strays too far from the game, we do usually enjoy talking about various other topics like movies, websites, and games.

Large amounts of diplomacy happen in the IRC room (and the subrooms each alliance or faction creates). Typically, if you’re not on IRC, you will be conquered. Quickly.

Server: SynIRC.net

Chatroom: #retribution

I highly recommend using the Mibbit IRC browser client if you're unfamiliar with setting up an application to connect to the IRC Chat. It's what I use.

Contacting ExtraNoise

In addition to the IRC chatroom, you can get ahold of me by email (or Google chat) at extranoise@gmail.com Alternatively you can usually find me online at all hours of the day on Steam. My username is ExtraNoise.

Beginning the Game

In order to join the game, you will need to make a "claims" post in the game's thread. A claims post is one in which you tell me, the game moderator, who you are and what kind of nation you wish to run. Before the game begins, these posts are accepted in the order in which they are posted (first come, first serve) and after the game begins it will be determined by a lottery system, in which many claims are made between turns and, depending on available openings, a fixed number are drawn and selected to join the game. See “Mid-Game Lottery” below.

Each claim in the game will need two factors: Your nation's name and your first city's name.

An example of a claims post is:

Nation name: Byzantine

Starting city name: Constantinople

Important: Your starting location will be determined at random.

When picking a name, it should be a single word of no more than 14 characters. You may use titles (such as "The Free Republic" or "Tyrannical Dictatorship of") when making a name, but try to limit the length. When displaying the name on the map, the longer the title is, the smaller it will appear. Nations who choose really stupid names ("Dickerton" comes to mind) are often the subject of attack simply because they draw more (and sometimes negative) attention. Names can be changed at any time in the game, so don't feel committed to making a life-long decision.

As the game moderator, I retain full control over making revisions to your nation's name and city's names. In addition to this, I don't want to see any really ridiculous appendages to names like "Valhalla, the land of Roller Skates" or "Babylon with a Vengeance". Those are not names. Those are stupid.

Lastly, bear in mind starting location and various cultures around the map. As a new player, you begin the game in the Stone Age with one area, or territory. You may begin working with or against other players immediately.

Reading the Map

The map, or the default page when visiting the game, is the primary graphic interface the player will use with the game. It is where all the game's information is displayed for players to view and plot.

The map's appearance changes with the nations that are in play. Each player is grouped into a color that represents their Ideology. The cities on the map give more information about a player's nation. Using the mouse, you can scroll and pan around the map by clicking and dragging. Using the Go To Location links in the menu will also allow you to view different areas of the map.

When you roll the cursor over a specific city or area, information about that city or area is displayed.


Representation, or Rep, is the fraction of citizens in that city who support your nation's cause, are productive in society, and contribute back to the country. Each Rep in a city generates 1C of income for the nation usually. It is important to increase your cities’ Representation values to increase the flow of income that you can spend each turn. The Rep icon is represented in game as a number block with a thumbs-up symbol overlay. It is directly below the population image of the man and women (generic citizens).

Each city cannot have more than 80 Rep total.


Language is important to trade and is a victory condition later in the game. Starting out, each player begins with “Isolated” language. The languages are divided into groups with each group sharing a color.

You and another player must share the same language in at least one of your cities in order to trade.

When you enter the Classical age, you are only required to share a language in the same language group in at least one of your cities.

When you enter the Atomic age, language trade rules no longer apply. You may trade freely with anyone in the world of any age.

The languages are:


There are eleven different ethnicities that can be adopted by individual cities in the game. Each of these ethnicities has unique art for the Heads of each city that can be used to quickly identify that city’s particular ethnicity.


There are seven different cultures that can be adopted by individual cities in the game. Each of these cultures has unique art for the Heads of each city that can be used to quickly identify that city's particular culture.


Ideology is the core winning element of the game. Because it is nation-wide, and not city-specific, it is inherently the easiest to change on a large scale and can be used as a chip in diplomacy to tip the balance of power in alliances or other power struggles. There are six different types of ideology. New nations begin the game under Individual Rule, which cannot be used to win the game through an Ideology Victory.

Ideology may only be changed using a card allowing you to change your nation’s ideology..


Religion is a victory condition and can be manipulated from territory to territory, adopting those on your nation’s outskirts or pushing one you control deep into another player’s country. There are over two dozen religions to choose from in History and they will appear at various points during gameplay in specific locations.

The religions are:

Technological Age

Technology in the game is represented by eight grand Ages divided each into three sub-ages, for a total of 24 Ages. The ages themselves represent technological progress as a whole and affect your entire nation; individual cities are all aligned to the same “Age” your nation is.

The ages are:

Military Strength

Each territory has a number of units defending it or can be drawn upon to attack a neighboring enemy territory. Military strength represents these units in a specific territory/city.

A territory cannot have more than 80 units total.


Establishment represents the size of a city and acts as a multiplier for the total representation in the city/territory. A numeric value for a city’s Establishment level is shown on the city-zot icon. See below for more details on Establishment and how it works.

Reading the Nations List

The Nations List is a list of all players, past and present, of the game. It explains in simple form the nation's name, the player's name, how many Credits they have to spend that turn, their Achievements, and how many nuclear weapons they possess.

Beginning The Game

Each turn will be given a specific amount of time in order for players to post their nation's Turn Reports for that turn and conduct diplomacy/story writing. Once the turn is expired, I will close the thread and process the reports in the order they are received. For this reason, a player may wish to post their report as soon as possible during the turn and then make changes to it if need be. If a player does not submit a report, their nation will stagnate (changes in credits will not be made).

Once a turn is complete, I will close the thread, process each turn, post the updates, battle results, and new credit incomes, and then re-open the thread for the new turn.

The game's economy revolves around "Credits" (denoted as C) which can be used to increase city representation, recruit new troops, improve infrastructure through technological research, and other changes such as spreading language, religion, or increasing the size of your borders.


The Turn Report

The Turn Report is the post that you, as the player, make to me, as the game moderator, to tell me what actions you wish to take during your turn. Failing to make a Turn Report will cause your nation to stagnate or potentially come under attack by another player looking to take advantage.

The Turn Report's order is very specific in History of the World and should be strictly adhered to in the order posted. Fluff, story, or other information should not be posted between where the Turn Report starts and where it ends (###). That sort of information may be posted before or after a Turn Report in the same post. Always include your Nation Name.

Important: When you post a report you post with the understanding that the rules of that turn will apply to that post and all others. You agree to those rules and no reparations or extra considerations will be made for disadvantageous or unfair situations that arise. Rules may change between rounds to address serious balance issues, but as subtle and simple as possible, and no changes will affect retroactively.

Technology Purchases

The “Age” your civilization is at requires you to make technological purchases. See “Technological Age” above for more information about the 24 ages of History. Each Age has a specific cost, as outlined directly below. Only one Age may be upgraded a turn.

Representation Purchases

Representation is a new concept to this version of History, replacing the previous "Population" model. In essence it works in a similar manner. The more Representation a city has, the more Credits that city outputs each turn, which can then be spent on other purchasable items.

Representation are the "units" of population in a city that identify themselves as members of your nation. They are citizens who are productive and happy and contribute to your country. A city's individual Representation by no means represents the actual population of a city; that number is arbitrary and not set in stone. A city's size can easily be determined by the city's Establishment level.

Each rep costs 20C.

Establishment Purchases

Establishment is simply a declaration of a city's importance and comes in seven levels ranging from Zero (0) to Six (6). It is an indication of the overall population and population density of a given city.

Establishment works as a multiplier for Representation; each level of establishment multiplies the Representation of a city by that Establishment’s amount. Cities with greater Establishment are an important backbone to the economic growth of a country but are also a higher-priority target for enemies.

You may reduce the establishment level of a city you control by spending the same cost you would to upgrade it to a certain level. For example, if you wanted to reduce the establishment of a city from Level 2 to Level 1, it would cost 10C. If you wanted to reduce the establishment of a city from Level 6 to Level 5, it would cost 375C. Cities may be downgraded to Establishment Level 0 for 10C. You may do this only once per city per turn.

Important: Cities with zero (0) Establishment will not produce credits each turn, even if they have representation.

Territorial Purchases

Neighboring unoccupied Territories are claimable by purchasing. Newly-claimed Territories begin with 5 Representation, but no Establishment (meaning they will not produce credits until upgraded).

Please note that if a neighboring Territory is occupied, it must be seized using Military action.

Each Territory costs 20C. It must be adjacent (by land or using water rules) to a City in your control. You may not purchase a territory that is only adjacent to a territory you have acquired on the same turn. It may not be traded that turn, but it may have purchases made to it in the same turn (ie, increasing Representation, increasing Military, changing Religion, etc).

Culture, Language, and Religion Purchases


You may push any Culture, Language, or Religion you control in one of your territories for 15C. You may push from any territory that contains the Culture, Language, or Religion, to any territory adjacent to it. You may not push to a territory that is only adjacent to a territory you have pushed to on the same turn.

In other words: If you control a Culture, Language, or Religion somewhere in your controlled territories, you may spread that same Culture, Language, or Religion to any territory on the map that is adjacent to a territory with that Culture, Language, or Religion even if you don’t control it.


You may adopt a Culture, Language, or Religion to one of your territories for 5C from any adjacent territory.

Purchasing Units

Each unit costs 10C plus the age/tier of the unit being purchased. For example, a “Tier 13” unit (see explanation of unit tiers under Combat Resolution below) would cost a base 10C + 13C to equal a total of 23C cost.

The exception to this rule is Tier 1 units. These units cost 10C, not 11C. Tier 2 then cost 12C.

A cost breakdown follows for each age:

When purchasing a unit, you must specify which territory the unit(s) will be placed in. You can purchase as many units per turn, in as many territories you control, as your budget allows.

You may place units in territories claimed this turn, but they may not be used. Units placed in territories you already control may be used this turn, however.

Moving & Selling Units

Units cannot be moved from one territory to another, but they can be sold for a fraction of their original cost so that new levies can be raised elsewhere. You can sell units for 50% of their purchase cost at the age/tier they are currently at, rounded down per each unit.

For example, a Tier 13 unit  which costs 23C  can be sold for 11C per unit (23/2 = 11.5 rounded = 11). 12 Tier 13 units would therefore sell for 132C total. You cannot use credits earned from selling units the same turn that you sell them. You can sell as many units per turn as you wish. You must specify from which territory you are selling the unit(s).

The Credits earned from sales will be added to your “bank” and be available on the next turn for use.

A cost breakdown follows for each age:


Cards, when purchased, are drawn at random and provide unique and special abilities that can be “played” during the turn. Everyone starts with one (1) card. Once an empty spot opens up in your hand, you are able to purchase new cards.

Each card draw costs 30C.

Most cards are beneficial in nature. However, their worth is not equal. The most common cards do very little, while rarer cards give you great power. A few cards even have negative effects.

Cards that affect territories cannot be played on territories that have changed ownership this turn. You may not play cards on territories that you do not control at the beginning of the turn unless they specify that they can be played on other players.

Cards may be played if they are traded to you that same turn. Cards may be discarded instead of played, removing them from your hand without using any of their effects.


Trading may be done during the turn, but should be specified in the Turn Report. Credits, Cards, and Cities/Territories can be traded. Players should only list their outgoing trades in their Turn Report. The game moderator may veto any trade for any reason.

There are certain limitations in place when trading territories to another player:

See “Language” above for specific information on who you can trade with.


Combat is an integral part of the game's dynamic. It is very likely that sometime during the game you will either be forced into war with another player or feel the need to start an invasion. Your cities' military strength and technological age are major contributors to your success or failure on the battlefield.

In simplistic terms, combat works as so: During a turn you specify how many Units you wish to move from one of your cities to an enemy city in an adjacent territory. You can move every Unit in that city, but it will leave it defenseless. You can choose to leave a few units behind. Your army then engages the defending city's army until the conflict is resolved. If your army is victorious, you will capture the city. The technological age for that city is changed to that of the attacking nation's, and the remaining units of the attacking army becomes the city's new defense.

When a city is captured, it’s Representation is halved, rounded-down.

If you lose, however, your Units are lost and you may be subject to a counter-attack.

You do not need to specify defensive orders. Your cities are automatically defended based on the military present.

An army may engage a territory across a body of water so long as the territories the army is being moved from and to are within the same sea square. There are no naval units.

Units may not attack territories claimed by another player that same turn.

Combat Resolution

Armies are often referred to using shorthand representing number of units and tier (Age).  For example, 13t18 represents an army of 13 units owned by an Age 18 (tier 18) nation.

When armies engage in combat, each army calculates a total representing their strength - the army with the higher strength is declared the winner.  Each unit's combat strength is individually calculated — the summation of each unit's strength becomes an army's total strength.  Each individual unit's combat strength is calculated by adding three components: (1) a base strength of 1, (2) the tier of the unit, (3) a random modifier between 0 and one-half the tier of the unit, rounded up.  Here are some examples:

Tier 1 = 1 (Base) + 1 (Age) + 0-1 (Random)

Tier 2 = 1 (Base) + 2 (Age) + 0-1 (Random)

Tier 3 = 1 (Base) + 3 (Age) + 0-2 (Random)

Tier 20 = 1 (Base) + 20 (Age) + 0-10 (Random)

Once all units' strengths have been individually calculated, they are summed. The Loser is the army with the lesser total strength — this army is entirely destroyed. The Winner is the army with the greater total strength — this army loses the units with the lowest rolls, until the additive total strength of the lost units surpasses the Losing army's total strength. If the Attacker is victorious, the surviving units move to capture and occupy the defending territory. If the Defender is victorious, the surviving units continue to occupy their territory.  In the case that both armies have equal strength, a tie is declared and both armies are entirely destroyed — no exchange of territory takes place.

Let's demonstrate a mock battle between two armies, the Attackers with 3t5 and the Defenders with 4t3.  The Attacker's individual units have a strength of 6-9, and roll totals of 6, 7, 9, for a total strength of 22. The Defender's individual units have a strength of 4-6, and roll totals of 5, 5, 5, 6 for a total strength of 21. The Attackers win, but lose all units until their additive total exceeds 20 — in this case, the units rolling 6 and 7 are lost, but the unit that rolled 9 survives, since its addition brings the additive total over 21.

Nuclear Exchange

When a nation reaches the Atomic Age (Age 16) they are able to purchase Nuclear Weapons for 1200C. Nuclear Weapons can be used to destroy a city's Representation, quartering it (rounded down) with each nuclear strike.

If too many Nuclear Weapons are detonated, the game will end in the Nuclear Winter finale. It is almost assured that this game will end with Nuclear Winter.

A nation may draw cards that affect their nuclear stockpile. If this happens, they may play cards to add to their stockpile at any point in the game but will not be able to use their nuclear arms until they reach Age 16.

Mid-Game Lottery

At the end of Turn 5, between Turns 5 and 6, there will be a mid-game lottery to allow new players (and players conquered earlier) to enter the game. This happens after the end of each five turns.

Once the allotted time for lottery entries has run out, the game moderator will randomly pick several entries (established at the beginning of the lottery phase), add the new nations, and then proceed with the next turn.

If you were a player conquered and enter the game again in the lottery, you forfeit all claims on territories you once held for use in liberation cards. If you choose to lotto in while presently in control of territories, those territory claims will be forfeit and marked as uncontrolled; Units, Representation, Establishment, Religion, Languages, Ethnicity, and Culture properties will remain.

There are two ways to enter the game:

New Nation Claim

This is exactly as if you were starting the game as a new player and the requirements for establishing a claim are the same as outlined above, but also including a starting location. You can only make a new nation claim in an unoccupied territory.

Nations entering the game as a New Nation will start the game with the highest-tier median age of all other players. Their starting city will have Representation and Units equal to that of  two times (x2) the turn of which they enter on. For example, nations entering the game on the Turn 5 Lotter will recieve 10 Rep and 10 Units. Nations entering the game on Turn 20 will receive 40 Rep and 40 Units. After Turn 40, nations will max-out at 80 Rep and 80 Units.

Each new nation will be given one drawn card.


Revolutions are a little tricker, in that they involve you establishing a claim on a territory already owned by another player (even if it is their only territory). Revolutions can only happen in territories bordering unclaimed territories. You need to tell me your potential nation’s name and which territory you want to attempt the revolution in.

By performing a revolution, you gain control over all units in the territory and start at the current technological level of the player whose territory you overthrew. You do not start with any cards drawn.

However, doing a revolution is a big risk in that the territory’s previous owner is likely to try and reclaim their land. You’ve been warned.


Alliances can be established by any nation and may involve any other nation. This is purely up to the players' involvement. De facto alliances are likely to occur between nations of the same ideology, but players are not restricted to form alliances solely with other players sharing this same attribute. Players of the same ideology are within their right to attack each other.

It is up to the players' to determine the guidelines of their alliance. Alliances may be used to promote defensive pacts, rush city upgrades, or establish military trade networks. The possibilities of what alliances can do is up to the players. There will be backstabbing.

Finales & Winning the Game

ExtraNoise’s Advice for New Players

First: Welcome to the game.

Use the thread and chatrooms to work with other players as much as possible, but always expect to be backstabbed. Generally alliances falter from within. If it’s to your advantage: Act as a mole for other alliances.

Veteran players will team up.

Don’t rush too quickly into tech advancement. Use the lower-stone age to build up representation and units before making the leap to the next age, where everything costs more.

Gobble up smaller nations, especially from inactive players.

Have fun. Don’t take the game too seriously. There will always be a second chance.