Name: _________________________________________________ Date: __________ Period: ________ NOTES
Notes: The Ocean
What is the ocean?
- ______________ water covers most of Earth.
- _______% of water on Earth is sea/salt water.
- All sections of the ocean are ________________________.
Why is the ocean important?
- The ocean covers __________ of Earth’s surface.
- It is an important source of ___________ and __________________ resources.
- We use it for _______________________ and ________________________.
- The ocean stores __________—water has high ________________________, so it takes a lot of _____________ to heat it up. Water holds on to this __________ energy and stays ______________ longer than the ____________.
- The stored _________ in the ocean drives much of Earth’s ____________ and causes ____________ near the ocean to be _____________ than climate in the interior of __________________.
- Ocean _______________ distribute energy (___________) and __________________.
What is the relationship between density and salinity?
- Ocean water contains ____________ and _____________.
- Ocean water has all ________ natural elements.
- ______________: a measure of the amount of dissolved _______ contained in water
- many kinds of _________ in the ocean (mostly _________)
- _________ water is more ______________ (heavier) than fresh water.
- _______________: a measure of the amount of ___________ packed into a given _______________ (mass/volume)
- More _________ = greater ______________ = more objects ___________
- Ex. Dead Sea is ___________ dense!
- Salinity & density ________ in the ocean (different depending on ____________ you are).
- _____________ salinity: ___________ areas (freshwater), _____________ areas (more evaporation)
- _________ salinity: areas where ocean is ___________ by freshwater (___________—where ___________ meet the ocean—or where a lot of _________ falls).
What gases are dissolved in the ocean?
- Ocean water has many different _________ dissolved in it, mostly nitrogen, _____________, and ___________________.
- The movement of __________ over the ocean and waves ____________ (mixes up) the water at the ____________, speeding up the exchange of ____________ between the ocean and the ___________________ (like shaking a soda bottle!).
- _____________ (ocean) plants need _____________________ dissovled in the water to go through ___________________→photosynthesis releases _________ into the water, which is then used by ocean organisms (like _________) to go through ____________________.
- As atmospheric levels of ___________ rise, so do levels of those gases _______________ in ocean water
Why is carbon dioxide so important?
- ________________________ is one of the most important gasses dissolved in the ocean (along with _______________!)
- Some carbon dioxide stays _______________ as ________, but most ____________ with water to form ________________________ or reacts with other carbonates to form _____________________. This ________________ carbon dioxide from water.
- Bicarbonates are used by many ____________ organisms to form calcium carbonate ___________. When these organisms die, some of the bicarbonate is returned to the ___________, but a lot of it settles into the ______________. This process locks up _______________ that originated as carbon dioxide in the ________________ for long periods of ______________.
How much gas can be dissolved in seawater?
- ____________ water holds ______________ gas than warm water.
- Seawater with ___________ salinity holds ____________ gas than high salinity water.
- __________ water, which has a high _____________, holds ________ gas than shallow water.
What is the temperature of the ocean?
- Ocean is divided into ______ layers based on ______________________.
- ______________ layer→_____________, varies with depth
- warm water is ________________________, stays on top
- ___________________→temperature ___________ with depth
- ____________ water→ ___________ all year long, barely above freezing
How does the ocean affect our climate?
- The ocean is an important factor in the global _____________ because it ____________ and ___________ water, _____________, and carbon dioxide
- These components are constantly ___________________ between the ____________ and hydrosphere (water on Earth)
- Ex: ________________: water goes from the hydrosphere to the atmosphere
- Because the ocean can store so much __________, seasons occur _________ than they would and air above the ocean is ________________.
- ___________ energy stored in the ocean in one ____________ will affect the ____________ almost an entire season later.
- Air _____________ around the world are regulated by movement of ________ in the ______
- Most _________ in the ocean is stored in the top _____ meters because seawater has a _____ ____________ and high specific ________—this allows the ocean to store a lot of _______.
- The ocean can then buffer changes in ___________________ by _____________ and releasing __________.
- Evaporation __________ ocean water (just like sweat cools your body), which cools the __________________. This is more important near the ______________, where there’s a lot of evaporation, than near the ___________.
- Moving _______ (wind) causes moving ___________ (_______________).
- ____________ currents: help distribute _________ around the globe
- Ex. Gulf Stream _____________ causes the climate in Great Britain to be _________, whereas at the same latitude in Canada, there would be _________________.
- A ___________ in surface currents can cause a __________ change in ___________ patterns.
- no _________ = no surface ____________ = different ____________/weather
- ____________ Ocean: wind normally blows ________ (←), some years it’s not as _____________
- causes changes in weather around the __________; lasts ____________ months
How does wind affect the ocean?
- A _________ is an up-and-down motion along the ___________ of a body of water.
- Moving air drags across the water’s surface and gives energy to the ____________, causing _____________.
- Wind blows over the ocean, causing ____________________________.
- carry ___________ water away from the ____________ & _________ water away from the ____________
- Earth’s ______________ makes them spin in ___________ (clockwise in N. Hemisphere, counterclockwise in S. Hemisphere)
- ________________________: mass of __________ water; many currents in the ocean distribute _________ and ___________________
- Currents move ____________, waves move _____________.
What are deep ocean currents?
- ________________ are caused by differences in __________ (due to temp, __________, etc)
- ______________________: water moving from the surface ________ to the bottom
- carries _____________ down
- allows animals to live in the ___________ ocean
- ______________________: water moving ___________ to the surface
- Occurs when __________ surface water is blown offshore by wind. This allows the __________ water at the bottom of the ocean to _________.
- carries _______________ up
- large numbers of _____________ gather in areas where upwelling occurs because of the availability of ________________.
What are tides?
- _______________ waters rise and fall each day
- The water level on _______________ varies with the __________ of day. This periodic _____________ and ____________ of the water level of the ocean is called the _____
- The water level is highest at ________ tide, submerging parts of the ______________.
- The water level is lowest at _________ tide, exposing more of the _______________.
What is a tidal dam?
- Tides can be used to generate _____________________.
- A tidal ________ is a dam built near a coast in the path of _____________ waters.
- How tidal dams work:
- Dam’s ____________ are open as the tide _______________.
- When tide ____________, gates _____________, trapping water.
- At ________ tide, gates ___________ and water rushes out, turning ____________ and making electricity.
- Benefits: renewable ____________, less ________________.
- Costs: can only be done in a ___________ places, blocks paths of ________ and can hurt _______________ life.
Homework: Complete the crossword
3. causes waves
4. the difference between high and low tide
6. the ocean distributes __________ and nutrients.
8. Density _________ as salinity increases.
9. most heat is stored in the top _____ meters of the ocean.
10. uses tides to generate electricity
13. a mass of moving ocean water
16. water has a high ____________, which lets it store heat.
19. the rising and falling of water at the coast
20. water moving oxygen down to the bottom
1. the amount of dissolved salt contained in water
2. used to make calcium carbonate shells for organisms.
5. when waves move parallel to the shore
7. holds more dissolved gas than warm water.
12. the __________ of the moon and sun causes tides
14. tides with little difference between high and low tide
15. when water breaks through a sandbar and drains quickly back to sea
17. extreme tides
18. water moving nutrients up to the surface