Ice Plant

1863-1869: Transcontinental Railroad Built, and Ice Plant is used to stabilize soil along the railroad

1960-1970: As the highway system grows, Caltrans also uses iceplant to shore up soil along roads

late 1970s: Up until the 1970’s, thousands of acres were planted.

Where ice plant grows on dunes, its growth forms dense mats that restrict the natural movement of sand, which most native dune species need.

One such species, the Bank Swallow, nests within the dunes.On March 3, 1989, the Bank Swallow was listed as endangered

bank swallow burrow excavation process: 4 inches per day

These dense mats, in addition to the higher soil salinity credited to ice plant, pushed out native plants as well.

By 1994, Indian Clover almost all gone [source]

The ice plant is a rhizomatic plant,

1998: Recovery Plan for the El Segundo blue butterfly

May 4, 2002: Ice Plant Getting Cold Reception From Naturalists

July 1, 2006: Bank Swallows Dig in at Fort Funston

July 2006: Diana Immel (a rare-plant ecologist) reintroduced the showy Indian clover to Point Reyes National Seashore in Marin County, California. [source]

2012 - Ravens destroy Bank Swallow burrows [source]

beach layia:

https://www.wildlife.ca.gov/Conservation/Plants/Endangered/Layia-carnosa