Unit 10: Ecology
Species, Communities & Ecosystems (4.1)
- Describe what makes up a species
- Explain why species may be reproductively isolated
- Explain what makes up a community
- Explain what makes up an ecosystem
- Explain the difference between autotroph and heterotroph
- Explain how inorganic nutrients are obtained
- Explain why ecosystems can be be self sustaining
- Classifying species as autotrophs, consumers, detritivores or or saprotrophs from a knowledge of their mode of nutrition.
- Skill: Testing for association between two species using the using the chi-squared test with data obtained by quadrat sampling.
Energy Flow (4.2)
- Explain the dependence of most ecosystems on sunlight energy
- Describe how light energy is converted to chemical energy in carbon compounds
- Describe how chemical energy in carbon compounds flows through food chains
- Explain the release of energy from carbon compounds by respiration
- Discuss living organisms inability to convert heat to other forms of energy
- Describe why heat is lost from ecosystems
- Explain why the energy lost between trophic levels restricts the length of food chains and the biomass of higher trophic levels.
- Skill: Create a energy pyramid to quantitatively represent energy flow
Carbon Cycling (4.3)
- How do autotrophs convert carbon dioxide into carbohydrates and other carbon compounds? (we have already discussed this process......)
- Discuss what form of carbon is present in aquatic ecosystems
- Explain the production of carbon dioxide by respiration and diffusion out of organisms into water or the atmosphere.
- Explain the process of carbon dioxide diffusing from the atmosphere or water into autotrophs. (we have also already talked about this one.....)
- Explain the production of methane from organic matter in anaerobic conditions by methanogenic archaeans and some of its diffusion into the atmosphere or accumulates in the ground.
- Describe the oxidation of methane to carbon dioxide and water in the atmosphere.
- Describe the formation of peat when organic matter is not fully decomposed because of acidic and/or anaerobic conditions in waterlogged soils.
- Explain why partially decomposed organic matter from past geological eras is converted either into oil and gas that accumulate in porous rocks.
- Explain how carbon dioxide is produced by the combustion of biomass and fossilized organic matter.
- Discuss the use calcium carbonate by animals such as reef-building corals and mollusca
- Create a diagram to represent the carbon cycle
Discussed in class
- Estimate carbon fluxes due to processes in the in the carbon cycle.
Climate Change (4.4)
- Discuss the impact of carbon dioxide and water vapor in relation to the atmosphere and greenhouse effect
- Discuss the impact of methane and nitrogen oxides as greenhouse gases
- Discuss the impact of a gas as a greenhouse gas dependency on its ability to absorb long wave radiation as well as on its concentration in the atmosphere
- Describe why the warmed Earth emits longer wavelength radiation (heat).
- Discuss the change of global temperatures and climate patterns as influenced by concentrations of greenhouse gases.
- Discuss the evidence of a correlation between rising atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide since the start of the industrial revolution 200 years ago and average global temperatures.
- Describe the recent increases in atmospheric carbon dioxide are largely due to increases in the combustion of fossilized organic matter.
- Discuss and describe the threats to coral reefs from increasing concentrations of dissolved carbon dioxide.
- Discuss and describe the correlations between global temperatures and carbon dioxide concentrations on Earth.
- Evaluate the evidence and claims that human activities are not causing climate change.
- Discuss consequences of changing climate for Arctic Ecosystems
Classification of Biodiversity (5.3)
- Identify how to name an organism using the binomial system of names for species
- Explain the use of the binomial system of species naming
- Discuss why taxonomists classify species using a hierarchy of taxa.
- Discuss the classification of all organisms are classified into three domains and following principal taxa
- Describe In a natural classification what the genus and accompanying higher taxa consist of all the species represent
- Describe why taxonomists sometimes reclassify groups of species
- Discuss why natural classifications help in identification of species and allow the prediction of characteristics shared by species within a group.
- Classify one plant and one animal species from dominant to species level.
- Identify features of the following:
- Identify features of following:
- Construction of dichotomous keys for use in identifying specimens.