Psychology w/Mr. Duez “Confusing Pairs”
AP Test Review DFTBA: “Don’t Forget To Be Awesome”
Independent Variable (what is tested. Ex: a drug) vs.
Dependent Variable (what is measured. Ex. the effects of the drug)
Experimental Group (group that is tested) vs.
Control Group (compared to the experimental, receives the placebo in a drug experiment)
Descriptive Statistics (how are they alike-mean, median, mode & how they are different- variance, range, sd) vs.
Inferential Statistics (infer conclusions from a sample to an entire population)
Random Assignment (assigning participants to groups; used in EXPERIMENTS;
randomly assigning participants to either the experimental or control) vs.
Random Sample (choose who will participate in experiment. Used in SURVEYS; every person in the group
has an equal chance of participating; the “group” must first be a representative sample)
Left brain (generally - language & logic) vs.
Right brain (generall - creative & spatial)
Corpus Callosum (divides the brain) vs.
Cerebral Cortex (cover the brain)
Sympathetic Nervous System (fight or flight) vs.
Neurotransmitters (in the nervous system - text message fast) vs.
Hormones (in the endocrine system - snail mail slow)
Lateral Hypothalamus (stimulates hunger) vs.
Ventromedial Hypothalamus (suppresses hunger)
Broca’s Area (speech production; makes words) vs.
Wernicke’s Area (understanding speech; comprehends words)
Identical twins (same fertilized egg) vs.
Fraternal twins (two separate eggs)
Afferent neurons (sensory, body at brain; nerves send information to the central nervous system) vs.
Efferent neurons (motor, exit brain to body; blinking follows an efferent pathway)
Assimilation (all four legged animals are “doggies”) vs.
Accommodation (“doggies” are different than “kitties”)
Concrete operations (logical thinking) vs.
Formal operations (philosophical thinking)
Sensation (bottom-up processing; starts at the sensory input, the stimulus;
an approach wherein there is a progression from the individual elements to the whole.) vs.
Perception (top-down processing; a cognitive process that initiates with our thoughts,
which flow down to lower-level functions, such as the senses)
Rods (night vision) vs.
Cones (color vision)
Classical Conditioning (involuntary, innate response to a stimulus) vs.
Operant Conditioning (voluntary; association is made between behaviors & consequences)
Primacy effect (first items remembered) vs.
Recency effect (last items remembered)
Proactive interference (loss of the new info) vs.
Retroactive interference (loss of the old info)
PORN: Proactive Old, Retroactive New
Implicit memory (non-declarative; skills) vs.
Explicit memory (declarative; facts)
Recall memory (no cues; fill in the blank) vs.
Recognition (some hints; multiple choice)
Algorithms (step-by-step; problem will be solved, but may take time) vs.
Heuristics (rule-of-thumb; a guess to get to the solution quickly; may not work)
Representative Heuristics (stereotypes) vs.
Availability Heuristics (based on available info)
Phonemes (basic sound units) vs.
Morphemes (basic units of meaning)
Fluid Intelligence (processing speed) vs.
Crystallized Intelligence (acquired knowledge)
Validity (test measures what is should) vs.
Reliability (same scores on a retest)
Achievement Test (what you’ve learned) vs.
Aptitude Test (potential)
Intrinsic Motivation (for personal satisfaction) vs.
Extrinsic Motivation (for rewards)
Internal locus of control (you control the environment) vs.
External locus of control (environment controls you)
Lithium (treats bipolar) vs.
Librium (treats anxiety)
Type A (high stress) vs.
Type B (low stress)
Self Serving Bias (We won because of ME, we lost because of YOU!) vs.
Self Fulfilling Prophecy (rise or sink to the expectation)