Paul Virilio Texts and Excerpts from http://www.egs.edu/faculty/paul-vir- ilio/articles/ Translated by Google and Organized in In Design by Raphael Griswold
Published by THE PRESS, 2014
PAUL VIRILIO . TERROR FROM THE APOCALYPSE .
Paul Virilio . “From the terror of the Apocalypse . “ in : Lettre . No . 54, 2001 , p . 5 ( German ) .
The first war of globalization and the noise of the network strategy (Excerpt ) Lettre International : Already in your text New York delirious from 1993 you have foreseen an event of the scope of the destruction of the World Trade Center after it was then tried in vain to chase the building with a de- posited in the basement explosive charge in the air . Includes the latest at- tack new items that have surprised you ? During the Gulf War, you’ve talk- ed so by the threat of confrontation between a mystical fundamentalism and a technological war. Now it looks as if the fundamentalism modern technology would operate. He even uses most up-to means of communica- tion , to show his work of destruction in the world via direct transmission and humiliating so publicly the West; same time he places this means a world-wide as an instrument of propaganda against the Muslims.
Paul Virilio : Every time you developed the terrorism continues , it devel- oped in correspondence to the media , ie in correspondence to the Media screen . The media screen is a territory that was conquered by the ever more terrible , always unvorstellbareren events. With the destruction of the twin towers of the World Trade Center we actually live a violent event in which has nothing to do with a traditional , limited terrorist attack , as for example with the stop during the Olympic Games in Munich in 1972 , during the so-called “ Black September “ , was the case , but it already is a great form of terrorism , that is a form of accidental war , which can no longer be compared to the substantial war with the Clausewitzian war . It is true that the assassin of modern technology have served, notably modern telecommunications means to perform the action synchronously can . The real novelty in the destruction of the World Trade Center, also in compari- son to New York in delirium , but that it was here , after the crash of the net economy in 2000 , the crash of the Nasdaq , Startups , etc. to a crash the network strategy of the Pentagon is , ie to a crash of the revolution of mili- tary affairs , the global information dominance of the U.S. Air Force , the National Missile Defense. This whole dimension of network strategy, called the Americans revolution of military affairs , has been guided by two pas-senger aircraft absurdity that have caused more than twice as much damage as the bombers at Pearl Harbor. This stop is therefore a completely new event because it represents the mili- tary thinking of the Pentagon in question. After the crash on Wall Street , we have here to do with the crash of the Pentagon. The two airliners that have been made to bombs , so to speak, directly connected to the network economy , ie with the development of new technologies and their failure
. I recall the failure of supervision by the Echelon network the National Security Agency . It is a capital failure , and thus to a striking event for the beginning now history. I believe that the developed countries and the military-industrial complex will not emerge unscathed from this event. Has terrorism reached a new level of intelligence and sophistication ? That’s right . We are confronted primarily with a war , a new form of war. Previously there were two forms of war , those between states , ie the inter- national war and civil war. The war between the State or international war was a substantial war , a continuation of politics by other means . He dis- tinguished himself by organizing a battlefield with troops , banners, fronts, declarations of war , armistice agreements, etc. With the recent attacks we live exceeding the limited terrorism in and have entered the era of acciden- tal war. And this accidental war can expand with its religious dimension
to an international civil war. Accordingly, it is for all conflict researchers, all those who , as I do, interested in the question, the war to an event of extremely great significance . This assassination is for world peace as big a threat as that of Sarajevo in 1914 for peace in Europe. This assassination in Sarajevo was the catalyst for the First World War, and that of New York is just as important , in fact, because it marks the beginning of the first war of globalization. With all the risks involved in relation to the North-South conflict , the conflict between religious groups, etc. So we are in an ac- cidental war on a global scale , and we are dealing with an unprecedented event that is not only the war in Kosovo and the Gulf war far into the shade , but especially the Vietnam War for the United States.
(...) From a conversation with Frank Berberich of 17 September 2001
PAUL VIRILIO . THE AGE OF SPEED AND MAJOR CHANGES .
Paul Virilio . “ The era of speed and big changes. “ in : Education . Vol. 410, No. 2. February 2009 . (French) .
The city is a great historical place of sociability and closeness . This place is now very threatened by pollution and by the phenomena of migration. It is estimated that 900 million people will move to 2040 , due to urban migra- tion for climatic reasons , reasons of relocation, political and economic reasons. This is an unprecedented move and does not seem able to stop. After depopulation, end 19ème/début 20th is the urban exodus is about to start with a change in the nature of sedentary and nomadic . Sedentary is now one that is at home anywhere , with the laptop, the computer in the TGV as well as on the plane , which is not one that is of a particular place , “he who is to here “. And the nomad is nowhere in it , that is those who live in transit camps , ghettos , slums, etc ...
Re- urbanization announces emergence of what I call “ beyond the city,” the beyond of the city, the city of the urban exodus , the city of passengers , like stations , airports, large commercial areas . Subject to the dictates of the movement, the city is not a forum but a space where nobody make cross. As an urban planner , I have a question: do we move from one place to sedentary living space circulation? The station, the airport became a kind of crossroads of logistics platforms that function as town centers . Take the example of Jean -Marie Duthilleul , the architect of the station: it is now trying to transform the Saint- Charles train station in Marseille city center , the train station is no longer just a transit center , it becomes a downtown. We spend the transport revolution and transmissions which led to the depopulation, the revolution of the carriage : the big carriers now have a future . The high-rise towers remind me widebody that no longer correspond to the “ skyline “ , the Gothic spire . The madness of the pay- load is the value of the quantity matters more than quality. It could have an impact on land more devastating than transport in the last century .
PAUL VIRILIO . THE PEOPLE DAZED .
Paul Virilio “ The stunned people.” In: De time . Vol 60 , No . 22, 2005 , p . 50 ( German ) .
gives the appearance of a democratic opening. In fact, it makes more and more the impression of a denial of democracy - even a hidden plebiscite , which has instigated the President of the Republic, Jacques Chirac. A president by the way, despite his undeniable foreign policy success since his re-election in the spring of 2002 - the rejection of the Iraq war - his elector- ate can no longer convince .
Whether error or miscalculation , no one knows to say, but are the conse- quences of this “ referendum “ , regardless of the outcome of the vote on 29 May be severe. Tony Blair recognized this at first and decided to cancel the referendum in the UK , if the majority agrees in France with No.
Now the damage is done . And for the simple reason that in the face of such a complicated topic , the use of the referendum is absurd and suicidal and doubts about the political intelligence not only the head of state , but his closest environment and its communication strategists raises . Will soon automate the approval of a monitoring software? Indeed, as one should “ vote with expertise “ on a text of more than 500 pages with more than 400 articles ? About who makes you look funny when the post more than forty million copies of the European Constitution has ship in the budgets of the voters and if the books of authors who con- front the contract positively or negatively , “ sales successes have become ,” as in the journals is, with over ten titles at the top of the bestseller list ? If you had to in order to vote yes or no , can not just read a huge workload , the interpretation is even for specialists in constitutional law a difficult thing , but also still different “ instructions “ to facilitate the task of the vot- ers supposedly ? If it is a board game that has been aimed to cover the unrest an unsettled political class in the face of globalization? One of globalization that no lon- ger gets the internal politics of nations in the handle ? To understand the absurdity of this pseudo-democratic referendum better , we should allow a little politics fiction : Imagine , in Europe a referendum would soon be convened on reproductive cloning , in which citizens are to speak on this controversial topic. This would include the hundreds of
millions of citizens of an enlarged European Union a five hundred mutual molecular biology textbook sent . Would be added a dozen papers that advocate or oppose the passing of the practice in the Old Continent thera- peutic cloning .
The outraged reaction of the average voter can easily be imagined : “ We should probably be ridiculed ? I am unable to vote knowledgeably . “ Today Exactly the same applies to the Constitutional Treaty , but nobody says it . Another obvious evidence for this deviation from the democratic process is that stigmatized open in France recently negative choice intentions . All media , left and right-wing political parties , put on fear. Such unanimity
in the disapproval illustrates very well the mentioned denial of democracy . What legitimacy has a referendum actually practice , not only vilified in a choice of alternatives from all political organizations and the media appa- ratus of the country, but even abused in the worst way? Will soon be public support set using the control software of aircraft autopilots to automatic ? If anyone could be blamed for this “ blunder “ , then the president with his lack of flair. But Jacques Chirac is the anticipated and has already said he will not resign with a no .
In the end, illustrates all the shift from the democracy of opinion towards a mood democracy. It demands of the electorate less free choice and the em- phatic assertion of a sovereign nation , but rather it requires a “ lax consen- sus ,” an amicable solution for a population that is exposed after the excess- es of the opinion polls all sorts of brainwashing and the only reflex on the particular choice questions responding. So until tomorrow , dawns upon the progress of electronic democracy in real time , under the influence of immoderate advertising techniques , the era of virtual democracy. Just as we have seen in the election of Arnold Schwarzenegger in California.
The philosopher Paul Virilio lives in Paris and became world famous for his books on politics, technology and speed. In his new book “ L’accident originel “ he devotes a chapter to the “ mood democracy” From the French by Uli Aumüller
PAUL VIRILIO . THE CITY OF ILLUMINATED .
Paul Virilio . “ The overexposed city. “ in : Parliament . October 25, 2004. ( German ) .
The postmodern war has to a certain extent hyper- concentrated - earlier by the military battlefields times to an anti- cities strategy. As “ the world of business ,” he has become a monopoly , in which the former geopolitics of the size of nations has made unexpectedly a Metro policy domestic terror court, a constant threat which makes the unarmed population indiscrimi- nately . De facto , the geo-strategic expansion lost its importance for military ac- tion , in favor of a metro- strategic concentration , in which the distinction between civil and military begins to wane - as that between private and public. Therefore, the occurrence stirred a third type of conflict : According to the “ civil war “ and the “ international war “ now follows the war against the civilians. Therein lies the major political significance of the difference between the consequences of a major emergency ( whether of natural origin or caused by the industry) and a “ massive attack “ ( taken over the responsibility for or that is perpetrated anonymously) . We live impassively the decline of the nation-state at , the end of the mo- nopoly of public authority , which is exercised by the state, in favor of an inward terror, not only threatens democracy in a high degree, but also the Republic and its rule of law. The enlarged Europe will address these issues can not be long ignored. You are no longer one-dimensional political, but “metro - political” because the demographic concentration of popula- tions in the mega - Poland the traditional theaters of war already in the 20th Century has displaced step by step: from the battlefield to the city, with devastating air attacks that the “massive attack “ the greatest disaster against the urban areas at the beginning of the 21st Century , were already guessed . Therefore , the notion of defense changed in a radical way . After the military defense of the country and the civil defense of the population now stands , it seems , a new question to the fore: In addition to the national security , which is mainly due to the armed forces and the social security of citizens - and there, where it still exists , threatened, and on top of that underdeveloped in a number of legal states is - enters the crucial issue of
security of mankind , which expands the current meaning of the term “ common good “ which guarantees the state . Recently it has the former High Commissioner for Refugees , Sadako Oga- ta, indicated : “September 11 has proved that no state - he was military , no matter how strong - able to protect its citizens , even within its own borders not . “ [2 ] Faced with this alarming finding, which introduces not only the temptation of a nihilism of defense - as it existed in some Nordic countries before the Second world War - but also a nihilism of the public space , in which the city could represent the epicenter , it is helpful to be aware of the historical development of the armed forces in mind . Were conflicts in the time of obstruction weapons ( fortress walls and buildings of any kind ) , first played in the form of position wars , led the further development of mobile warfare and at the end of the Blitzkrieg , in the destruction drove the urban fortifications. The advent of deterrence strategy has promoted under the (relative) inertia of the balance of terror with the prevention
of battles not only the arms race and proliferation , but also the develop- ment of weapons of mass communication . This not only led to a radical change of the earlier geopolitics of nations, but they destroyed the stability of a - now more than ten years of the past belonging - military “ culture” , symbolized by the fall of the “ fortress wall “ of Berlin and the collapse of “ donjon “World Trade Center in New York.
In the way a fatal manifestation of this panic is currently residing with the institutional conflict in the United States between the marginalized in three years the State Department and the Pentagon , but also the project of a di- vision of the U.S. Army in the past and in the design of anti-crisis forces. At the same time an attempt is made to repair the damage to the progressive destruction of the socio- political form of law - in a public space undergoes accelerated privatization .
Whether you like it or not : public space and public power are inseparable, and any attempt at division leads sooner or later to question not only the national , but also of human security , with the obvious risks are not just a “ politicide “ [3 ] , but the real genocide. The “ precautionary principle “ , which we know from the ecology, therefore, is mainly due to the necessary stability of public law and of his room to use the environment for any real democracy . It should be noted that such a new concept of “ human secu- rity “, which was adopted in Canada and in Japan recently - there maybe as a result of the severe earthquake of Kobe and the attack by the Aum sect in
the Tokyo subway - could contribute greatly to condemn the savage war that threatens to devastate not only the rule of law , but also our entire civilization. After the privatization of the power supply that could be of public space fatally lead not only to the professionalisation of public violence, but in a true “ nihil- ism of defense “ that is no longer so much would affect the intruder , the declared enemy as about the Swedish movement “ Forvarsnihilism “ hoped when she asked in the twenties : “Is the invasion of our territory by another civilized people a really serious thing ? “ [4 ] rather, it would affect the institution of the military itself, the foundation of the “ right of defense “ that is , each policy is based. What can we say today about the intrusion of a “civilized people” in a for- eign territory when it comes to mass terrorism in the age of globalization , which uses the whole of the transport capacities and telecommunications , usually tourism and the diverse forms of exchange open companies are available?
Claustropolis or Cosmopolis ? A closed society , or a society of control in which the electronic portal follows on the fortress wall? In fact, this dilemma seems deceptive, given the temporary compression of instantaneity and ubiquity in the age of information revolution . The high-tech , interactive , highly vulnerable society in which the real -time gains the upper hand over the real space of geo-strategy , favored a “Metro “ strategy , in which the city is less the center of a territory , a national space , but rather the center of the time , the global time that the sound box of different events makes each city : nuclear mishaps , seri- ous accidents , mass bombings , breaks the social order caused by the extreme fragility of a different demographic polarization , with Mega Poland, tomorrow is not millions but unite many millions of inhabitants in the high rises . There they are linked , and the standardization of public opinion of the industrial era is suddenly replaced by the synchronization of any public emotion that is able not only to abolish representative democracy , but each institution , and in its place collective hysteria and chaos set , for some continents already make a unfortunate example.
In conclusion, it must be stressed that - if the interactivity for the information pane that is what the radioactivity for the power supply is - will change the deterrence fundamentally. Military or civilian deterrent ? It no longer involves only the crossing of geopolitics or the return to the siege , but an encroachment on boundaries , an ascent to extremes that Clausewitz had not imagined. Translation from the French by Nicole Maschler , Berlin . The title of the original is “ La Ville Surexposée “ .
PAUL VIRILIO . CYBERSEX . Paul Virilio . “ Cybersex . “ in : Lettre . No . 32 , 1996, p . 74 ( German ) .
From the deviant to evasive sexuality (Excerpt ) (...) The sex no longer exists in its place came fear . The fear of the other , the unequal has worn over the sexual attraction the victory. After fighting the gravity of the body and the research on the techniques of levitation and gravity , a similar battle is now beginning against those universal appeal that secures the survival of the species : genetic engineering , artificial insemination , etc. , there are many examples of precisely the same against the life directed temptation.
A moment Imagine long that the act of procreation neither a need , it should be a pleasure , but a matter of mere deliberation and reason : could the human species still persist ? asked Schopenhauer in his treatise on the metaphysics of sexual love . One hundred years later , in the light of cybernetic research on a redirection of sexuality anew the question of where this separation of the body , this will lead us diastasis of the living.
After the various perversions , those deviations “ against nature “ , now for alternative sex practices of the no longer “ animal “ or zoophilic nature, but are
distinguished from others and complex evasion and Ablenkungsph phe- nomena at this time, “ machine “ and are open to technophile . But what lies behind this panicky retreat phenomenon , the withdrawal from the physical act ? The fear of contracting AIDS or other fears , other horrors , such that you can not admit to himself ...
Oddly enough, banished us the science of machines from both the geo- physical world as well as from the physical body of the next , which always contradicts my ego and whose life need no longer is what it used to be, at the time when the animal kingdom with all his energy power still domi- nated over those energies of synthesis or rather the substitution, gain the upper hand today .
Defeat of the facts in relation to the dissemination of information , which in turn is synthesized entirely by the means of mass communication , in which the image wins out over the thing from which it never just “copy “, but also , and that is what we here at : defeat the fact of making love , here and now , in favor of a mechanical illusion , in which the “ distance” back to distentio is , for apart contraction and separation of the partners , with the love and gambling become an ordinary board game , a kind of virtual casino , in analogy to the Stock Exchange , on the day out enjoying the dealer and the other golden boys of the famous derivatives markets day in order to break the bank.
PAUL VIRILIO . LETTER TO FELIX./H1 > Paul Virilio . “Letter to Felix . “ in: Chimeres . 1994, p. 165 . (French) .
My dear friend, As you’re surely in doubt , since your departure , your exile beyond time , nothing has really changed : it’s raining , it’s nice , it’s hot and you leave the city for the sea or mountain - no one has enough faith to move - but against time , he is no longer what it was in the summer of your departure as explained Edouard Glissant in a book that it offers you , as well as Gilles “ chaos world goes so fast that we can hardly follow .” That’s right , you know , so that our course on site is staggering . He remains opti- mistic tone of hope, as written , the memories of your physical presence . In the former Yugoslavia , the second winter starts , with its dead and useless meetings in Geneva between the various “ warlords “ civil . Italy, face the “ post- fascist “ rise to the surface of history like dead fish . Paris already moved into indifference and seeks to reassure , while we die in the streets , not a bullet in the head, as in Sarajevo , but cold and forgotten, you see that ! Your generosity to your friends lack .
It does not imply , it seems that what was given . You have to be embar- rassed there with your many accompanied baggage ? Can we go to write ? send letters , write books? or to hear the phone call across time and space distances overseas ? Radio or pandemonium silence? At the moment I am lulled by the sound of a jackhammer pounding that “red line “ the door of Chatillon . But the worst thing is that the planet gradually demolished . Eco- sophie, you know, they have not yet under- stood , any more than the economy , they know that bleeding , blood loss and meaning.
Lose or give, yet it is the only “ altemative “ - you remember that old word 80 ? In a few days it will be Christmas and the end of a year that you will not have seen happen ( us either, so everything is accelerating ) . So as a gift at the end of the year, as a sign of brotherhood , I am enclosing my hope : that of a pessimist who does not despair of the generosity of one who looks like you and that you re- looked so often , you the inhabitant of the exile of the rue Saint -Sauveur.
Speed , old world PAUL VIRILIO CHIMERES1 Paul Virilio is planner, sociologist and essayist . 1 . Massachusetts institutes of Technology. 2 . Edmund Husserl, The Earth does not move , Ed de Minuit, 1989. “ ENVIRONMENTAL CONTROL “ - that is the technical term used to des- ignate currently prostheses fitted to paraplegics or quadriplegics to allow them to operate in their environment without moving (the famous “ Cata- lavox ,” for example, or the “ Tétravox “) . Curiously however, the cripple with these prostheses today becomes the model valid amentities , that is to say, the home automation . The home automation is nothing other than the application to domestic space technologies Disability and paralysis. The founder of the laboratory of the MIT Artificial Intelligence (1) , Marvin Minsky , described in 1981 what has become a reality since: “You put on a comfortable jacket lined with sensors and motors , acting muscles. Every movement of your arm, your hand and fingers is reproduced in another place by mobile mechanical hands , light, clever and strong. These hands have their own sensors through which you see and feel what happens . With this tool , you can work in another room , another city , another country or another planet. This technology is called telepresence. “ “ Are there a privileged here ? Oui.Le kinesthetic absolute zero , the zero energy “ Husserl wrote in a book of thirty years, recently published ( 2). Kinesthetic space is a system of possible locations as breakpoints , start and end You’re reading a free preview. Pages 2 to 11 are not shown in this preview. Read the full version
PAUL VIRILIO CHIMERES2 tranquility. “This first world consists in im- mobility kinesthetic, he says, is a world fixedly oriented around my body flesh or zero point made in it. That walking is involved, the fact remains that all the world is there for me seems to be oriented around me my flesh re- both at rest and oriented according to the here and there, right and left , however that a fixed zero orientation persists, so to speak as absolute
here . “ On page 43 , note , however, Husserl asks what absolute zero of the movement: “ The prone position , since it is the most comfortable, should be zero. We must therefore take into account the fact that zero is a normal problem “ is the least we can say. Premonitory this book, one of the last
of the phenomenologist , illustrates the sharp break occurred in the time between physics and philosophy. Since ancient geocentric to egocentrism Husserl , a mutation occurs. The center of the earth, the reference axis of the Ancients, until the center of the living present spoken of Ludwig Boltzmann , the living present was the absolute self-reference . At the same time will develop technologies storming of the world , Heidegger, the
old master , said his opposition to everything that represents this shock . European fameusecrisis is never the distress signal from a wise before the machine total mobilization , been called for by Ernst Jünger . What about now this point of phenomenological view on the fundamental fixing the world as proto- founded sense? Strangely, the intuition of the philosopher back in the news , with a large variation , however , since the polar inertia described here is less original than terminally . Indeed, at the dawn of total war , the known world is still a lonely world, uniquemundus of human experience . The zero point , fixity designated by Husserl, is absolutely no different from the axis mundi of the Galilean time, and it will take thirty- five years , specifically on 21 July 1969 and the moon landing , so that the reference soil loses its significance and becomes a mezzanine .
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Speed , old world still CHIMERES3 Listen Husserl : “The earth itself, in the original form of representation , does not move or is at rest. It is primarily in relation to it that movement and rest make sense . “ And further : “ As long as I do not have any representation of a new ground as such , from where the earth and chained in its circular course , might make sense as compact body movement and rest, as long as I still do not getting get a rep- resentation of an exchange of land, and thus a representation of the body become both soils, as long as the earth itself is a and a non- body ground . The earth does not move . “ Now this is precisely what the logistics of total
mobilization will revolutionize the Copernican sense. The quest of the Ger- man rockets Penemund will result in the liquidation of the reference soil , the axis mundi definitively losing its absolute value . “ Zero Altitude “ - these words, spoken by the pilot maneuvers the end of the Apollo 11 moon landing mission report at this precise moment, the altitude became an outright distance , there has now another floor, the top floor . During the summer of 1969 , contemplating an island of any shore, when the moon becomes equivalent , the sky vanished , the landing of man on another planet , we çaient plate in the empty balcony . The confines suddenly be- came a sidereal coast. But this sudden emphasis on limits itself was com- parable to a renunciation , the celestial object called Earth therefore having less interest than the interval between the two stars . In fact , this large
tilt decomposed both a representation of the world order and an order of use. EVE -ment was not so much the retransmission of televised images to more than 300 000 km from Earth than the simultaneity of vision between the moon “ on the screen “ and the moon “ in the window .” That day , the desperate attempt to Husserl to practice overturning of the Copernican doctrine had its comple-tion . Much later, cosmologist S. Hawking explains : “ Since then, science has become so technical that philosophers have been unable to understand and theologians do not understand enough science to be able to
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