Huyu li? - Who are you?
After sharing one's name and nationality with one another, it's time to discover a little bit more about each others background. This lesson deals with various interhuman relations and manners to describe these:
bua - brother
yunyo - they
fanyo - parents
esto - but
sisi - just, only
mea - sister
Paragraph 3.1 - Na
In the previous sections the word na has popped up multiple times. It expresses a possessive relation between two nouns in the same manner the English word "of" does:
vawana na wa - my wife
vawana na li - your wife
vawana na yu - his wife
vawana na yunyo - their wives
vawana na Omer - Ömer's wife
vabu na wa - my husband
uba na wa - my father
bua na wa - my brother
benyo na wa - my children
vabu na mea na wa - my sister's husband
Depending on the context however, it is not always expressed whose the item is. When person A asks person B: "Who is that?", and person B answers: yu uma, literally: "she is mother", then it is obvious from the context, this refers to person B's mother and the utterance can be translated as "she is my mother". Because of this context-dependency, the word na is not always expressed in combination with pronouns such as wa, li or yu.
Because of this, a simple question like yu uma ha? can be understood either as "Is she my mother?" or "Is she his mother?" or "Is she your mother?", all depending on the context. As a matter of fact, a sentence like yu uma na wa in a clear context denotes a certain amount of focus: "She is my mother" (and not yours or anyone else's).
Paragraph 3.2 - X is Y
In the snippet of conversation above, Fatime mentions the relationship between her husband and her brother in law: "They are brothers". In order to express this, she simply puts the two words together: yunyo for "they" and bua for "brother". The same technique can be seen in the following phrases:
Huan wa - I'm Juan
Huan vabu - Juan is her husband
yu Emineh - she is Emine
yu vawana na Kim - she is Kim's wife
wanyo mea - we are sisters
yu uma - she is my mother
yu uba na wa - he is my father
Huan bua - Juan is my brother
linyo vanyo ha? - are you family?
Omer bua na Okan ha? - is Ömer Okan's brother?
wanyo - we
linyo - you (plural), y'all, yous
Paragraph 3.3 - Nong
The word nong expresses negation. It can be translated as "no" or "not". It can be placed in between nouns in order to express "X is not Y"
wa nong Huan - I'm not Juan
Huan nong vabu - Juan is not her husband
yu nong Emineh - She is not Emine
yu nong vawana na Kim - she is not Kim's wife
wanyo nong mea - we are not sisters
yu nong uma - she is not my mother
yu nong uba na wa - he is not my father
Huan nong bua - Juan is not my brother
linyo nong vanyo ha? - aren't you family?
Omer nong bua na Okan ha? - is Ömer not Okan's brother?
In order to practice the use of na, the X=Y formula and nong, please make the following exercise:
Translate into Kah:
1. Ökan is not my father.
2. They are not my sisters, they are his sisters.
3. Turkey is not my country.
4. Lima is not a country. Lima is a city.
5. What about France? Is France a country?
6. What is the capital of France?
7. What is the capital of your country?
8. Who is your sister?
9. I only know Ömer and his wife.