©The Rothwell Group, L. P.  2013.  All rights reserved.

PaleoClimate™

The Rothwell Group, L. P.

PaleoClimate User’s Manual

Version 1.1


Table of Contents

Introducing PaleoClimate

Installation and Activation

PaleoClimate

Other Dependencies

Running the Application

PaleoClimate for Windows

PaleoClimate Input Parameters

Using Different Versions of Config.xml

Climate Parameters

Grid Parameters

Other Options

File Parameters

Additional Parameters

Shapefile Specifications

Polygon Types

DEM Specifications

Support

Appendix A: PaleoClimate Input Parameters

Appendix B: PaleoClimate Outputs

Appendix C: XML Specification


Introducing PaleoClimate

PaleoClimate is a desktop application that employs a parametric approach to model the climate of ancient earth. It uses paleogeographic data as inputs for calculating a variety of climate outputs. Elevation and the distribution of land and sea for a given time are used to predict atmospheric pressure, which is then used to compute all other outputs including: sea level air pressure, surface air pressure, sea level temperature, surface temperature, wind direction and azimuth, ocean currents, upwelling, and wetness.

Outputs generated by PaleoClimate can be viewed in ArcMap (versions 10.0 and 10.1) or in other GIS applications.

Installation and Activation

PaleoClimate

  1. Download and run the PaleoClimate installer.
  2. You should have been provided with a PaleoClimate license file (.licx) after purchasing. Copy your license file to the PaleoClimate installation location: %PROGRAM FILES (x86)%\Rothwell\PaleoClimate.
  3. Start PaleoClimate: Go to Start > PaleoClimate. The splash screen should appear briefly, and then the main application window should load.

Other Dependencies

You will need a GIS application installed to view PaleoClimate output. We recommend using either ESRI’s ArcGIS or the free open-source GIS application UDig.

.Net Framework 4.0 must also be installed in order to run PaleoClimate.


Running the Application

PaleoClimate for Windows

  1. Start PaleoClimate from the Windows Start Menu (Start > PaleoClimate). The main window appears:

  1. In the main application window, view and modify the climate, map, and file input parameters as needed. For more details on each of the input parameters that appear in the main window, see PaleoClimate Input Parameters below.
  2. Click Run.The progress bar and status messages will indicate the progress of the analysis.

  1.  After the analysis has been completed you will receive the “Analysis Complete” message:

  1. From here you can either:
  1. View results directly in ArcMap by clicking View Results in ArcMap.
  2. Open the output directory by clicking Open Output File Folder. By default, all output is stored in the Windows AppData directory (C:\Users\[username]\AppData\Roaming\Rothwell\PaleoClimate\Output\[date and time analysis was run].
  3. Open your results in the GIS application of your choice.
  1. For details on the outputs PaleoClimate generates, please see the section below: PaleoClimate Outputs.

Launching PaleoClimate from PaleoGIS

In addition to being launched from the Windows Start button, PaleoClimate can be opened from PaleoGIS. To launch PaleoClimate from PaleoGIS:

  1. Open ArcMap
  2. The PaleoGIS Basic Functions Toolbar should be enabled and active. To enable it: Click on the Customize option on the ArcMap main menu and click on Toolbars, then on Basic Functions. The Basic Functions Toolbar will display.
  3. The PaleoGIS Analysis Toolbar should be enabled and active. To enable it: Click on the Customize option on the ArcMap main menu and click on Toolbars, then on Analysis Tools. The Analysis Toolbar will display.
  4. From the Analysis Toolbar, select PaleoClimate Launcher. Click Go. PaleoClimate will open.
  5. In the main application window, view and modify the input parameters as needed. See input parameter details below.
  6. Click Run.

PaleoClimate Input Parameters


Because PaleoClimate employs a parametric approach to climate modeling, numerous input parameters are exposed to the user, providing fine-grained control over the assumptions the application uses to model climate. Modifying these input values changes the climate outputs.

The sixteen most commonly modified parameters are exposed in the main PaleoClimate screen. These plus numerous additional are exposed in Config.xml, an XML configuration file.

A detailed description of each parameter and how it affects the outputs follows.

Using Different Versions of Config.xml

When do I need different versions of Config.xml?

Users interested in multiple ages with significant differences in the configuration values may find it most convenient to create a version of Config.xml for each age. Likewise, users interested in toggling between different scenarios for a single age may find it easiest to create a version of Config.xml for each scenario they wish to run. PaleoClimate ships with a set of default values for present day in Config.xml. This file can be copied on the file system, renamed, and its values changed to suit the scenario you wish to model.

Climate Parameters

Tilt of Earth’s Axis (degrees)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultTiltOfEarthsAxis>

Description: This is the Earth’s axial tilt for the shapefile in use. The present-day Earth has an axial tilt of about 23.5 degrees. This value has not remained constant throughout time.

Effects on outputs: Axial tilt affects seasonally adjusted latitude, referred to in PaleoClimate as effective latitude. A greater axial tilt will result in a greater shift in effective latitude.

Maximum Sustained Temperature Over Land (C) 

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultMaxSustainedTempOverLand>

Description: The maximum sustained temperature on land for the shapefile in use.

Effects on outputs: The difference between the maximum and minimum sustained temperatures on land is used to calculate temperature. Increasing this value will result in higher temperatures on land.

Minimum Sustained Temperature Over Land (C)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultMinSustainedTempOverLand>

Description: The minimum sustained temperature on land for the shapefile in use.

Effects on outputs: The difference between the maximum and minimum sustained temperatures on land is used to calculate temperature. Decreasing this value will result in lower temperatures on land.

Maximum Sustained Temperature  Over Water (C)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultMaxSustainedTempOverWater>

Description: The maximum sustained temperature over water for the shapefile in use.

Effects on outputs: The difference between the maximum and minimum sustained temperatures over water is used to calculate temperature. Increasing this value will result in higher air temperatures over water.

Minimum Sustained Temperature Over Water (C)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultMinSustainedTempOverWater>

Description: The minimum sustained temperature over water for the shapefile in use.  

Effects on outputs: The difference between the maximum and minimum sustained temperatures over water is used to calculate temperature. Decreasing this value will result in lower air temperatures over water.

Grid Parameters

Grid Cell Size (degrees)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultGridCellSize>

Description: This value determines the resolution of the results.

Effects on outputs: A smaller value yields smaller cells, which take longer to process and produce higher resolution results. A larger value yields larger cells, which generate more quickly but produce lower resolution results. The system allows cell spacing in the range of .5 - 5 degrees. Cells more than than 5 degrees apart do not provide enough detail in the outputs to be helpful.

Grid Cell Size Overlap (%)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultGridCellOverlap>

Description: The degree to which grid cells overlap, which affects the spacing of the grid points. A run at 4 degrees with 50% overlap is equivalent to a 2 degree run with 0% overlap. This value is zero by default, meaning cells do not overlap at all. This field is likely to be removed in future versions of the application.

Effects on outputs: A higher percentage means more overlap.

Other Options

Calculate Wetness (boolean)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultWetnessCalc>

Description: This boolean value (true/false) tells the application whether or not to calculate wetness values. Wetness calculations comprise a significant portion of the overall processing time, so if the user is not interested in wetness outputs, they can save time by  

Effects on outputs: A value of true will generate wetness values. A value of false will not.

File Parameters

Configuration File

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: N/A

Description: This is the path to the XML configuration file that will be used during the modeling run to set a variety of climate input parameters. By default, the application points to Config.xml, the configuration file that ships with PaleoClimate. It contains values for present day. The user is free to modify the values in Config.xml or to create their own configuration file and point to it instead.

Paleography Shapefile

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultPaleographyShapeFile>

Description: This is the path to the input Shapefile. PaleoClimate installs with a shapefile for present day. You can find it in the installation directory under \Data\Shapefile. Use this file, if applicable, or supply your own shapefile for the appropriate age. Details on the requirements for the shapefile are below in Shapefile Specifications.

Input DEM (optional)

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultInputDEM>

Description: Pointing to an input DEM allows the user to provide more precise elevation information. Values for continentality, mountainality and oceanality will still be determined from the shapefile, however. It is important that the DEM be consistent with the polygons in the shapefile; if they are inconsistent, unexpected outputs may result. PaleoClimate installs with a sample one degree DEM for present day. You can find it in the installation directory under \Data\DigitalElevationModel. You can use one of it or provide your own. Details on the requirements for DEMs are below in DEM Specifications.

Output Directory

Appears in UI: Yes

XML input parameter: <DefaultOutputDirectory>

Description: This is the path on the user’s file system where analysis results will be saved.

Effects on outputs: Changing this path alters the location to which all the outputs will be saved.

Additional Parameters

The following parameters are only exposed through Config.xml, as they are less frequently modified.

Config.xml is organized into the following sections:

For detailed information on these input parameters, please see Appendix A: PaleoClimate Input Parameters.

Shapefile Specifications

PaleoClimate requires a shapefile as one of its primary inputs. The following specifications are required for the shapefiles:

  1. The shapefile should contain simple geometries: polygons. Multipart polygons are not supported. Use only single part polygons. Interior rings can and will be present in order to nest polygon types within each other without creating overlaps.
  2. The shapefile should contain polygons that provide complete coverage of the entire earth's surface.
  3. Polygons should not overlap, so only a single attribute is returned from a 'point in polygon' selection. If polygons overlap, results may be unpredictable.
  4. Snap polygons where appropriate, along coincident sides of adjacent polygons and polygons circumscribed by other polygons. This will prevent polygon overlap and blank spaces.
  5. The exterior rings of all polygons must be digitized clockwise, consistent with the ESRI specification for polygons:

“A polygon consists of one or more rings. A ring is a connected sequence of four or more points that form a closed, non-self-intersecting loop. A polygon may contain multiple outer rings. The order of vertices or orientation for a ring indicates which side of the ring is the interior of the polygon. The neighborhood to the right of an observer walking along the ring in vertex order is the neighborhood inside the polygon. Vertices of rings defining holes in polygons are in a counterclockwise direction. Vertices for a single, ringed polygon are, therefore, always in clockwise order. The rings of a polygon are referred to as its parts.” (page 8)

  1. Digitize polygons at the appropriate vertex density. We recommend the distance between each vertex not be greater than 120 km.
  2. The shapefile should contain the following attributes:

Field Name

Description

Type

Required?

FID

Feature ID

Integer

Yes

SHAPE

Shape

Polygon

Yes

DESCRIPTO

Description

Text (80 character max)

No

TYPE

String code for type of land/ water

Enum (OC - Ocean, CM - Continental Margin, CS - Coastline, MT - Mountains)

Yes

MODIFIER

Numeric code for type of land/ water

Enum (0 - Ocean, 12 - Continental Margin, 34 - Coastline, 78 - Mountains)

Yes

The presence of additional attributes beyond what is specified above should not cause a problem in the execution of PaleoClimate; the application will overlook additional attributes.

For more details on digitizing polygons, see ESRI’s article What is Editing.

Polygon Types

Ocean         Type: OC        Modifier:  0        Treated as: Water

The shapefile can contain a single ocean polygon. The interior rings of the ocean polygon should be coincident with the exterior rings of the continental margin polygons. The ocean polygon should not overlap with continental margin polygons. One way to create the ocean polygon is to start with a single polygon of the entire globe and subtract from it the continental plates.

Continental Margin         Type: CM        Modifier: 12         Treated as: Water

The continental margin polygons are used in PaleoClimate to help synthesize bathymetry along coastlines in the event that a DEM is not provided. Where the continental margin extends far off a coastline, bathymetry will drop gradually. Where the continental margin is coincident with or close to a coastline, bathymetry will drop off steeply. Continental margin polygons should not be derived from elevation. Instead we recommend using the continental crust plates from a plate model of the time period of interest as the basis for creating the continental margin polygons. Continental margin polygons should not overlap with the ocean polygon. The exterior rings of continental margin polygons should be coincident with the interior rings of the ocean polygon. Continental margin will be treated as water in calculations of ocean currents and upwelling.

Coastline        Type: CS        Modifier: 34        Treated as: Land

Coastline polygons can be derived from elevation data. The exterior rings of coastline polygons would occur where elevation = 0.

Mountain         Type: MT        Modifier: 78        Treated as: Land

Mountain polygons should enclose areas with average elevation above 1250 meters. Additionally, areas below 1250 meters can be categorized as Mountain to account for climatic effects from  topography (such as an abrupt and sustained change in elevation) or geography (such as orographic lifting effects near water bodies). Mountain polygons should not overlap with coastline polygons. Rather, the exterior rings of mountain polygons should be coincident with interior rings of coastline polygons.

Below is an example intended to illustrate the distribution of land and water types in a PaleoClimate-compatible shapefile.

DEM Specifications

Using DEMs in PaleoClimate is optional.

  1. The DEM should be a single band floating point raster.
  2. It is critical that the DEM be consistent with the shapefile being used. The elevations supplied by the DEM should align with the distribution of land and water in the shapefile.
  3. Units for elevation should be in meters.
  4. The resolution of the DEM should be equal to or greater than the resolution at which climate simulations will be run. Higher resolution DEMs take longer to process. PaleoClimate ships with a one-degree DEM for present day.

Support

Support for PaleoClimate is available in several ways:


Appendix A: PaleoClimate Input Parameters

This section concerns the input parameters that are not directly exposed via the user interface. The following input parameters can be viewed and modified in Config.xml and are typically much less frequently modifed. For details on the most commonly modified input parameters, see above.

<ConfigureDataGrid>

Grid Spacing Multiplier (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <GridSpacingMultiplier>

Description: This is the number of kilometers that equates to one degree of longitude at the equator. The value used by default in Config.xml, 111.13, is derived by dividing the Earth’s meridional circumference (40,008 km) by 360 degrees. This distance is multiplied by the grid cell spacing to place points on the grid. It adjusts the cell size of the grid spacing after raster conversion.

Effects on outputs: This value should always equal the earth’s circumference (in kilometers) divided by 360 degrees. It affects the placement of points on the virtual grid and the intersection buffer.

<CalculatePaleoGeography>

Maximum Continentality Radius (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <MaxContinentalityRadius>

Description: The distance in kilometers to the furthest inland point on the present-day earth. This distance is used to compute continentality for each point in the grid. Continentality is scaled as a percentage, ranging from 0 on the coast to 100 for the furthest inland point on the present-day earth. Continentality may exceed 100 at various points in the past.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value decreases the continentality computed for all points.

Maximum Oceanality Radius (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <MaxOceanalityRadius>

Description: The distance in kilometers to the furthest offshore point on the present-day earth. This distance is used to compute oceanality for each point in the grid. Oceanality may exceed 100 at various points in the earth’s past.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value decreases the oceanality computed for all points.

Maximum Mountainality Radius (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <MaxMountainalityRadius>

Description: The maximum distance to the closest mountain range edge from any point in the mountains. Mountainality may exceed 100 at various points in the earth’s past.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value decreases the mountainality computed for all points.

<CalculateElevation>

Elevation Multiplier (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <ElevationMultiplier>

Description: This is the height of the tallest point on the surface of the earth. For present-day earth, it’s 8.848 km. This value is used in the absence of a DEM file to generate elevation values on the basis of mountainality.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value will increase the generated elevation values in the mountains.

Elevation Conversion (meters)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <ElevationConversion>

Description: If the DEM file is not present, this value is used to help calculate elevation. This value will be the highest elevation of a non-mountain point on land and the lowest elevation in the mountains.

Effects on outputs: A higher value will increase elevation calculated on land (when a DEM is not present).

Elevation Coast Conversion

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <ElevationCoastConversion>

Description: This value is used in the absence of a DEM to help smooth calculated elevation on the continental margin. It should be a value > 0 and < 1.

Effects on outputs: The smaller this value, the steeper the drop in elevation from land to sea.

<CalculateEffectiveLatitude>

Tilt Buffer for Land

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <TiltBufferLand>

Description: The buffer used for the effective latitude for points on land. <DefaultTiltOfEarthsAxis> is divided by this value, which is then added to or subtracted from the latitude (depending on season) to arrive at the effective latitude for points on land.

Effects on outputs: This value affects the Effective Latitude, Temperature, Pressure. A larger value for <TiltBufferLand> will cause less equatorial drift on land.

Tilt Buffer for Water

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <TiltBufferWater>

Description: The buffer used for the effective latitude for points in water. <DefaultTiltOfEarthsAxis> is divided by this value, which is then added to or subtracted from the latitude (depending on season) to arrive at the effective latitude for points in water.

Effects on outputs: This value affects the Effective Latitude, Temperature, Pressure. A larger value for <TiltBufferWater> will cause less equatorial drift in water.

Houseshift Minimum Temperature for Present Day (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <HouseShiftMinTemperatureToday>

Description: The houseshift is used for correcting the effective latitude for hothouse and icehouse conditions.The <HouseShiftMinTemperatureToday> is added to the <DefaultMinSustainedTempOverLand> (input from the main screen) and divided by <HouseShiftFactor>. So for example, if the <DefaultMinSustainedTempOverLand> = 42 and the <HouseShiftMinTemperatureToday> is given as -30 and the <HouseShiftFactor> is given as 3, that would yield a house shift of 4 for present day. This value is then subtracted or added to the latitude, depending on the hemisphere. In this example our houseshift of 4 will be subtracted for northern hemisphere and added for southern hemisphere .

Effects on outputs: This value probably would not change significantly, because it characterizes minimum temperature for present day. If you want to simulate hothouse or icehouse conditions, instead modify  <DefaultMinSustainedTempOverLand> and/or <HouseShiftFactor>.

Houseshift Factor

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <HouseShiftFactor>

Description: The Houseshift Factor governs the degree to which houseshift should affect the calculated effective latitude.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value will decrease the effect of houseshift.

<CalculateTemperature>

Mean Temperature Cutoff (Celcius)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MeanTemperatureCutoff>

Description: This value should be the mean temperature for the time period being modeled. The calculated sea level temperature for each point is compared with this value. If the calculated temperature is greater than  <MeanTemperatureCutoff>, the continentality of that point are evaluated, and the <MaxContintentalTemperatureIncrease> is either added or subtracted, depending on whether the point in in the ocean, on land or in the mountains.

Effects on outputs: A higher mean temperature cutoff will produce lower temperatures overall, because that means that fewer high temperatures will reach the threshold at which the effects of continentality are applied. Conversely, lower mean temperature cutoff will produce higher temperatures overall.

Maximum Continentality Temperature Increase  (Celcius)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MaxContintentalTemperatureIncrease>

Description: This is the amount to increase or decrease temperature values due to the effects of continentality.

Effects on outputs: A higher value will increase the effects of continentality and a lower value will mitigate them.

Pressure Influence on Temperature  (Percentage)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <PressureInfluenceOnTemperature>

Description: This determines the amount of effect of pressure on temperature.

Effects on outputs:  A Higher value will increase the effect of pressure on temperature.

<CalculatePressure>

Radius of Western Intensification (kilometers)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <WesternIntensificationRadius>

Description: The radius across which Western Intensification will be applied to the calculated pressure.

Effects on outputs: The larger the radius, the more broadly the Western Intensification effect will be applied.

Apply Western Intensification Until Reaching Land (boolean)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <WesternIntensificationToLand>

Description: Indicates whether to apply the effects of Western Intensification beyond the radius specified above westward across the ocean until land is reached.

Effects on outputs: A value of true will apply the effects of Western Intensification over the ocean west until land is reached, rather than only across the radius specified in <WesternIntensificationRadius>.

Mean Pressure Cutoff (bars)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MeanPressureCutoff>

Description: The western intensification factor is adjusted using the mean pressure cutoff. The mean Pressure cutoff will determine which points are qualified for western intensification. Only points with pressure greater than <MeanPressureCutoff>

have western intensification applied.

Effects on outputs:  Higher value will cause only high pressure values to have western intensification effect.

Maximum Continental Pressure Increase  (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MaxContinentalPressureIncrease>

Description: The effect of relative continentality on pressure is controlled by this parameter.

Effects on outputs: A higher value will increase the effect of continentality on pressure.

Maximum Western Intensification Pressure Increase (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MaxWesternIntensificationPressureIncrease>

Description: This is a factor that is applied to directly affect the intensity of western intensification.

Effects on outputs: Increasing this value will raise the pressure within areas of western intensification.

Water Pressure Array Winter Northern Hemisphere( bars)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <WaterPressureArrayWNH>

Description: This is an array of user-supplied “best guess” sea level air pressure values of points in water. It is used in combination with <PressureLatitudeArray> to interpolate pressure values based on latitude.

Effects on outputs: Pressure is directly proportional to these values. These are base pressure values for a given latitude before other parameters are applied.

Water Pressure Array Summer Northern Hemisphere(bars)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <WaterPressureArraySNH>

Description: This Array is used to find the pressure of water point at latitude during summer by interpolating. If this values are wrong, then the starting pressure value will be wrong

Effects on outputs: Pressure is directly proportional to these values. These are base pressure values for the latitude before other parameters are applied.

Land Pressure Array Winter Northern Hemisphere(bars)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <LandPressureArrayWNH>

Description: This Array is used to find the pressure of land point at latitude during winter by interpolating. If this values are wrong, then the starting pressure value will be wrong

Effects on outputs: Pressure is directly proportional to these values. These are base pressure values for the latitude before other parameters are applied.

Land Pressure Array Summer Northern Hemisphere(bars)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <LandPressureArraySNH>

Description:This Array is used to find the pressure of land point at latitude during summer by interpolating. If this values are wrong, then the starting pressure value will be wrong

Effects on outputs: Pressure is directly proportional to these values. These are base pressure values for the latitude before other parameters are applied.

PressureLatitudeArray

<CalculateWind>

Deep Sea Friction (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <DeepSeaFriction>

Description: Deep Sea Friction adjusts wind speed for points located in the deep sea (type = ocean). The wind speed is multiplied by <DeepSeaFriction>.

Effects on outputs:  A higher value means less friction and higher wind speed.

Shallow Sea Friction (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <ShallowSeaFriction>

Description: Shallow Sea Friction adjusts wind speed for points located in the deep sea (type = coastal margin). The wind speed is multiplied by <ShallowSeaFriction>.

Effects on outputs: A higher value means less friction and higher wind speed.

Lowland Friction (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <LowlandFriction>

Description: Lowland Friction adjusts wind speed for lowland points. The wind speed is multiplied by <LowlandFriction>.

Effects on outputs: A higher value means less friction and higher wind speed.

Mountain Land Friction (a number between 0 and 1)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <MountainFriction>

Description:  Mountain Friction adjusts wind speed for lowland points. The wind speed is multiplied by <MountainFriction>.

Effects on outputs:  A higher value means less friction and higher wind speed.

Coriolis Deflection Latitude Array (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionLatitudeArray>

Description: This is an array of latitudes from south to north. It is used in combination with several other arrays (<LandLowPressure>, <LandHiPressure> <MountainsLowPressure,>  <MountainsHiPressure>, <WaterLowPressure>, and <WaterHiPressure>) to apply coriolis deflection. Points located at intermediate latitudes will have their deflection values interpolated linearly.

Effects on outputs: The array should include -90 and 90 as the minimum and maximum values, but the remaining array values can be altered.

Coriolis Deflection on Land at Low Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionLandLowPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth over land where pressure is less than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

Coriolis Deflection on Land at High Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionLandHighPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth over land where pressure is greater than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

Coriolis Deflection in Mountains at Low Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionMountainsLowPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth in mountain areas where pressure is less than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

Coriolis Deflection in Mountains at High Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionMountainsHighPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth in mountain areas where pressure is greater than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

Coriolis Deflection on Water at Low Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <CoriolisDeflectionWaterLowPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth over water where pressure is less than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

Coriolis Deflection on Water at High Pressure (degrees)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter: <CoriolisDeflectionWaterHighPressure>

Description: This array of values is used to apply coriolis deflection to wind azimuth over water where pressure is greater than 1015 millibars. A value of 10 degrees would cause a 10 degree deflection clockwise in the northern hemisphere or counterclockwise in the southern hemisphere.

Effects on outputs: Higher values result in more coriolis deflection in wind azimuths and ocean currents.

<CalculateUpwelling>

Upwelling Speed Factor (Number)

Appears in UI: No

XML input parameter:  <UpwellingSpeedFactor>

Description: The calculated upwelling is divided by this factor. This inversely affects the upwelling. This is used to decrease the amount of upwelling for lower wind speed areas.

Effects on outputs: Higher value means lower upwelling.


Appendix B: PaleoClimate Outputs

All outputs generated by PaleoClimate will appear in the Output Directory specified by the user, by default %APPDATA%\Roaming\Rothwell\PaleoClimate\Output\[date and time].

The output directory for each run will include a single shapefile, Output.shp, which contains a multitude of attributes. It will also contain several rasters for outputs like pressure, temperature, and upwelling. Outputs that have both a magnitude and direction (like wind and ocean currents) will not be rendered as rasters.

For your convenience, the output directory also includes a set of corresponding layer rendering files to visualize the outputs (.lyr for ArcMap and .sld for open source GIS). These can be adjusted as needed to suit the user’s preferences.

You will also notice a copy of Config.xml is included with the output files. This is included so the user can be clear about what values were used as inputs in order to generate the resulting set of outputs.

Output Attributes

The following values are generated as attributes in Output.shp.

Continentality

Description: Continentality is the tendency of land to experience more thermal variation than water, due to the land's lower specific heat capacity. Here it is the relative measure of how far inland a point is.  

Shapefile Attribute: Continent

Units: Scale of 0-100 for present day. Can exceed 100 in the past.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Continentality.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Continentality.lyr and Continentality.sld

Oceanality

Description: The relative measure of deep into the ocean (how far from the coastline) a point out at sea is.

Shapefile Attribute: Oceanality

Units: Scale of 0-100 for present day. Can exceed 100 in the past.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Oceanality.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Oceanality.lyr and Oceanality.sld

Mountainality

Description: For points located within a mountain polygon, it is a relative measure of how far that point to the perimeter of the mountain range.

Shapefile Attribute: Mountain

Units: Scale of 0-100 for present day. Can exceed 100 in the past depending on the value for <MaxMountainality>.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Mountainality.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Mountainality.lyr and Mountainality.sld

Elevation

Description: When a DEM is provided, the elevation value it supplies is used. When no DEM is present, PaleoClimate computes a synthetic elevation on the basis of continentality, oceanality,  mountainality and the configuration inputs <ElevationMultiplier> and <ElevationCoastConversion>. It assumes the lowest elevations are found in the furthest ocean areas and the highest elevations are found in the areas with greatest mountainality.

Shapefile Attribute: Elevation

Units: Meters

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Elevation.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Elevation.lyr and Elevation.sld

Coastal Distance

Description: The distance from the point to the nearest coastline vertex.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastDist

Units: Kilometers

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Coastal Azimuth

Description: The azimuth from the point to the nearest coastline vertex.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastAzmth

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Pressure

Pressure - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Sea level air pressure during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: PressSNH

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Pressure_Summer.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Pressure_Summer.lyr and Pressure_Summer.sld

Pressure - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Sea level air pressure during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: PressWNH

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Pressure_Winter.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Pressure_Winter.lyr and Pressure_Winter.sld

Pressure - Average

Description: Average sea level air pressure.

Shapefile Attribute: PressAvg

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Pressure_Average.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Pressure_Average.lyr and Pressure_Average.sld

Pressure - Range

Description: Sea level air pressure difference between Summer and Winter. The Winterpressure value is subtracted from the Summer pressure value.

Shapefile Attribute: PressRng

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Surface Pressure - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Surface level air pressure during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: SPressSNH1

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: surface_pressSNH.tiff

Renderer Filenames: No layer file provided.

Surface Pressure - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Surface level air pressure during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: SPressWNH1

Units: Millibars

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: surface_pressWNH.tiff

Renderer Filenames: No layer file provided.

Wind

Wind Azimuth - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wind azimuth during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WindAzSNH

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Summer.lyr and Wind_Summer.sld

Wind Speed - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wind speed during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WindSpdSNH

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Summer.lyr and Wind_Summer.sld

Wind Azimuth - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wind azimuth during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WindAzWNH

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Winter.lyr and Wind_Winter.sld

Wind Speed - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wind speed during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WindSpdWNH

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Winter.lyr and Wind_Winter.sld

Wind Speed - Average

Description: Average wind speed.

Shapefile Attribute: WindSpdAvg

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Average.lyr and Wind_Average.sld

Wind Azimuth - Average

Description: Average wind azimuth.

Shapefile Attribute: WindAzAvg

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Wind_Average.lyr and Wind_Average.sld

Upwelling

Coastal Upwelling - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Coastal upwelling during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastUpWNH

Units: Scale from -100 to 100. Negative numbers are downwelling. Positive numbers are upwelling.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Upwelling_Winter.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Upwelling_Winter.lyr and Upwelling_Winter.sld

Coastal Upwelling - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Coastal upwelling during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastUpSNH

Units: Scale from -100 to 100. Negative numbers are downwelling. Positive numbers are upwelling.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Upwelling_Summer.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Upwelling_Summer.lyr and Upwelling_Summer.sld

Coastal Upwelling - Average

Description: Average coastal upwelling.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastUpAvg

Units: Scale from -100 to 100. Negative numbers are downwelling. Positive numbers are upwelling.

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Upwelling_Average.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Upwelling_Average.lyr and Upwelling_Average.sld

Coastal Upwelling - Range

Description: Range for coastal upwelling: Summer minus Winter.

Shapefile Attribute: CoastUpRng

Units: Scale from -100 to 100. Negative numbers are downwelling. Positive numbers are upwelling.

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Ocean Currents

Water Azimuth - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Water direction during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterAzSNH

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Summer.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Summer.sld

Water Speed - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Water speed during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterSpSNH

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Summer.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Summer.sld

Water Azimuth - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Water direction during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterAzWNH

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Winter.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Winter.sld

Water Speed - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Water speed during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterSpWNH

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Winter.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Winter

Water Azimuth - Average

Description: Average water azimuth.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterAzAvg

Units: Degrees

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Average.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Average.sld

Water Speed - Average

Description: Average water speed.

Shapefile Attribute: WaterSpdAvg

Units: Knots

Output Type: Vector

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: Ocean_Circulation_Average.lyr and Ocean_Circulation_Average.sld

Temperature

Sea Level Temperature - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Sea level air temperature during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere. Ignores the effects of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSeaSNH

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_SeaLevel_Summer.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_SeaLevel_Summer.lyr and Temperature_SeaLevel_Summer.sld

Sea Level Temperature - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Sea level air temperature during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere. Ignores the effects of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSeaWNH

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_SeaLevel_Winter.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_SeaLevel_Winter.lyr and Temperature_SeaLevel_Winter.sld

Sea Level Temperature - Average

Description: Average sea level temperature. Ignores the effects of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSeaAvg

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_SeaLevel_Average.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_SeaLevel_Average.lyr and Temperature_SeaLevel_Average.sld

Sea Level Temperature - Range

Description: Sea level temperature range. Ignores the effects of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSeaRng

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Surface Temperature - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Surface temperature during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere. Reflects the influence of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSurSNH

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_Surface_Summer.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_Surface_Summer.lyr and Temperature_Surface_Summer.sld

Surface Temperature - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Surface temperature during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere. Reflects the influence of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSurWNH

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_Surface_Winter.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_Surface_Winter.lyr and Temperature_Surface_Winter.sld

Surface Temperature - Average

Description: Average surface temperature. Reflects the influence of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSurAvg

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Temperature_Surface_Average.lyr

Renderer Filenames: Temperature_Surface_Average.lyr and Temperature_Surface_Average.sld

Surface Temperature - Range

Description: Surface temperature range. Reflects the influence of elevation and bathymetry on temperature.

Shapefile Attribute: TempSurRng

Units: Degrees Celsius

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.

Wetness

Wetness - Summer Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wetness during Summer for the Northern Hemisphere. Wetness is a relative indicator of evapotranspiration, on a scale of -100 to 100 with -100 being very dry and 100 being very wet.

Shapefile Attribute: WetSNH

Units: Scale of -100 to 100

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Wetness_Summer.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Wetness_Summer.lyr and Wetness_Summer.sld

Wetness - Winter Northern Hemisphere

Description: Wetness during Winter for the Northern Hemisphere. Wetness is a relative indicator of evapotranspiration, on a scale of -100 to 100 with -100 being very dry and 100 being very wet.

Shapefile Attribute: WetWNH

Units: Scale of -100 to 100

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Wetness_Winter.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Wetness_Winter.lyr and Wetness_Winter.sld

Wetness - Average

Description: Average wetness. Wetness is a relative indicator of evapotranspiration, on a scale of -100 to 100 with -100 being very dry and 100 being very wet.

Shapefile Attribute: WetAvg

Units: Scale of -100 to 100

Output Type: Raster

Output Filename: Wetness_Average.tiff

Renderer Filenames: Wetness_Average.lyr and Wetness_Average.sld

Wetness - Range

Description: Wetness range. Wetness is a relative indicator of evapotranspiration, on a scale of -100 to 100 with -100 being very dry and 100 being very wet.

Shapefile Attribute: WetRng

Units: Scale of -100 to 100

Output Type: Shapefile attribute only.

Output Filename: Output.shp

Renderer Filenames: N/a. Shapefile attribute only. No layer file provided.


Appendix C: XML Specification

<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8" ?>

<!-- Link to PaleoClimate User guide, which also contains documentation about Parameters.

https://docs.google.com/a/rothwellgroup.com/document/d/1CGubJ99vhcKT6wkaVP4KCrVjUyhOJmz50DPgrnu8WVE/edit

-->

<JobParameters>

        <!--Default Main Climate Parameters-->

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