Kes yu Yil  -  The X that Y-d

This lesson is to tackle one of the most complicated features of Kah: relative clauses. To give you an idea of what relative clauses are, here are some examples from English:

the boy that won

the man who fell

the house which burnt down

Kah does not use words like that, who or which, it does not have relative markers. Instead, Kah resorts to double marking of the word that is the head of the relative clause. Double marking means the word is referred to twice, once as a head, and once with a personal pronoun. In practice this looks like:

simbu yu fiti

boy he win

the boy that won

The head of the phrase is simbu. A phrase like simbu fiti would have meant simply "the boy won". The fact the head is "repeated" by adding a personal pronoun yu "he" makes the relative aspect come out. Compare:

simbu gevu

boy run

the boy ran

simbu kiza

boy eat

the boy ate

nia bai

car broken

the car is broken

yudo opi

house burnt

the burnt house

simbu yu gevu

boy he run

the boy that ran

simbu yu kiza

boy he eat

the boy who ate

nia ya bai

the car it broken

the car that is broken

yudo ya opi

house it burnt

the house which is burnt

 

9.1  Kwau yu kiza seki

The following story makes extensive use of double marking/relative clauses:

Kwikuta tauku wi, Uma Kwau sencho reo ya yunkule janjang wi. Ya rosa kwambe ai lam wi.

Uma nura tila reo ai vanjo ya eno Uba Kwau nong ke weyun reo janjang.

Ze maro kwa reo tombai ai bene yu pesan wi bochu. Yu kwauka: "Mama!" ai nonoivu de Uba ai Uma Kwau.

"Hayu uwau?" donka Uba Kwau. "Bene wau nong na wa. Kwau nong janja pesan ai nong le vuvu pan. Je nong tengi ganu ewe!"

"Abal lo!" Uma Kwau ka ai gevu de aso ai nuku ganu. "Mama!" bene pesan kwauka ai gevu de aso mau.

Pya bo aso ai geta vubon. "Weyun ha?" Uba Kwau kwauka wonka. "Uye nong bene na wa! Uye yoyong bene!"

Bene pesan tinu. Randun ken nai na Uma Kwau ai vunu mau kum yu vu aso. Tai jebonu ho bene yu pesan nong kwau, chumun kwau yu kiza seki nong laila.

Yunkule yompo moreo pembenga.

 kwikuta - once, once upon a time

 tauku - ago

 sencho - to give birth to

 janjang - weird, unusual

 rosa  - round

 nura - to sit down

 vanjo - to hide

 tombai - to break, get broken

 bene - chick, duckling

 bochu - to hatch

 nonoivu - to waddle

 donka - to yell, scream, exclaim

 janja - usual, usually

 ganu - to swim

 ewe - even

 abal - nonsense

 nuku - to start, begin

 pya - to jump, hop

 geta - instantly, immediately, right away

 vubon - to submerge, sink

 wonka - angry

 tinu - to ascend, come up

 randun - to bite

 ken  - neck

 jebonu - to realize

 yunkule - to seem

 yompo  - instead

 moreo  - to hatch

 pembenga - crocodile

In this text the word ya was used in order to double-mark a relative clauses having a inanimate noun as a head:

reo ya yunkule janjang wi

EGG it look unusual very

an egg which looked very unusual

More examples of the use of ya as a double-marker are:

aso ya sonu

water it run

running water

dinya ya bai

lamp it broken

the broken lamp

Plural nouns are double-marked by the pronouns yunyo (animate) and yanyo (inanimate):

simbu yunyo senji

boy they dance

the boys that danced

ape yanyo bon

tree they fall

the trees that fell

9.2  Ala al dochu lai 

Kwau yu kiza seki la yoyoi. "Mama nong le," donka. "Baba nong le. Yoi, vanyo yoyong le. Vado nong le chumun nong jo ala wa dochu lai..."

Dundu nechi na uma ai yoyoi ai ganu nong la boyun ala yu de lai.

Bua Sinsipya wehim bene minyun la yoyoi ai haka yu: "Tente wa tengi leo. Jo ala li chu lai ha?" "Eo reshi," bene waika. Jewai nen wi reo wa bochu lai. Ya rosa ai lam."

"Nen, nen," Sinsipya jevi. "Echu jo ata bochu tai ha?" "Eo, ninku wau wa nuchi reo ye. Wa lara lai maro kwa deche ata wa bochu tai,"

"Ai nong yunkule fanyo ha?" Sinsipya haka. "Yoyong," bene kwauka.

"Echu tim li ho kinkene," Bua Sinsipya jesa. "Kwiku koyun kaiko ya bole atoka shai. Tontoye, tim kele kinkene yin,"

"Pai wi lo," bene minyun waika la nyeka ai geza ken na Sinsipya kum yu vu aso eno kiza yu mau.

Yunkule yu rata pembenga.

 dochu - to belong, belong to

 dundu - to chew, chew on

 nechi - wing

 ganu - to swim

 boyun - to notice, pay attention to

 sinsipya - dik-dik

 haka - to ask

 leo - to help

 waika - to answer

 jewai - to remember, recall

 donka - to yell, scream

 jevi - to ponder

 deche - until

 kinkene - swan

 jesa - to think, feel, be of the opinion that

 kwiku - once, once before

 koyun - to read

 kaiko - book 

 bole - to contain

 atoka - story

 yin - other

 nyeka  - happy, happily

 geza - to grab

In this text relative clauses referring to a location came up:

ala wa dochu lai

place I belong there

the place I belong

(literally: "the place I belong there")

ala yu de lai

place he go there

the place he was going

(literally: "the place he goes there")

ala li chu lai

place you from there

the place you come from

(literally: "the place you come from there")

The head of these relative clauses is the word ala "place". It is marked again by the word lai"there". In another relative clause referring to a location the word reo "egg" was double-marked by lai as well:

reo wa bochu lai

egg i hatch there

the egg I came from

(literally: "the egg I was hatched out of there")

Similarly the following locations are double-marked by lai:

kwando wa dede lai

school i attend there

the school I attend

(literally: "the school I attend there")

yudo li dora lai

house you live there

the house you live

(literally: "the house you live there")

dola ya to lai

city it happen there

the city where it happened

(literally: "the city it happened there")

For words referring to time, the double-marking is done with the word tai "then":

ata wa bochu tai

time i hatch then

when I hatched

(literally: "the time I hatched then")

tiro yu senchu tai

year he be born then

the year he was born

(literally: "the year I was born then")

sinta yu jebonu tai

moment she realize then

the moment she realized

(literally: "the moment she realized then")

 

9.3  Amun chumunye 

Naim ai mambau la dora kwala bo yudo. Toyo naim ke jandoren kwasi. Ai mambau ke woika, yoika ai wua sisi, chumun tatang ke oyosa.

Naim kan lon, sekan ai geku. Anin yo jaren yudo. La kwa, mambau ka yu en shim zubea. Eta naim oyo munyun mambau bea be yulo shim ya, esto mambau che naim la titi.

"Yai!" naim silka ai donka: "Hamun che wa ha?" "Bea yin rata nong shim. Amun chumunye!" mambau donka naim yu yoyoi.

Naim shim ai sekan nyom bea yo. Eta oyo, mambau pya de yu, za kenke ai janonoi. "Hamun?" naim yoika. "Nong yingo zonya, amun chumunye!" mambau waika naim.

Naim gevu de zombea,  yingo zongo na zonya na mambau, nyom shenum yo ai shim ango yo na mambau mau. Esto mambau wai che yu la titi don ai wua: "Nong kwi janzu, amun chumunye!"

Naim nong jo ashi tengi janyosa mambau shai, esto gevu chipola, paza seki shu, peki henchu ai loiki mweti wi. De vado ai kemun lon en jam kito shu. Zeye, za chuntal ai zipe ai shinas ai shim yudo wai, nyom ai moham doya yo deche ayo dingu. Tai pau mambau kito ai tara anenka.

Mambau kiza chunka kiski, loloi yol yo kwa ze kwa, weyun yudo kwambe ai nyeki: "De lo, ustu sinsi!"

Eta naim pepye faunu, mambau cheche yu la titi layo ai wua: "Hamun nong jango tivan?!"

 atoka - story

 kwala - together

 jandoren - to tend the house, do the housekeeping

 woika - to complain

 yoika  - to lament

 wua - to howl

 tatang - never

 oyosa - satisfied, content

 kan - to work

 lon - intense, hard

 sekan - to work hard, labour

 geku - to hurry

 jaren - to tidy up

 la kwa - first, in the first place, firstly

 shim - to clean

 zubea - kitchen

 eta - when

 oyo - ready, done

 munyun - to show

 bea - room, chamber

 che - to hit

 silka - to shriek

 janonoi - to rock, shake back and forth

 yin - to change, change clothes

 amun - reason

 chumunye - because of that

 amun chumunye - that's why

 nyom  - to rub

 shenum  - window

 dingu - to glitter, sparkle, shine

 yingo  - to change, change clothes

 zongo  - sheet

 ango  - cloth

 zonya  - bed

 zombea  - bedroom

 don  - hard, forceful

 ashi  - way, manner

 janyosa  - to satisfy

 pya - to jump

 henchu - fresh

 mweti - delicate

 kito - meal

 zeye - afterwards

 chuntal  - to lie, lie down

 zipe - brush

 shinas - soap

 moham - polish

 doya - (piece of) furniture

 deche - until

 tara - to wait, wait for

 anenka - compliment

 chunka - to smack

 kiski - lips

 loloi - to lick

 kwambe - whole, entire, complete

 nyeki - to smile

 ustu - friend

 pepye  - to tremble

 faunu  - toapproach, come close

 cheche - to beat, hit repeatedly

 layo - everywhere

 jango - to put on, dress

 tivan  - hat

The phrase amun chumunye "that's why" is a relative clause of its own. The word chumunye "because of that" double-marks the word amun "reason": "The reason is because of that". Compare:

nong jo amun wa jam chumunye

not know reason i do because of that

I don't know why I did it

(literally: "I don't know the reason I did it because of that")

ka wa amun li jam chumunye

say i reason you do because of that

tell me why you did it

(literally: "Tell me the reason you did it because of that")

aye amun mambau che naim chumunye

that reason wolf hit rabbit because of that

that's why the wolf hit the rabbit

(literally: "That is the reason the wolf hit the rabbit because of that")

tengi ka wa amun na tusung en jempeza lau chumunye ha?

can say i reason of be prohibited that smoke he because of that q

can you tell me why it is prohibited to smoke here?

(literally: "Can you tell me the reason of being prohibited to smoke here because of that?")

Furthermore, we saw a relative construction which is translated with gerunds in English:

mambau donka naim yu yoyoi

wolf yell rabbit he cry

the wolf yelled at the crying rabbit

(literally: "the wolf yelled at the rabbit he cry")

Kah uses such constructions quite a lot:

une yu la jika

bird it be at sing

the singing bird, the bird that is singing

weyun une yu la jika

saw bird it be at singing

I saw the singing bird, I saw the bird that was singing

wamai kenyo yunyo la fiti

cheer team they be at win

they cheered for the winning team, the team that was winning

Also, the story contained a relative clause of manner:

naim nong jo ashi tengi janyosa mambau shai

rabbit not know manner can satisfy wolf like that

the rabbit did not know how to satisfy the wolf

(literally: "the rabbit did not know the manner he could satisfy the wolf like that")

The word shai "like that" double marks the word ashi "manner". Compare:

awau nong ashi eno jam shai

this not manner to do like that

this is not the way to do it

(literally: "this is not the manner to do it like that")

om yun ashi jam shai

opt look way do like that

let's see how to do this

(literally: "let's look at the manner to do it like that")

ashi eno zia yunga shai

manner to serve human like that

how to serve man

(literally: "the manner in order to serve human like that")

 

9.4  Yuka be li la kwan ya 

The text in the previous paragraph contained a phrase reading:

munyun mambau bea be yulo shim ya

show wolf room top himself clean it

he showed the wolf the room he cleaned

This phrase is interesting because of two things. First of all, the pronoun yulo "himself" is used instead of yu "he":

munyun mambau bea be yulo shim ya

show wolf room top himself clean it

he showed the wolf the room he cleaned

If he would have said yu "he", the translation would be identical in the English translation:

munyun mambau bea be yu shim ya

show wolf room top he clean it

he showed the wolf the room he cleaned

The difference would be in the interpretation of the English word "he". When the Kah sentence uses yulo, the word refers back to the speaker, the rabbit:

munyun mambau bea be yulo shim ya

show wolf room top himself clean it

he showed the wolf the room he (i.e. the rabbit) cleaned

When the Kah sentence uses yu, however, the word refers to a third person:

munyun mambau bea be yu shim ya

show wolf room top he clean it

he showed the wolf the room he (i.e. someone else) cleaned.

Also compare:

simwana ka yulo kwasi

girl say herself alone

the girl said she (.i.e. the girl herself) was alone

simwana ka yu kwasi

girl say she alone

the girl said she (i.e. someone else) was alone

simwana ka ustu kwasi

girl say friend alone

the girl said her friend was alone

The second remarkable thing about this phrase is the use of the topic marker be. The head of the relative clause, the word bea, is followed by it:

bea be yulo shim ya

room top himself clean it

the room he cleaned

The head bea is marked by the marker be since the object of the verb shim "to clean" is placed in the beginning of the phrase just like the examples we encountered earlier in Lesson 8:

Merih Jan nenju -  John loves Mary / Mary loves John

Merih be Jan nenju -  John loves Mary / *Mary loves John

hayu weyun -  who did you see? / who saw it?

hayu be weyun? -  who did you see? / *who saw it?

haya mun? -  what did you cause? / what caused it?

haya be mun? -  what did you cause? / *what caused it?

Now compare the following phrases:

bea be yu shim

room top he clean

it was the room he cleaned

une be yu weyun

bird top he see

it was a bird he saw

nia be yu paza

car top he buy

it was a car he bought

vs.

bea be yu shim ya

room top he clean it

the room he cleaned

une be yu weyun yu

bird top he see it

the bird he saw

nia be yu paza ya

car top he buy it

the car he bought

And the difference between the following phrases:

bau yu randun meo

dog he bite cat

the dog that bit the cat

bau be meo randun yu

dog top cat bite it

the dog the cat bit

The following conversation contains a lot of relative phrases and the be marker:

Dainah: -Mai baninta.

Dana: -Good afternoon

Umumpo: -Mai wai.

Vendor: -Hello.

Dainah: -Soi waipau nia be wa laza ya ninku wau.

Dana: -I'd like to return the car I rented this morning.

Umumpo: -Nong tento en laza anin sun ha?

Vendor:  -Weren't you supposed to rent it for two days?  

Dainah: -Je en nong.

Dana: -I think not.

Umumpo: -Ha ho? Nen, hala nia be li laza ha?

Vendor:  -Really? Well, where is the car that you rented?.  

Dainah: -Lau chachau.

Dana: -Right here,

Umumpo: -A, aye nong nia be wa lapau ya li...

Vendor:  -Er, that is not the car I rented to you

Dainah: -Hashi jo?

Dana: -How do you know that?

Umumpo: -Nia be lapau li ya le ada pan ai kudinya. Mau, ya lam, nong rai ai pesan. Aku nong bai shi ya na nia ye.

Vendor:  -the car I rented you had four wheels and headlights. Also, it was white, not brown and green. The front was not broken like the one on that car.

Dainah: -Reje ha?

Dana: -Are you sure?

Umumpo: -Reje wi. Haya to tos nia ye?

Vendor:  -Very sure. What happened to that car?

Dainah: -Tim wa noin chu simbu yu geze sankane yu weka Faransaka la nuno ai bunu ape.

Dana: -I had to steer clear of a boy chasing a parrot speaking French on the road and crashed into a tree.

Umumpo: -Wu wonkuri tos sankane ye...

Vendor:  -I'm getting so fed up with that parrot...

...

 waipau - to return, give back

 lapau - to rent

 tento - to be supposed to

 chachau  - exactly, precisely, right

 jalapau - to rent to

 ada - wheel

 kudinya - headlights

 bai - to be broken, not functioning

 reje - to be convince, sure

noin - to steer clear of, change direction suddenly, twist

 geze - to chase

 bunu - to crash, crash into

 wonkuri - to get angry, be fed up with

I realize these relative clauses are tricky stuff. Therefore a large portion of the exercises is provided to assist with recognizing, producing and repeating (and repeating) relative clauses:

 

1) Please identify the head of the relative clause in the following sentences in the same manner as the examples:

simwana yu jika    simwana yu jika

ata ya to tai     ata ya to tai

nia ya bai   nia ya bai

1.        Simwana yu nyeki

2.        Dinya ya bai

3.        Win yu gevu

4.        Rio yu bochu tai

5.        Tiso be al kuka

6.        Amun wa jam chumunye

7.    Podola be al jampi ya

8.    Bau yunyo jaru

9.    Bau yu jandun meo

10.  Bau yu kiza seki yo

11.  Podola wa paza binki lai

12.  Ashi yunyo jam shai.

 

2) Please identify the double marker in the following sentences:

1.        Simwana yu nyeki

2.        Dinya ya bai

3.        Win yu gevu

4.        Rio yu bochu tai

5.        Tiso be al kuka

6.        Amun wa jam chumunye

7.    Podola be al jampi ya

8.    Bau yunyo jaru

9.    Bau yu jandun meo

10.  Bau yu kiza seki yo

11.  Podola wa paza binki lai

12.  Ashi yunyo jam shai.

 

3) Please make relative clauses of the following phrases in the same manner as the examples:

simwana jika    simwana yu jika

nia bai   nia ya bai

1.   Yudo lam

2.   Buyu gevu

3.   Ben jafi

4.   Naini chu

5.   Seki mwa

6.   Ben yem jafi

7.   Simbu yo jam

8.   Ape wen yem boa

9.   Ape boa

10. Ben gevu ge tio

 

4) Please translate into English:

1.         Bau yu randun meo.

2.         Bau yu randun meo yu kiza seki yo.

3.         Bau yu randun meo yu kiza seki yo ya osauzu.

4.         Apa be wa dadau ya.

5.         Podo uba paza yu fia lai.

6.         Podo be al mompi ya.

7.         Uba paza yu fia la podo be al mompi ya ninye.

8.         Pesanyo be wa paza yanyo.

9.         Simwana yu kiza shuki yo.

10.   Simwana yu kiza shuki yo be umukwan wonka.

11.   Bibi na simwana yi kiza shuki yo yai.

12.   Nong jo ata simwana kiza shuki yo tai.

13.   Nong jo amun simwana kiza shuki yo chumunye.

14.   Nong jo amun nia bai chumunye.

15.   Nong jo amun win ye gevu chumunye.

16.   Nong jo amun win be wa weyun yu gevu chumunye.

17.   Nong jo ala simwana kiza shuki yo lai.

18.   Simwana sisi jo ata yulo kiza ayo tai.

19.   Jo amun simwana kiza shuki yo tai chumunye ha?

20.   Lau ala yu kiza shuki yo lai.

 

5) Please translate into Kah:

1.        It's my tummy that is hurting.

2.         It's the cat that ate all the meat that I saw.

3.        Is that really the way to translate this?

4.        Where is the place that it happened?

5.        Can you please tell me where I can buy some bread.

6.         Is it known why the sun keeps shining?

7.         Do they know when the mall was set fire to?

8.    It was in October when it started to snow.

9.   The month it started snowing was October.

10.  I don't know how and I don't know when but I will kill you.

11.  I really like the nuts you bought.

12.  I don't want the nuts you stuffed up your nose.

 Answers