AP Biology Pre-Discussion Questions: Information 2- Central Dogma

Instructions:

Topic Presentation:

Textbook Reading:

Principles of Life:

OpenStax Biology:

Biozone Pages:

Supplementary Resources:

“Crash Course: Biology” Videos:

Videos By Paul Andersen:

Part 1:  DNA Replication

Questions to answer:

Things you should make sure you understand:

Part 2:  Transcription

Questions to answer:

Things you should make sure you understand:

Part 3:  Translation

Questions to answer:

Things you should make sure you understand:

Instructions:

Topic Presentation:

click here

Note:  This is a 3-part presentation

Textbook Reading:

Principles of Life:

OpenStax Biology:

Biozone Pages:

Volume 1:

Supplementary Resources:

“Crash Course: Biology” Videos:

DNA Structure & Replication: Biology #10

DNA, Hot Pockets, & The Longest Word Ever: Biology #11

Videos By Paul Andersen:

DNA & RNA Part 2

DNA Replication

Transcription & Translation

The Central Dogma

Genotypes and Phenotypes


Part 1:  DNA Replication

Questions to answer:

  1. Diagram the “Central Dogma” of molecular genetics.  How does it allow for DNA to serve as both the heritable molecule and code for protein sequence?
  2. Explain the experiment conducted by Meselson and Stahl.  How did the results of their experiment demonstrate the semi-conservative model of DNA replication was the accurate model?
  1. Explain how each of the following enzymes contributes to the process of DNA replication:
  1. helicase
  2. single-stranded binding proteins
  3. DNA polymerase
  4. primase
  5. ligase
  6. Topisomerase/gyrase
  1. How does replication of the leading strand differ from replication of the lagging strand?  Why can’t both strands of DNA be replicated in the same fashion?
  2. Diagram the replication fork.  Include:
  1. the leading strand
  2. the lagging strand
  3. prime orientation of both parent strand and both daughter strands.
  4. Replisome
  5. Okazaki fragments
  1. Why is telomerase necessary during the replication of eukaryotic chromosomes?

Things you should make sure you understand:

(feel free to ask questions about them in class)


Part 2:  Transcription

Questions to answer:

  1. How did Beadle and Tatum’s work on auxotroph’s suggest that metabolism was controlled by protein enzymes?
  2. How does RNA polymerase identify where to begin transcription of a gene?
  3. Explain the relationship between the promoter, enhancers, and transcription factors.
  4. Diagram each of the following phases of transcription.
  1. initiation
  2. elongation
  3. termination
  1. Explain what happens during each of the following post-transcriptional modifications of eukaryotic transcripts:
  1. splicing
  2. 5’ capping
  3. poly adenylation.
  1. How do eukaryotic cells utilize alternative splicing to maximize variety of gene products that they can produce?

Things you should make sure you understand:

(feel free to ask questions about them in class)


Part 3:  Translation

Questions to answer:

  1. Explain the meaning of this statment:  “The genetic code is punctuated, unambiguous, and redundant.”
  2. How does the structure of a tRNA molecules enable its function?
  3. How does the structure of a ribosome enable its function?
  4. Diagram what happens during each of the following phases of translation.  Include the location (A, P, or E site) of incoming tRNA molecules, incoming amino acids, the growing polypeptide chain, uncharged tRNA molecules and release factors as appropriate:
  1. initiation
  2. elongation
  3. termination
  1. Diagram a complete eukaryotic transcription unit.  Define each part.
  2. Explain the effect that point mutations and frameshift mutations can have on gene products.  Make sure to differentiate between:
  1. neutral (silent) mutations
  2. missense mutations
  3. nonsense mutations
  4. Why insertion/deletion of three bases is less deleterious than insertion/deletion of one or two bases.

Things you should make sure you understand:

(feel free to ask questions about them in class)