Essential Questions: 8.L.1: How do diseases spread?
How can diseases harm living organisms?
8L1.1: How do the basic characteristics of viruses, bacteria, fungi and parasites influence the treatment and/or prevention of disease?
In what ways do the basic characteristic of viruses, bacteria, fungi, and parasites affect the spread of disease?
Comparing Microbes &
Microbes and Infectious Disease: The who, what, when, and how of microbes and infectious disease.
- Explores microscopic organisms that include: _________, ___________, _________, _______, ________
Is It Alive
- Microbes include a ____________ variety of organisms.
- Scientists use a set of criteria to constitute what is a living organism.
- Composed of _________
- Perform certain chemical process such as ___________ and ___________
- Make their ________ nutrients or ____________ nutrients from environment
- Respond to a stimuli such as _________and _________
Types of Microbes
(3 types, these are also called Pathogens)
- _____________ – Have to have a host to survive/reproduce
- _____________ – Do not need a host to survive/reproduce, most can survive without oxygen
- _____________ – Feed off of a host, usually harms the host. Does not need the host to reproduce
- ________________ organisms that get inside a healthy cell and often ___________ the cell.
- Many viruses cause diseases such as the common cold, flu, acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS).
- A virus ___________live or ____________________________, it requires a host – a living thing the virus/parasite lives on or in.
- ________________DO NOT kill viruses - Rest and fluids recommended. Vaccine or anti – viral drug is used.
- Most ______________ illnesses among humans.
- Ranges from mild fevers to some forms of cancer
- Several other severe and fatal diseases.
- Transmission can be by: _____________________, through water or a bite.
Bacteria: (also known as Prokaryotes)
- Can live in ___________ of places, with oxygen, without oxygen, extreme hot or cold.
- _________(do not need a host to survive)
- Have three basic shapes. What are they? draw
- Many diseases caused by bacteria are ____________________________
- Bacterial diseases can be treated with an ___________________.
- Some bacterial diseases are Strep throat, sinus infections, tuberculosis
- What happens if we over use antibiotics?
What is created from the overuse of antibiotics?
- A parasite is an organism that gets its __________ from another __________ organism (a host)
- Lives either on or in the host.
- Parasites can come in the form of a __________, __________or tiny _____________.
- Parasites cause diseases such as malaria, athlete’s foot, elephantiasis, etc.
- Natural selection favors adaptations that allow the parasite to efficiently _________ its host.
- Most are __________________ heterotrophs.
- __________ to its environment
- ___________ the tissues of living plants and animals and cause disease.
- Major concern for humans: not only affects _______ sources but can become a __________ for nutrients from the food.
- Mold spores are usually __________ and have allergic reactions
- Are substances that causes a person’s cells to mutate, or change form
- Examples of mutagens: X-rays, cigarette smoke, even sunlight
- Sunlight causes skin cells to change/mutate which may cause skin cancer.
How Infectious Disease Spreads
- __________ – transmit a pathogen from a ________ to a new organism. Ex: mosquito bites animal infected with malaria and then bites a person
- _________ – An organism that passes diseases to others even though they may not feel sick. A human with HIV can transmit HIV virus to another human being even if they do not show any symptoms.
- Diseases that can be passed from _______ living thing to __________.
- May also be caused by __________ parasites, which may be in intestines, blood or tissues.
- ________________ by coughing, sneezing, direct or indirect contact.
- Examples: Flu, cold, measles, mumps, chicken pox, STD’s
- Avian Flu (H5N1) – Person contacts an infected bird. Not passed person to person.
- Usually develops due to a mutation in the DNA or from lifestyle choices.
- Examples (DNA): Cancer, MS(multiple sclerosis), MD (muscular dystrophy), Cystic Fibrosis
- Examples of lifestyle choices: Smoking, drinking, taking drugs. These can lead to cancer, liver disease, and immune disorders.
Vocabulary: Microbiology, Virus, Bacteria (spherical, rod-like, spiral or cork screw), fungi, parasite, disease, unicellular, host cell, antibiotics, treatment, prevention