Group Project Proposal (Engineering)

SCHOOL OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY, SINGAPORE

INVESTIGATIVE SKILLS IN SCIENCE

Names:

Tan Jing Zhi Lucas

Yew Chin Siang

Class: S2-04

Group Reference: F

A.    Indicate the type of research that you are adopting:

 [  X  ] Improve a product or process: Industrial and applied research

           e.g. Development of a SMART and GREEN energy system for households  

  1. Type & Category

Type of research: 4 (Write down one number from 1 to 6)


Category  – 13 (Write down one number from 7 to 20)

Sub-category – g (Write down the sub-heading alphabet)  


(Refer to
http://sst2016-iss.blogspot.sg/p/l2-types-of-research-categories.html  )

Application of project relevant to SST Community, Society or the World:

 

      Our project is finding out how the shape of blades of turbines help to increase the speed of spinning turbines and in turn, produce more energy. This can help contribute to the world because turbines are a form of clean energy as it mainly relies on wind energy to spin the turbines. If we can find out the optimum shape for turbines, people can produce more energy faster and at the same time, not harm the environment.


C.    Write down your research title:

Investigation of the effect of blade profile and the direction of wind on the efficiency of wind turbines

D.   (a) Problem being addressed


Wind energy is not being produced efficiently and because of that, more fossil fuels are being burned to produce the energy, resulting in air pollution and thus an increase to global warming. We feel that with different shaped-blades or positioning of turbines, the amount of electricity they produce may increase.

      (b) Goals


We want to make wind power a more reliable source of energy as it is renewable instead of harmful fossil fuels as it is non-renewable and may eventually run out one day. We hope to achieve this by proving that different shapes of blades and positioning of wind turbines helps to increase how much electricity it produces.

(c) Specify Requirements

  1. Have all the room doors and windows are closed
  2. Make sure all fans are turned off
  3. Have a mini fan blowing at the turbines
  4. See how much electricity the turbines are generating when using the different shape blades
  5. We will be testing how well each shape of blade fare against whether the wind is perpendicular or parallel to the wind turbine.

(d) 3 possible Solutions

  1. We change the shape of the blade of the windmill.
  2. We can change the type of material the blades are made out of.
  3. Direction of wind to the blades(parallel/perpendicular)


(e) Choice and rationale for choice

Suggested factors for consideration:

Factors

Critical Thinking question

Weight

Is the weight suitable? yes

Size

Is the size suitable? yes

Cost to produce

Do you have the financial support to produce it? yes

Elegance

Is the solution simple, clever, or ingenious? yes, that is what we believe

Robustness

Is the solution sturdy, resilient, and unlikely to fail? Yes

Aesthetics

Is the solution tasteful and pleasing to look at? no, it is just a normal turbine

Resources

Do you have or can you get the materials you need? Yes

Time

Do have time to make the solution and debug it? yes

Skill Required

Do you have the skills to make the solution? yes

Safety

Is the solution safe to build, use, store, and dispose of? Yes

Ease of use

Is the device easy to use? Yes

Environmental Impact

Does the device in anyway, have a negative impact on the environment? No

Table 4: List of factors for consideration in the design of the prototype

Ranking matrix

Colour

Weight

Size

Cost to produce

Elegance

Robustness

Aesthetics

Resources

Time

Skill required

Safety

Ease of use

Environmental Impact

Row Total

Normalised value

Colour

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

1

0.00633

Weight

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

2

2

1

2

1

21

0.133

Size

2

0

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

1

1

1

19

0.120

Cost to produce

2

0

0

1

0

1

0

1

1

1

1

0

8

0.0506

Elegance

1

0

0

1

0

1

0

0

1

0

0

0

4

0.0253

Robustness

2

0

0

2

2

2

1

2

1

1

1

0

14

0.0886

Aesthetics

2

0

0

1

1

0

0

0

1

0

0

0

5

0.0316

Resources

2

1

0

2

2

1

2

1

1

1

2

0

15

0.0949

Time

2

0

0

1

2

0

2

1

2

1

1

0

14

0.0886

Skill Required

2

0

0

1

1

1

1

1

0

1

1

0

9

0.0570

Safety

2

1

1

1

2

1

2

0

1

1

2

0

14

0.0886

Ease of use

2

0

1

1

2

1

2

1

1

1

0

0

12

0.0759

Environmental Impact

2

1

1

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

2

22

0.139

Total

158

Table 1: The ranking matrix for factors affecting the choice

Decision making grid

Requirement

Solution 1

Solution 2

Solution 3

Factors

Normalised value

Votes (0 to 4)

Normalised votes

Votes (0 to 4)

Normalised votes

Votes (0 to 4)

Normalised votes

#1:Environmental Impact

0.139

2

#2:Weight

0.133

#3:Size

0.120

Total points

Table 2: The decision making matrix for the 3 most important factors.

<state the choice with rationale using the decision making matrix>

E.    Method – Description in detail of method or procedures (The following are important and key items that should be included when formulating ANY AND ALL research plans.)

(a) Equipment list:
 

-        Cardboard and toilet rolls for making the blades

-        1 pair of scissors for cutting out the blades

-        Fan (preferably a mini-fan that isn’t too strong)

-        Turbine that can detect power output

-        Blue tack

-        Masking Tape

-        Stopwatch/timer

-        Camera

-        Retort Stand

(b) DiagramsScreen Shot 2017-01-14 at 12.43.07 PM.png

(c) Procedures for building: Detail all procedures for construction of prototype

  1. Cut out each shape of blade, rectangular, triangular and rounded-edged, from a piece of cardboard. The dimensions for each piece are 9.6cm X 4.1cm
  2. Cut out three similar blades but using toilet rolls instead. This will create a curved effect
  3. We will attach four of each type of blades onto the turbine and experiment which is the most efficient.

(d) Procedures for testing: Detail all procedures for testing of prototype

  1. Put the fan 45 centimetres away while being parallel from the center of the turbine with the first blade type.
  2. After 20 seconds, find out the total power produced from the turbines and record it down.
  3. This process will be repeated 3 times to obtain the average.
  4. Steps 1-3 will then be repeated for each type of blade.
  5. The fan will then be moved so that it is 45 centimetres away while being perpendicular from the center of the turbine with the first blade type.
  6. Steps 1-3 will then be repeated.

  1. All the results will then be compared and the best type of blade to use for a windmill can be derived.

(e) Risk, Assessment and Management: Identify any potential risks and safety precautions to be taken.

Risk

Assessment

Management

When cutting out the blades for the windmill, sharp instruments are used and we can cut ourselves.

Medium

We can ask an adult to help us with the more intricate parts and use scissors instead of a penknife.

When plugging in the electrical plug into the socket we might get electrocuted.

Low

We can make sure our hands are dry before plugging it in.

Legend

Low

Unlikely and not severe harm

Medium

Likely but not severe OR Unlikely but severe

High

Likely and Severe harm

Table 3: Risk Assessment and Management table

(f) Data Analysis: Describe the procedures you will use to analyze the data/results that answer engineering goals

  1. We will take note of the different blade profiles and the total power the turbine produces each time
  2. The blade profile with the most power produced is the best blade profile for producing electricity

F. Bibliography: List at least five (5) major sources (e.g. science journal articles, books, internet sites) from your literature review. If you plan to use vertebrate animals, one of these references must be an animal care reference. Choose the APA format and use it consistently to reference the literature used in the research plan. List your entries in alphabetical order for each type of source.

(a) Books

Chiras, D. D., Sagrillo, M., & Woofenden, I. (2009). Power from the wind. Gabriola Island, BC: New Society .

Shea, K., & Howard, B. C. (2012). Build your own small wind power system. New York: McGraw-Hill.

(b) Journals

Jamieson, P. (2011). Innovation in Wind Turbine Design. doi:10.1002/9781119975441

Wind Turbine Technology. (2014). doi:10.1201/b16587

Rivkin, D. A., & Silk, L. (2013). Wind turbine technology and design. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Adaramola, M. (2014). Wind turbine technology: principles and design. Toronto: Apple Academic Press.

(c) Websites

Allianz. (n.d.). Retrieved January 15, 2017, from https://www.allianz.com/en/about_us/open-knowledge/topics/environment/articles/100505-top-ten-wind-power-countries.html/