Development of a Photovoltaic Biorock™ System

Gabriel Yap Yong Kang (10), Goh Chin Ray (12), Lim Hong Wei (16)

School of Science and Technology, Singapore

Abstract

Many tests and studies with galvanised iron mesh cathodes and iron/lead anodes immersed in seawater have proved that the role of electrochemical processes in the accretion of minerals (Hilbertz, 1979). After a solidly accreted cube was obtained, parts of beach sand volumes between electrodes were contained in 10-gallon-tanks and saturated with seawater and solidified (Ibid.). Power was supplied throughout the experiment, and fresh sea water was added to replace the water lost through evaporation and electrolysis (Ibid.). This became what is now known as the BiorockTM System. The aim of the BiorockTM system was to save coral reefs around the world that are dying due to coral bleaching. The BiorockTM system encourages and supports coral growth, allowing the corals to “focus” more energy in resisting the harmful substances in their environment and adapt to them. The BiorockTM system can be built with a cathode and an anode. The anode can be an iron/lead rod, connected to a positive output while the cathode can be an iron mesh which is connected to a negative output. Coral will then start growing on the iron mesh (cathode) after a while. However, the BiorockTM system is unable to be self-sustainable. We wanted to build a self-sustainable BiorockTM system where it would be powered by a solar panel. We tested our setup with coral chips to see if calcium carbonate would deposit on the iron mesh (cathode). We found out that calcium and carbonate were indeed present in the deposit that were in the iron mesh (cathode). Now that we have a working self-sustainable photovoltaic BiorockTM system, we will be able to build a much larger version of our setup where it would be placed in great reefs such as the Great Barrier Reef to encourage coral growth and reducing the effect of coral bleaching.

1. Introduction

1.1 Background Research

Coral reefs rank among the largest and oldest living communities of plants and animals on Earth. These soft-bodied invertebrates that make reefs evolved 200-450 million years ago. Most established coral reefs began growing 5000-10,000 years ago (Hinrichsen, 1997). Coral reefs play an important role in ensuring sustainability in the oceans. For example, coral reefs recycle nutrients from mangrove swamps and seagrass beds, for open-ocean fisheries that provide food for people (Ibid.). Reef plants and animals also produce many chemicals for potential use in pharmaceuticals (Ibid). Additionally, coral reefs attract tourists, boosting the economy of the country. However, the environment of the coral reefs is not favourable for them to grow. Since seawater temperature is rising due to global warming, coral bleaching will become more widespread and severe, affecting the coral reef community structure (Ogden, 1998). When seawater temperature rises, zooxanthellae, a kind of algae living in corals, stop photosynthesising and produces toxins, causing the coral to release it (Castro, 2013). Unlawful acts such as dynamite fishing are still carried out in many places around the world. For example, over-harvesting, cyanide poisoning and bombing by cash-poor fishermen, and then a massive bleaching event in 1998, had virtually destroyed the marine garden of Pemuteran (Porteous, 2009).

Biorock™ is a trademark used by Biorock, Inc, which is the deposit product of immersing galvanised iron mesh cathodes and iron/lead anodes in seawater for the accretion of minerals (Hilbertz, 1979). Biorock™ was one of the only coral reef ecosystem rehabilitation methods since the late 1900s, developed by Thomas Goreau, a marine biologist and Wolf Hilbertz, an engineer (Ibid.; Bachatiar, 2003). Mineral accretion process involves applying a low voltage direct electrical current through electrodes causing mineral crystal naturally found in seawater, mainly calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide to form on the structure (Ibid.; Hartt 1984). An experiment was conducted in which water/sand mixtures were kept at a temperature ranging from 78 to 82°F/26°C to 28°C (Ibid.). Power was supplied for 720 h at a rate of 5 V, 300 mA (Ibid). During the experiments, fresh sea water was added at intervals to replace water lost through evaporation and electrolysis (Ibid.). The experiment produced CaC03/Mg (OH). 2 formations (Ibid.). Many similar experiments were conducted, although the conditions were altered slightly. For example, an experiment was devised to accrete on a 15 cm by 15 cm 1/2’’ galvanised hardware cloth cathode with a 1 mm × 15 mm × 30 mm lead anode at a depth of 450’ at Cane Bay, St. Croix, for 42 h (Ibid.). The current was supplied by a car battery and measured 12.25 V/1.65 At the beginning of the experiment, and 3.8 V/170 mA at the termination (Ibid.). It has also been found out that different setups of the Biorock™ method has different results: supplying power would result in more fauna, while not supplying any power would result in more flora (Ibid.).

It has also been discovered how electrodeposited minerals can be used as building materials in the construction of artificial reefs, which relieves pressure on natural reefs (Ibid.). The wire mesh does not corrode since the initial layer of electrodeposited material and the constant flow of electricity protects it (Ibid). The shell, which resembles limestone and is mainly compounds of calcium carbonate and magnesium hydroxide, is lighter and stronger than reinforced concrete, able to withstand pressure exceeding 4200 pounds per square inch (Ibid.). This is equivalent to a load-bearing strength of up to 80 newtons per square millimetre (80 megapascals). , around three times higher than concrete made from ordinary Portland cement (Goreau, 2010). This process can also be used on a large scale to grow homes, ships, pipelines, piers, structural members for larger buildings, and artificial islands (Hilbertz, 1987). Biorock™ electrolysis of seawater has been used for nearly 35 years in more than 20 countries to grow limestone structures of any size and shape in seawater and brackish water, for example, it is suggested that the Biorock™ technology might be supporting Venice’s sinking foundations all this while (Goreau, 2010). Another example is the water in front of the village of Pemuteran, North Bali. The Pemuteran Biorock Project started in the year 2000, when the Karang Lestari Foundation was formed (Ricciardi, 2014). Their aim was to rebuild the local coral reefs that have been bombed (Ibid.). Only a few years after the first structure was installed, the results came quickly (Ibid.). The corals grow quickly and are healthy, and fish life is abundant (Ibid.). Invertebrates like crabs, sea slugs and shrimp are abundant and now occupy every shelter inside the Biorock™ (Ibid.). Also, the base of the Biorock™ can be placed in whatever shape you choose so it can be an artistic way of regrowing corals (Ibid.). The Biorock™ structures can thus be a kind of a tourist attraction (Ibid.). Also, hotel and dive shops can be grown nearby reefs as beautiful tourism attractions that can restore nearby fisheries and reduce pressure on natural reefs (Goreau, 2003; Hilbertz 2003). Thus, increasing the revenue generated by tourists visiting these structures, most probably even higher than with natural coral reefs. Now, the Karang Lestari Foundation is carrying out a Biorock™ project similar to the one carried out in Pemuteran. Another Biorock™ project had been carried out in Gili Trawangan, one of three small islands north-west of Lombok in the Indonesian archipelago (Silver, 2015). Similarly, a tourism industry has sprung up there due to this project (Ibid.). Apart from building, Biorock™ can also be used to increase the rate of oyster and coral growth (Goreau, Hilbertz, Azeez, Hakeem, & Allen, 2003). It directly provides energy for growth of skeleton and shells, so it leaves corals and leaves corals and oysters more energy for growth, reproduction and resisting environmental stress (Ibid.). Field experiments in all oceans show that electrified corals and oysters grow faster and survive better. Large populations of adult and larval fishes are also quickly built up (Ibid.). Electric reefs can be constructed in any size or shape, allowing selective enhancement of selected fish and shellfish populations (Ibid.).

However, this setup is not invincible. There were some severe hurricanes that happened in the Grand Turk, Turks and Caicos Islands (Wells, L., Perez, F., Hibbert, M., Clerveaux, L., Johnson, J., & Goreau, T., 2010). After hurricanes Hanna and Ike (September 2008). The Governor's Beach structure was fully standing since the waves passed straight through with little damage, but the Oasis structures which were tie-wired rather than welded had one module collapse (Ibid.). Hurricane Ike was the strongest hurricane on record to hit Grand Turk (Ibid.). Most cables were replaced following the hurricanes due to damage from debris and high wave action. The projects lost about a third of the corals due to hurricanes (Ibid.). Most of those lost had only been wired a few days before and had not yet attached themselves firmly (Ibid.).

Restoration of ecosystems and fisheries will be a major challenge of the coming century as increasing population and energy use cause global climate change and environmental degradation to accelerate (Goreau, 2003; Hilbertz 2003). Therefore, we could support such organisations carrying out projects, such as Biorock, to save our dying ecosystem.

1.2 Problems Being Addressed

A widespread issue around the world is coral bleaching. Corals are marine invertebrate that thrive in coral reefs, which are built and held together through corals secreting calcium carbonate. Coral reefs are extremely important to various groups of people or animals. Firstly, coral reefs are habitats to approximately 5 billion fishes. Therefore, a large percentage of fishing yields can be attributed mainly to coral reefs. Based on research, an estimated one billion people have some dependence on coral reefs, either for food or income from fishing. If properly managed by the fisheries and private fishermen, along with other companies that interact with the ocean. , reefs can yield around 15 tonnes of fish and other seafood per square kilometre each year. Secondly, tourism can generate a huge amount of income for a country, as people may travel far and wide just to catch a glimpse of a coral reef, like the Great Barrier Reef. According to a report by the Key West chamber of commerce, tourists visiting the Florida Keys in the US, coral cay archipelago, generate at least US$3 billion dollars in annual income from tourism alone, which is mainly contributed to by coral reefs, while Australia’s Great Barrier Reef, the largest coral reef ecosystem, generates well over US$1 billion per year. Therefore, sustainable management of coral reef ecosystems and proper tourism measures can significantly increase a country’s income and GDP. Another way that coral reefs can contribute is through protecting coastal areas from natural disasters such as tsunamis, typhoons, hurricanes and the like. This helps to prevent coastal erosion (which leads to water pollution). , and damage or loss of property on or near the shoreline, which can cause millions or even billions of dollars of damage in terms of reduced insurance and reconstruction costs, as well as costly coastal protection defences. Fourth is the obvious reason of coral reef organisms being used for medical purposes, like in tropical rainforests. Currently, there are already coral reef organisms used to treat cancer and HIV. Thus, if the coral reefs are taken care of and are health, Last of all, the coral reefs are interwoven with the culture and social fabric of many places. For some people who have experienced snorkelling with a mask and snorkel, looking at the colourful corals, a life without corals is no life at all.

1.3 Engineering Goals

We are aiming to develop a sustainable system which is able to rebuild the habitat suitable for coral growth. Through this, we hope to aid in the coral regeneration around the world and reduce the effect of global warming on the population of corals.

1.4 Specific Requirements


1.5 Alternative Solutions

1.5.1 Design 1

Our first design shows all the items connected to the solar panel. The whole setup makes use of the electricity from a solar panel, thus too much power is needed. However, in the open ocean, there is no need for coolers and water pumps, as the water temperature will be okay and there will be sufficient oxygen from aquatic plants.

        


1.5.2 Design 2

Our second design is similar to the first design, except the anode and cathode are connected to a battery and circuit regulator, which is in turn connected to a solar panel for an electrical supply, which is how it will be like on the open ocean, as there is no other electrical source to power the anode and cathode. However, the cooler will still be connected to an electrical plug as in the open ocean, the water is naturally cool. Therefore it will not be used in the actual open ocean setup. This will only be carried out after design 3 has been utilised to test if the setup works.

1.5.3 Design 3

Our third design consists of a copper rod (anode) and wire mesh (cathode) and a cooler, all of which is connected to an electrical plug. This setup is used to test whether our setup really works, without the possible errors that could surface due to the solar panel (e.g. solar panel not functioning). Despite the fact the Solution 3 obtained the highest number of points, we cannot use that solution because all the electricity is obtained from a power point. This is impossible in the open ocean, but due to its ease of use, it obtained a very high point.

1.5.4 Ocean Context

Design 3 is the closest to what will actually be used on the open ocean. It is quite different from the first two designs. First of all, the anode and cathode are still connected to the circuit regulator, battery and solar panel, but the cooler is missing as the temperature in the ocean is cool enough. The circuit regulator, battery and solar panel are placed on a large floating platform, and a large copper rod (anode) and wire mesh (cathode) is allowed to sink to the bottom of the ocean, connected by an extremely long wire. On top of the floating platform is a shelter to prevent short circuit caused by rainwater.


1.5.5 Ranking Matrix

Colour

Weight

Size

Cost to produce

Elegance

Robustness

Aesthetics

Resources

Time

Skill required

Safety

Ease of use

Environmental Impact

Row Total

Normalised value

Colour

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Weight

3

0

3

3

0

3

3

0

0

0

0

2

17

0.07

Size

3

0

3

3

0

3

3

0

0

0

0

2

17

0.07

Cost to produce

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

0

Elegance

3

3

3

3

0

3

3

0

0

0

0

0

18

0.08

Robustness

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

0

0

0

2

3

26

0.11

Aesthetics

3

0

0

2

0

0

1

0

0

0

0

0

6

0.03

Resources

3

0

0

3

1

0

2

0

0

0

0

0

9

0.04

Time

3

3

2

3

3

2

3

2

2

2

2

2

29

0.12

Skill Required

3

3

3

3

3

1

3

2

0

1

1

1

24

0.10

Safety

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

3

1

2

2

3

32

0.14

Ease of use

3

3

2

3

3

3

3

3

2

2

3

3

33

0.14

Environmental Impact

3

2

1

3

3

3

3

3

0

1

0

2

24

0.10

Total

235

1.5.6 Decision Making Matrix

Requirement

Solution 1

Solution 2

Solution 3

Factors

Normalised value

Votes (0 to 5).

Normalised votes

Votes (0 to 5).

Normalised votes

Votes (0 to 5).

Normalised votes

#1: Ease of use

0.14

4

0.56

4.33

0.60

5

0.70

#2: Safety

0.14

1

0.14

1.67

0.23

3

0.42

#3: Time

0.12

0.67

0.08

1

0.12

1

0.12

1.5.7 Best Solution & Rationale

After selecting ease of use (as people will only make use of it if it is easy to setup and maintain), safety (since we are dealing with electricity and water, safety is of the utmost importance) and time (if it takes forever to set up, the impact on the environment will be significantly increased). We then came to a conclusion of that the set-up that we will be using would be Solution 2, even though the set-up with the highest votes is Solution 3.

Solution 1: For Solution 1, the whole set up makes use of the electricity from a solar panel, thus too much power is needed. However, in the open ocean, there is no need for coolers and water pumps, as the water temperature will be okay and there will be sufficient oxygen from aquatic plants.

Solution 2: Solution 2, even though it is not the highest, we will be following the design towards our experiment. This is because , the water cooler and the water pump are being powered by the electric plug, which makes it feasible. This is because in the ocean, the water are already in the right temperature and air is being supplied by the plants through photosynthesis. This makes them dependant variable, so it is not required of it to be powered by the solar panel. This will only be carried out after design 3 has been utilised to test if the setup works.

Solution 3: Despite the fact the Solution 3 obtained the highest number of points, we cannot use that solution because all the electricity is obtained from a power point. This is impossible in the open ocean, but due to its ease of use, it obtained a very high point.This setup is used to test whether our setup really works, without the possible errors that could introduced due to the solar panel (e.g. solar panel not functioning).

Reason for voting time badly: This is because Biorock is a very long process which takes years to collect a bit of rock. With such a short time frame we are given, we are just simply planning to cultivate just a small portion of biorock, enough that we are able to prove that our experiments is able to sustain throughout the day.

2. Methods

2.1 Equipment List

2.2 Diagrams of Experimental Setup


The picture above shows how our setup would look like.

2.3 Procedures

  1. Place the artificial environment into a well-lit area so that sunlight can be collected and converted into electricity.
  2. With the use of crocodile clips, connect the solar panel (input), battery (output 1) and copper rod and wire mesh (output 2) to the circuit regulator.
  3. Pour 10 gallons of water and 1.2 kg of coral pro salt into the box.
  4. Add in dead corals (calcium carbonate) into the water.
  5. Create a shelter/ waterproof the cables and wires by placing garbage bags over the battery and the circuit regulator.

2.4 Risk Assessment and Management

Risk

Assessment

Management

There are wires and batteries that have to be placed near water. If there is a short circuit, and someone puts his/her hand in the water, he/she may be electrocuted.

High

Before having contact with any parts, ensure no breaks or tears in the wires.

Always wear thick rubber gloves when putting hands in water, as rubber is an insulator of electricity.

Some corals may be rough/sharp, and even poisonous.

Medium

Always wear thick rubber gloves when putting hands in water. 

The solar panel might not be enough to support the whole experiment.

Medium

Test out without the solar panel and take down the data before using the actual solar panel.

The hot wires might burn or injure us.

Medium

Wear protective gloves when soldering.

Legend

Low

Unlikely and not severe harm

Medium

Likely but not severe OR Unlikely but severe

High

Likely and Severe harm

2.5 Data Analysis

  1. Measure the mass of the anode and cathode daily
  2. Plot a graph/fill in a table to show the changes in the mass, and whether it makes sense
  3. When we find out that the wire mesh (cathode) did increase in mass, we inferred that if we made a large-scale version of our setup, it would be sufficient to house corals, rebuilding coral reefs.


3. Results

After carrying out the steps in 2.5 Data Analysis, we filled in this table with all the data gathered. Using these data, we then plotted the three graphs below: a line graph for the change in mass of the wire mesh and copper rod; a bar graph to compare the increase and decrease in mass of the wire mesh and copper rod respectively; and a bar graph to compare the increase and decrease in mass of the wire mesh and copper rod per day respectively. However, due to certain constraints (e.g. being unable to enter the lab on some days), we were only able to gather data on certain days when we had Science lessons. We overcame this issue through finding the increase and decrease in mass of the wire mesh and copper rod per day respectively, but it was still fluctuating due to certain errors (e.g. certain components stopped working on certain days, like the crocodile clips coming off or the wire burning). However, the overall trend for the mass of the wire mesh and the copper rod is an increase and decrease respectively, showing that our setup works.

Day

Weight of Cathode (Wire Mesh)

Weight of Anode (Copper Rod)

Actual Weight (g)

Increase (From Previous Weight).

Increase

Per Day

Actual Weight (g)

Decrease (From Previous Weight)

Decrease Per Day

Day 1

160.60

0.00

0.00

90.00

0.00

0.00

Day 6

179.45

18.85

3.14

78.68

11.32

1.89

Day 7

181.12

1.67

1.67

78.61

0.07

0.07

Day 13

185.85

4.73

0.79

71.01

7.60

1.27

Day 14

186.14

0.29

0.29

70.31

0.70

0.70

Day 15

188.20

2.06

2.06

70.16

0.15

0.15


4. Discussion

4.1 Analysis Of Results

As seen in our results in the table and graphs above, it is evident that the mass of the wire mesh increased significantly, from 160.6g to 188.2g, while the mass of the copper rod decreased from 90g to 70.6g. We also noticed a greenish-blue deposit forming, and the deposit increasing every day, thus these deposits then contributed to the gain in weight to the wire mesh (cathode). We have also seen in decreased in weight in the copper rod. This is because the copper rod (anode). reacted together with the water. The copper (anode) became thinner and shorter as the days past, this can be supported with its decreased in weight.

4.2 Key Findings

We found out that throughout the whole experiment, there was greenish blue colouration can be seen throughout the whole set-up. It can be seen from the water to the wire mesh (cathode) to even the copper rod (anode). These observations baffled us This is because this colouration was the similar of Copper Carbonate (CuCO3). Since we needed Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) to form on the wire mesh (cathode) instead, we got extremely worried. This is because Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) usually appears as in a white colouration instead of greenish blue, a colouration more towards the Copper Carbonate (CuCO3), which is present in the water body.

4.3 Explanation Of Key Findings

As stated in the previous above, the greenish blue colouration which was being seen all over the set-up was caused by Copper Carbonate (CuCO3). Worried that the deposit forming on the wire mesh (cathode) was not Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) but instead fully Copper Carbonate (CuCO3), we decided to test for the presence of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) in the water. We started to test for Calcium (Ca) using the flame test. The flame test is used to identify the presence of certain types of metal in a sample. This works because metal changes the colour of a flame when they are being heated in it. Different metals give different colours to the flame.

The steps of carrying out a flame test are started in the following:

  1. Dip a clean flame test loop in the sample solution.
  2. Hold the flame test loop at the edge of a bunsen burner flame.
  3. Observe the changed colour of the flame.
  4. Match the colour of the flame to the type of metal it represents.

Here are some of the different colouration with different types of metal. Some of the colours would be:

Colouration

Type of metal

Pale green

Barium

Yellow red

Calcium

Green-blue

Copper

Red

Lithium

Orange

Sodium

Lilacc

Potassium

Fortunately, there was a yellow-red flame which appeared, proving that there was some sort of Calcium (Ca). present in the deposit. However, we were not sure if there was carbonate present. Therefore, we decided to carry out a carbonate test.

As seen in this picture, there was effervescence in the test tube when the hydrochloric acid was added to the sample of the deposit. This shows that there was a reaction happening. Furthermore, there was gas produced during the process. However, due to the fact that the amount of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) present in the deposit was too little, thus it could not generate enough gas for a proper Carbon Dioxide (CO2) gas test with limewater.

Carbonate test is carried by using an acid to react with the carbonate to give us a product of salt+water+carbon dioxide.

Hydrochloric Acid (HCl) + Calcium Carbonate (CaCO2) ➝ Calcium Chloride (CaCl2) + Water (H2O) + Carbon Dioxide (CO2)

We used a hydrochloric acid to mix with our deposit to see what was the result. End of the day, to our delight, effervescence can be seen, and carbon dioxide was being produced. However, we saw that not 100% of our deposit dissolved in the acid and there were not enough gas to turn the limewater chalky. However, this proved that there was Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) present on our wire mesh (cathode).

4.4 Evaluation Of Engineering Goals

Fulfilling our engineering goals, we managed to develop a self-sustaining system, which is able to trap the solar energy of the sun to create an environment suitable for coral growth. As seen in our result, we were managed to get some deposit of Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) forming on our wire mesh (cathode). This Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) forming on the wire mesh is suitable for coral growth, and we believe it would be able to combat the problem of coral depletion happening now.

4.5 Areas For Improvement

Some areas for improvement are:


5. Conclusions

5.1 Practical Application

The corals in the Great Barrier Reef, Australia are dying due to environmental pollution and a steep rise in seawater temperature. Therefore, we intend to apply this setup on a big scale in the open ocean, in order to form deposits for corals to live in. Also, due to the fact that this setup is self-sustainable. This means that our setup will be able to work in vast seas and oceans to encourage coral growth, with minimal human maintenance. The BiorockTM system has also been tested and is able to also encourage oysters, clams, lobsters and fish in saltwater.

Furthermore, the BiorockTM system has also been tested and is able to also encourage oysters, clams, lobsters and fish in saltwater. This is because the Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3) deposit, makes a sustainable to cultivate corals, and thus sustain life. This is because many life co-exists among the corals.

5.2 Areas For Further Study

Since our project is all about increasing the number and life expectancy of corals growing on the structure, after the completion of our project, we strived to find ways to improve all these factors. We have come up with several ways to do that. First, is, as mentioned earlier, to have several wires connected to the cathode. We found out that the most deposit is found at the position of the wires. Therefore, we think that connecting more wires to the cathode will increase the amount and strength of the deposit, increasing the number of habitats for the coral. However, we would like to research further on other ways to improve the life quality of the corals growing on the wire mesh.

Also, we would like to look into making the system environmentally-friendly, not only through its use of clean energy, but also by making it biodegradable, so that when it stops functioning, it will break down, so that it will not harm the environment. We can do this by using biodegradable alternatives to the materials we use,

5.3 Comparison with previous research

Comparing with our previous research, we have come to a conclusion that our results match together with the research. This is because, despite the previous research being conducted on a large scale, similarities has been spotted. Some examples of the similarities in the results are that the cathode has gained in weight, and the anode has lost in weight. Furthermore, the deposit forming on the cathode contains mostly Calcium Carbonate (CaCO3), which can be found in both of the experiments.


6 References

Citations:

Books:

Journals:

Articles:

Research Papers:


7 Bibliography

Citation

Books

Journals

Websites


8 Acknowledgements

Lab Technicians

Firstly we would like to thank the lab technicians who help us on the way by supplying the necessary resources for our project. Without those resources and materials, we could have never built the whole set-up.

Mr Tan Hoe Teck

We would like to thank Mr Tan Hoe Teck for supporting us all the way. He has helped provide important feedback and advice which helped us regarding understanding how the set-up works even further. He had given some advice which improved our initial idea and has assisted us in getting of parts for our experiment.

Mr Ng Guo Hui

We also would like to thank Mr Ng Guo Hui for helping us too. As our ISS teacher, Mr Ng provided helpful suggestions which helped improve our set-up. He taught us what it takes to be a scientist and the amount of duties we have to do before even setting the experiment. Some examples of the things he taught us are: Forming a hypothesis, literature review, etc.

Liou Eric & Rong Yuan Lin

Lastly, we wish to thank our 2 partners from Taiwan, Liou Eric and Rong Yuan Lin. They helped provide constructive feedback to us regarding on the material to use for the cathode and anode. They used their experiences from their Science projects to advise us, so that our project can be more convenient.