The Ottoman Empire captured Constantinople (present day Istanbul, Turkey) from the Byzantine/ Roman Empire


March 27        Juan Ponce de León sights Florida for the first time. (appointment of the Spanish crown)


Elizabeth I Queen of England 1558 - 1603 (Henry VIII's daughter)

Spain is the most powerful country in Europe at the time.


August 28        Spanish Admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles founded St. Augustine.  (now St. Augustine, Florida)


The Roanoke Colony, also known as the Lost Colony, was established on Roanoke Island in what is today's Dare County, North Carolina, United States. It was a late 16th-century attempt by Queen Elizabeth I to establish a permanent English settlement. The colony was founded by Sir Walter Raleigh. The colonists disappeared during the Anglo-Spanish War, three years after the last shipment of supplies from England. Their disappearance gave rise to the nickname "The Lost Colony." To this day, there has been no conclusive evidence as to what happened to the colonists. It was found deserted in 1590.


John Smith founded Jamestown (in present day Virginia), England's first permanent settlement in the New World.


The American Revolution was a political upheaval that took place between 1765 and 1783 during which colonists in the Thirteen American Colonies rejected the British monarchy and aristocracy, overthrew the authority of Great Britain, and founded the United States of America.  Wikipedia-American Revolution


Daniel Boone blazed his Wilderness Road through the Cumberland Gap in the Appalachian Mountains from North Carolina and Tennessee into Kentucky. There, he founded the village of Boonesborough, Kentucky, one of the first American settlements west of the Appalachians. Before the end of the 18th century, more than 200,000 Americans migrated to Kentucky/Virginia by following the route marked by Boone.


The Louisiana Purchase (1803) was a land deal between the United States and France, in which the U.S. acquired approximately 827,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River for $15 million.


The Lewis and Clark Expedition, also known as the Corps of Discovery Expedition, was the first American expedition to cross what is now the western portion of the United States, departing in May 1804, from near St. Louis making their way westward through the continental divide to the Pacific coast.


Fur Trapping Bonanza from 1810-1830. Jim Bridger was a young boy trapping with Hugh Glass (the character from “The Reverent” who was mauled by a bear near Fort Kiowa in South Dakota.


First Rendezvous was held on Henry’s Fork on the Green River


Mormon Church Founded by Joseph Smith

Joseph R. Walker First Mountain Man to discover discover a route along the Humboldt River across present-day Nevada (Reno, Lake Tahoe route to California). Met with Bonneville (military man) in 1830 who traveled with Walker on several occasions.


Humboldt River Route across Northern Nevada, from North of Great Salt Lake Area to California. Were the first white man to discover Yosemite Valley in the Sierra Nevada Range.

Must remember: Most of the trails the Mountain men traveled upon were old Indian Trails already established. And those trails were usually old animal trails that the Indians followed.

Jim Bridger (illiterate), but best at knowing the geography of the west.

One of the first to see the Great Salt Lake

Dr. Fred R. Gowens, Professor of History, BYU

Rex Norman - Fur Trade Historian

Fur Trade dwindles away by 1940, Change of fashion interests to Silk Hats kills the Beaver Demand, Mountain men start  to become guides to the pioneers heading west


First Women Pioneers make their way to Oregon with the Missionaries. Thomas Fitzpatrick


Date generally accepted as the birth year of practical photography.

After the First Opium War (1839–42), Hong Kong became a British colony with the perpetual cession of Hong Kong Island, followed by Kowloon Peninsula in 1860 and a 99-year lease of the New Territories from 1898. Hong Kong was later occupied by Japan during the Second World War until British control resumed in 1945. In the early 1980s, negotiations between the United Kingdom and China resulted in the 1984 Sino-British Joint Declaration, which paved way for the transfer of sovereignty of Hong Kong in 1997, when the territory became a Special Administrative Region of China with a high degree of autonomy under the principle of one country, two systems.


John C. Fremont and Kit Carson

Hired to survey and map the Oregon Trail and explore the Great Basin. Freemont is an avid writer and his writings encourage a lot of people to head west.

Fremont was one of the first explorers to put the routes on a map.

He was a US Army Captain

He used a Sextant to navigate

He was a topographer

He married powerful senator's daughter who was 16 when he was 27

1841 he was commissioned to survey and map the Oregon Trail for the Government, he hired Kit Carson, legendary mountain man to be the guide.


Mormons reach Utah (Brigham was 46 years old)

Brigham Young (June 1, 1801 – August 29, 1877) 76 years. 2nd President of the Mormon Church

Utah was not a state and was part of Mexico when Mormons first arrived and didn’t  became Part of United States until 1896 (49 years later) mostly due to Mormons practice of polygamy.  Brigham Young originally made the state to include part of Colorado, Wyoming, Idaho, Nevada, New Mexico and originally called the state Deseret; Congress named the state Utah after the Ute Indians.

Every time a valuable resource like gold or silver was found Congress would redo the Utah State boundaries and take it away from Utah.


Mexican War. Utah wins and gains the northern Mexican land (Utah area)



California Gold Rush begins. The people are called 49ers (1849)

Fort Utah settled (Present day Provo).

Cove Fort Missionary tells me that the church planned cities every 30 miles (about the distance a wagon party could travel in a day) so that settlers could have a safe place to rest at night on their journeys. Provo is about 30 miles from Salt Lake City.

Young Indian known as BlackHawk was 12 when he witnessed his family being killed. Later leading his people to fight against the Mormon settlers.


Mountain Meadows massacre was a series of attacks on the Baker–Fancher emigrant wagon train, at Mountain Meadows in southern Utah. The attacks began on September 7 and culminated on September 11, 1857, resulting in the mass slaughter of the emigrant party by members of the Utah Territorial Militia from the Iron County district, together with some Paiute Native Americans. Intending to leave no witnesses and thus prevent reprisals, the perpetrators killed all the adults and older children—about 120 men, women, and children in total. Seventeen children, all younger than seven, were spared.


Miners strike Silver to the West of Salt Lake. Utah is cut in half which contained Nevada, which gets the silver.

To the east there is gold in present day Colorado and Congress takes it away from Utah to form its own state.


American Civil War fought from 1861 to 1865, to determine the survival of the United States of America as it defeated the bid for independence by the breakaway Confederate States of America. Among the 34 states in January 1861, seven Southern slave states individually declared their secession from the U.S. and formed the Confederate States of America. War broke out in April 1861 when they attacked a U.S. fortress, Fort Sumter, and ended with the surrender of all the Confederate armies in spring 1865.


Homestead Act of 1862, opened up millions of acres. Any adult who had never taken up arms against the U.S. government could apply. Women, blacks, and immigrants were eligible.


John Taylor 3rd President of Church (1880 – 1887) 7 years. (3 years after Young died?)


Wilford Woodruff 4th President of Church 1889-1898 (9 years)


Utah begins the process of discontinuing the practice of Polygamy in order to get statehood. Up to this time the US has denied Utah statehood because of it.

In 1890, President Wilford Woodruff issued the Manifesto, which led to the end of plural marriage in the Church.


Utah becomes a state (Brigham Young died in 1877; 19 years earlier)

Klondike Gold Rush (often referred to as the Alaska Gold Rush, Yukon Goldrush 1896–99 (stampede: 1897–98) Diamond Lil came from here and bought land in Florida for Fountain of Youth Tourist Attraction. Jack London wrote “The Call of the Wild” about this goldrush.


Northern Plains Blizzard wiped out close to 90 percent of Wyoming’s livestock (during the Butch Cassidy & Sundance Kid era).


Congress abolished homesteading in 1976 with passage of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act.