STIXVersion 2.0. Part 4: Cyber Observable Objects

Working Draft 03

19 June 2017

Technical Committee:

OASIS Cyber Threat Intelligence (CTI) TC

​Chair:

Richard Struse (Richard.Struse@HQ.DHS.GOV), DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

​Editors:

Ivan Kirillov, (ikirillov@mitre.org), MITRE Corporation

Trey Darley (trey@kingfisherops.com), Kingfisher Operations, sprl

Additional artifacts:

This prose specification is one component of a Work Product that also includes:

Related work:

This specification replaces or supersedes:

This specification is related to:

Abstract:

Structured Threat Information Expression (STIX™) is a language for expressing cyber threat and observable information. This document defines a set of cyber observable objects that can be used in STIX and elsewhere.

Status:

This Working Draft (WD) has been produced by one or more TC Members; it has not yet been voted on by the TC or approved as a Committee Draft (Committee Specification Draft or a Committee Note Draft). The OASIS document Approval Process begins officially with a TC vote to approve a WD as a Committee Draft. A TC may approve a Working Draft, revise it, and re-approve it any number of times as a Committee Draft.

URI patterns:

Initial publication URI:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v2.0/csd01/part4-cyber-observable-objects/stix-v2.0-csd01-part4-cyber-observable-objects.docx

Permanent “Latest version” URI:

http://docs.oasis-open.org/cti/stix/v2.0/stix-v2.0-part4-cyber-observable-objects.docx

(Managed by OASIS TC Administration; please don’t modify.)

Copyright © OASIS Open 2017. All Rights Reserved.

All capitalized terms in the following text have the meanings assigned to them in the OASIS Intellectual Property Rights Policy (the "OASIS IPR Policy"). The full Policy may be found at the OASIS website.

This document and translations of it may be copied and furnished to others, and derivative works that comment on or otherwise explain it or assist in its implementation may be prepared, copied, published, and distributed, in whole or in part, without restriction of any kind, provided that the above copyright notice and this section are included on all such copies and derivative works. However, this document itself may not be modified in any way, including by removing the copyright notice or references to OASIS, except as needed for the purpose of developing any document or deliverable produced by an OASIS Technical Committee (in which case the rules applicable to copyrights, as set forth in the OASIS IPR Policy, must be followed) or as required to translate it into languages other than English.

The limited permissions granted above are perpetual and will not be revoked by OASIS or its successors or assigns.

This document and the information contained herein is provided on an "AS IS" basis and OASIS DISCLAIMS ALL WARRANTIES, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO ANY WARRANTY THAT THE USE OF THE INFORMATION HEREIN WILL NOT INFRINGE ANY OWNERSHIP RIGHTS OR ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.



Table of Contents

​1​ ​Introduction        6

​1.1​ ​Terminology        6

​1.2​ Normative References        6

​1.3​ Naming Requirements        8

​1.3.1​ ​Property Names and String Literals        8

​1.3.2​ ​Reserved Names        8

​1.4​ Document Conventions        8

​1.4.1​ ​Naming Conventions        8

​1.4.2​ ​Font Colors and Style        8

​2​ ​Defined Object Data Models        9

​2.1​ ​Artifact Object        9

​2.1.1​ ​Properties        9

​2.2​ ​AS Object        10

​2.2.1​ Properties        10

​2.3​ ​Directory Object        10

​2.3.1​ ​Properties        10

​2.4​ ​Domain Name Object        11

​2.4.1​ ​Properties        11

​2.5​ ​Email Address Object        12

​2.5.1​ ​Properties        12

​2.6​ ​Email Message Object        13

​2.6.1​ ​Properties        13

​2.6.2​ ​Email MIME Component Type        15

​2.6.2.1​ Properties        16

​2.7​ ​File Object        19

​2.7.1 Properties        19

​2.7.2​ ​Archive File Extension        22

​2.7.2.1​ ​Properties        22

​2.7.3​ ​NTFS File Extension        23

​2.7.3.1​ ​Properties        23

​2.7.3.2​ ​Alternate Data Stream Type        23

​2.7.3.2.1​ ​Properties        23

​2.7.4​ ​PDF File Extension        24

​2.7.4.1​ ​Properties        24

​2.7.5​ ​Raster Image File Extension        25

​2.7.5.1​ ​Properties        25

​2.7.6​ ​Windows™ PE Binary File Extension        26

​2.7.6.1​ ​Properties        26

​2.7.6.2​ ​Windows™ PE Binary Vocabulary        27

​2.7.6.3​ PE Optional Header Type        27

​2.7.6.3.1​ ​Properties        27

​2.7.6.4​ ​Windows™ PE Section Type        29

​2.7.6.4.1​ Properties        30

​2.8​ ​IPv4 Address Object        31

​2.8.1​ ​Properties        31

​2.9​ ​IPv6 Address Object        32

​2.9.1​ ​Properties        32

​2.10​ ​MAC Address Object        33

​2.10.1​ ​Properties        33

​2.11​ ​Mutex Object        34

​2.11.1​ ​Properties        34

​2.12​ ​Network Traffic        35

​2.12.1​ ​Properties        35

​2.12.2​ HTTP Request Extension        40

​2.12.2.1​ ​Properties        40

​2.12.3​ ​ICMP Extension        41

​2.12.3.1​ Properties        41

​2.12.4​ Network Socket Extension        42

​2.12.4.1​ ​Properties        42

​2.12.4.2​ ​Network Socket Address Family Enumeration        43

​2.12.4.3​ Network Socket Protocol Family Enumeration        43

​2.12.4.4​ ​Network Socket Type Enumeration        44

​2.12.5​ TCP Extension        45

​2.12.5.1​ ​Properties        45

​2.13​ ​Process Object        46

​2.13.1​ ​Properties        46

​2.13.2​ ​Windows™ Process Extension        48

​2.13.2.1​ ​Properties        48

​2.13.3​ ​Windows™ Service Extension        49

​2.13.3.1​ ​Properties        49

​2.13.3.2​ ​Windows™ Service Start Type Enumeration        50

​2.13.3.3​ Windows™ Service Type Enumeration        50

​2.13.3.4​ Windows™ Service Status Enumeration        51

​2.14​ ​Software Object        52

​2.14.1​ ​Properties        52

​2.15​ URL Object        53

​2.15.1​ ​Properties        53

​2.16​ ​User Account Object        53

​2.16.1​ ​Properties        53

​2.16.2​ ​Account Type Vocabulary        55

​2.16.3​ ​UNIX™ Account Extension        56

​2.16.3.1​ Properties        56

​2.17​ ​Windows™ Registry Key Object        57

​2.17.1​ ​Properties        57

​2.17.2​ ​Windows™ Registry Value Type        58

​2.17.2.1​ Properties        58

​2.17.3​ ​Windows™ Registry Datatype Enumeration        58

​2.18​ ​X.509 Certificate Object        60

​2.18.1​ ​Properties        60

​2.18.2​ ​X.509 v3 Extensions Type        61

​2.18.2.1​ ​Properties        61

​3​ ​Conformance        64

​3.1​ ​Defined Object Producers        64

​3.2​ ​Defined Object Consumers        64

​Appendix A. Glossary        65

​Appendix B. Acknowledgments        66

​Appendix C. Revision History        71



​1​ ​Introduction

The STIX 2.0 specification defines structured representations for observable objects and their properties in the cyber domain. These can be used to describe data in many different functional domains, including but not limited to:

STIX Cyber Observables document the facts concerning what happened on a network or host, but not necessarily the who or when, and never the why. For example, information about a file that existed, a process that was observed running, or that network traffic occurred between two IPs can all be captured as Cyber Observable data.

STIX Cyber Observables are used by various STIX Domain Objects (SDOs) to provide additional context to the data that they characterize. The Observed Data SDO, for example, indicates that the raw data was observed at a particular time and by a particular entity.

The Cyber Observable Objects chosen for inclusion in STIX 2.0 represent a minimally viable product (MVP) that fulfills basic consumer and producer requirements. Objects and properties not included in STIX 2.0, but deemed necessary by the community, will be included in future releases.

This document (STIX™ Version 2.0. Part 4: Cyber Observable Objects) contains the definitions for the various Cyber Observable Objects.

​1.1​ ​Terminology

The key words “MUST”, “MUST NOT”, “REQUIRED”, “SHALL”, “SHALL NOT”, “SHOULD”, “SHOULD NOT”, “RECOMMENDED”, “MAY”, and “OPTIONAL” in this document are to be interpreted as described in [RFC2119].

All text is normative except for examples and any text marked non-normative.

​1.2​ Normative References

[Character Sets]        N. Freed and M. Dürst, “Character Sets”, IANA, December 2013, [Online]. Available: http://www.iana.org/assignments/character-sets/character-sets.xhtml

[IPFIX]                       IANA, “IP Flow Information Export (IPFIX) Entities”, December 2016, [Online]. Available: http://www.iana.org/assignments/ipfix/ipfix.xhtml

[ISO639-2]                 “ISO 639-2:1998 Codes for the representation of names of languages -- Part 2: Alpha-3 code”, 1998.  [Online]. Available: http://www.iso.org/iso/catalogue_detail?csnumber=4767

[Media Types]            N. Freed, M. Kucherawy, M. Baker and B. Hoehrmann, “Media Types”, IANA, December 2016. [Online]. Available: http://www.iana.org/assignments/media-types/media-types.xhtml

[RFC1034]         Mockapetris, P., "Domain names - concepts and facilities", STD 13, RFC 1034, DOI 10.17487/RFC1034, November 1987, http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc1034.

[RFC2047]                 Moore, K., "MIME (Multipurpose Internet Mail Extensions) Part Three: Message Header Extensions for Non-ASCII Text", RFC 2047, DOI 10.17487/RFC2047, November 1996, http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2047.

[RFC2119]                 Bradner, S., “"Key words for use in RFCs to Indicate Requirement Levels", BCP 14, RFC 2119, DOI 10.17487/RFC2119, March 1997,  http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc2119.

[RFC3986]         Berners-Lee, T., Fielding, R., and L. Masinter, "Uniform Resource Identifier (URI): Generic Syntax", STD 66, RFC 3986, DOI 10.17487/RFC3986, January 2005, http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc3986.

[RFC5322]                 Resnick, P., Ed., "Internet Message Format", RFC 5322, DOI 10.17487/RFC5322, October 2008, http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5322.

[RFC5890]         Klensin, J., "Internationalized Domain Names for Applications (IDNA): Definitions and Document Framework", RFC 5890, DOI 10.17487/RFC5890, August 2010, http://www.rfc-editor.org/info/rfc5890.

[Port Numbers]          J.Touch, A. Mankin, E. Kohler, et. al., “Service Name and Transport Protocol Port Number Registry”, IANA, January 2017. [Online]. Available:                                  http://www.iana.org/assignments/service-names-port-numbers/service-names-port-numbers.xhtml

[NVD]                         Official Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) Dictionary, National Vulnerability Database [Online]. Available: https://nvd.nist.gov/cpe.cfm

[X.509]                        X.509 : Information technology - Open Systems Interconnection - The Directory: Public-key and attribute certificate frameworks, ITU, October 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.itu.int/rec/T-REC-X.509/

​1.3​ Naming Requirements

​1.3.1​ ​Property Names and String Literals

In the JSON serialization all property names and string literals MUST be exactly the same, including case, as the names listed in the property tables in this specification. For example, the SDO common property created_by_ref must result in the JSON key name "created_by_ref". Properties marked required in the property tables MUST be present in the JSON serialization.

​1.3.2​ ​Reserved Names

Reserved property names are marked with a type called RESERVED and a description text of “RESERVED FOR FUTURE USE”. Any property name that is marked as RESERVED MUST NOT be present in STIX content conforming to this version of the specification.

​1.4​ Document Conventions

​1.4.1​ ​Naming Conventions

All type names, property names, and literals are in lowercase, except when referencing canonical names defined in another standard (e.g., literal values from an IANA registry). Words in property names are separated with an underscore(_), while words in type names and string enumerations are separated with a hyphen (-). All type names, property names, object names, and vocabulary terms are between three and 250 characters long.

​1.4.2​ ​Font Colors and Style

The following color, font and font style conventions are used in this document:



​2​ ​Defined Object Data Models

​2.1​ ​Artifact Object

Type Name: artifact

The Artifact Object permits capturing an array of bytes (8-bits), as a base64-encoded string, or linking to a file-like payload. The size of the base64-encoded data captured in the payload_bin property MUST be less than or equal to 10MB.

One of payload_bin or url MUST be provided. It is incumbent on object creators to ensure that the URL is accessible for downstream consumers. If a URL is provided, then the hashes property MUST contain the hash of the URL contents.

​2.1.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Artifact Object Specific Properties

mime_type, payload_bin, url, hashes

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be artifact.

mime_type (optional)

string

The value of this property MUST be a valid MIME type as specified in the IANA Media Types registry [Media Types].

payload_bin (optional)

binary

Specifies the binary data contained in the artifact as a base64-encoded string. This property MUST NOT be present if url is provided.

url (optional)

string

The value of this property MUST be a valid URL that resolves to the unencoded content. This property MUST NOT be present if payload_bin is provided.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies a dictionary of hashes for the contents of the url or the payload_bin.  This MUST be provided when the url property is present.

​Examples

Basic Image Artifact

{

  "0": {

    "type": "artifact",

    "mime_type": "image/jpeg",

    "payload_bin": "VBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAADI== ..."

    }

}

​2.2​ ​AS Object

Type Name: autonomous-system

The AS object represents the properties of an Autonomous System (AS).

​2.2.1​ Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

AS Object Specific Properties

number, name, rir

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be autonomous-system.

number (required)

integer

Specifies the number assigned to the AS. Such assignments are typically performed by a Regional Internet Registry (RIR).

name (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the AS.

rir (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the Regional Internet Registry (RIR) that assigned the number to the AS.

Examples

Basic AS Object

{

  "0": {

    "type": "autonomous-system",

    "number": 15139,

    "name": "Slime Industries",

    "rir": "ARIN"

  }

}

​2.3​ ​Directory Object

Type Name: directory

The Directory Object represents the properties common to a file system directory.

​2.3.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

File Object Specific Properties

path, path_enc, created, modified, accessed, contains_refs

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be directory.

path (required)

string

Specifies the path, as originally observed, to the directory on the file system.

path_enc (optional)

string

Specifies the observed encoding for the path. The value MUST be specified if the path is stored in a non-Unicode encoding.  This value MUST be specified using the corresponding name from the 2013-12-20 revision of the IANA character set registry [Character Sets]. If the preferred MIME name for a character set is defined, this value MUST be used; if it is not defined, then the Name value from the registry MUST be used instead.

created (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the directory was created.

modified (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the directory was last written to/modified.

accessed (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the directory was last accessed.

contains_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of references to other File and/or Directory Objects contained within the directory.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type file or directory.

Examples

Basic directory

{

  "0": {

    "type": "directory",

    "path": "C:\\Windows\\System32"

    }

}

​2.4​ ​Domain Name Object

Type Name: domain-name

The Domain Name represents the properties of a network domain name.

​2.4.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Domain Name Object Specific Properties

value, resolves_to_refs

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be domain-name.

value (required)

string

Specifies the value of the domain name. The value of this property MUST conform to [RFC1034], and each domain and sub-domain contained within the domain name MUST conform to [RFC5890].

resolves_to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of references to one or more IP addresses or domain names that the domain name resolves to.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type ipv4-addr or ipv6-addr or domain-name (for cases such as CNAME records).

Examples

Basic FQDN

{

  "0": {

    "type": "domain-name",

    "value": "example.com",

    "resolves_to_refs": [

      "1"

    ]

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.2"

  }

}

​2.5​ ​Email Address Object

Type Name: email-addr

The Email Address Object represents a single email address.

​2.5.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Email Address Object Specific Properties

value, display_name, belongs_to_ref

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be email-addr.

value (required)

string

Specifies a single email address. This MUST NOT include the display name.

This property corresponds to the addr-spec construction in section 3.4 of [RFC5322], for example, jane.smith@example.com.

display_name (optional)

string

Specifies a single email display name, i.e., the name that is displayed to the human user of a mail application.

This property corresponds to the display-name construction in section 3.4 of [RFC5322], for example, Jane Smith.

belongs_to_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the user account that the email address belongs to, as a reference to a User Account Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type user-account.

Examples

Basic Email Address

{

  "0": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "john@example.com",

    "display_name": "John Doe"

  }

}

​2.6​ ​Email Message Object

Type Name: email-message

The Email Message Object represents an instance of an email message, corresponding to the internet message format described in [RFC5322] and related RFCs.

Header field values that have been encoded as described in section 2 of [RFC2047] MUST be decoded before inclusion in Email Message Object properties. For example, this is some text MUST be used instead of =?iso-8859-1?q?this=20is=20some=20text?=. Any characters in the encoded value which cannot be decoded into Unicode SHOULD be replaced with the 'REPLACEMENT CHARACTER' (U+FFFD). If it is necessary to capture the header value as observed, this can be achieved by referencing an Artifact Object through the raw_email_ref property.

​2.6.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Email Message Object Specific Properties

is_multipart, date, content_type, from_ref, sender_ref, to_refs, cc_refs, bcc_refs, subject, received_lines, additional_header_fields, body, body_multipart, raw_email_ref

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be email-message.

is_multipart (required)

boolean

Indicates whether the email body contains multiple MIME parts.

date (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time that the email message was sent.

content_type (optional)

string

Specifies the value of the “Content-Type” header of the email message.

from_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the value of the “From:” header of the email message. The "From:" field specifies the author(s) of the message, that is, the mailbox(es) of the person(s) or system(s) responsible for the writing of the message.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type email-address.

sender_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the value of the “Sender” field of the email message. The "Sender:" field specifies the mailbox of the agent responsible for the actual transmission of the message.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type email-address.

to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the mailboxes that are “To:” recipients of the email message.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type email-address.

cc_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the mailboxes that are “CC:” recipients of the email message.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type email-address.

bcc_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the mailboxes that are “BCC:” recipients of the email message.

As per [RFC5322], this list may be empty, which should not be treated the same as the key being absent.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type email-address.

subject (optional)

string

Specifies the subject of the email message.

received_lines (optional)

list of type string

Specifies one or more "Received" header fields that may be included in the email headers.

List values MUST appear in the same order as present in the email message.

additional_header_fields (optional)

dictionary

Specifies any other header fields (except for date, received_lines, content_type, from_ref, sender_ref, to_refs, cc_refs, bcc_refs, and subject) found in the email message, as a dictionary.

Each key/value pair in the dictionary represents the name/value of a single header field or names/values of a header field that occurs more than once. Each dictionary key SHOULD be a case-preserved version of the header field name. For cases where a header field occurs exactly once, the corresponding value for the dictionary key MUST be a string. For cases where a header field occurs more than once, the corresponding value for the dictionary key MUST be a list of type string, where each string in the list represents a single value of the header field.

body (optional)

string 

Specifies a string containing the email body. This property MUST NOT be used if is_multipart is true.

body_multipart (optional)

list of type mime-part-type

Specifies a list of the MIME parts that make up the email body. This property MUST NOT be used if is_multipart is false.

raw_email_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the raw binary contents of the email message, including both the headers and body, as a reference to an Artifact Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact.

​2.6.2​ ​Email MIME Component Type

Type Name: mime-part-type

Specifies one component of a multi-part email body.

There is no property to capture the value of the “Content-Transfer-Encoding” header field, since the body MUST be decoded before being represented in the body property.

One of body OR body_raw_ref MUST be included.

​2.6.2.1​ Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

body (optional)

string 

Specifies the contents of the MIME part if the content_type is not provided or starts with text/ (e.g., in the case of plain text or HTML email).  

For inclusion in this property, the contents MUST be decoded to Unicode. Note that the charset provided in content_type is for informational usage and not for decoding of this property.

body_raw_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the contents of non-textual MIME parts, that is those whose content_type does not start with text/, as a reference to an Artifact Object or File Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact or file. For use cases where conveying the actual data contained in the MIME part is of primary importance, artifact SHOULD be used. Otherwise, for use cases where conveying metadata about the file-like properties of the MIME part is of primary importance, file SHOULD be used.

content_type (optional)

string

Specifies the value of the “Content-Type” header field of the MIME part.

Any additional “Content-Type” header field parameters such as charset SHOULD be included in this property.

Example:

text/html; charset=UTF-8

content_disposition (optional)

string

Specifies the value of the “Content-Disposition” header field of the MIME part.

Examples

Simple Email Message

{

  "0": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "jdoe@example.com",

    "display_name": "John Doe"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "mary@example.com",

    "display_name": "Mary Smith"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "email-message",

    "from_ref": "0",

    "to_refs": ["1"],

    "is_multipart": false,

    "date": "1997-11-21T15:55:06.000Z",

    "subject": "Saying Hello"

  }

}

Simple Email Message with Additional Header Properties

{

  "0": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "joe@example.com",

    "display_name": "Joe Smith"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "bob@example.com",

    "display_name": "Bob Smith"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "email-message",

    "from_ref": "0",

    "to_refs": [

      "1"

    ],

    "is_multipart": false,

    "date": "2004-04-19T12:22:23.000Z",

    "subject": "Did you see this?",

    "additional_header_fields": {

      "Reply-To": [

        "steve@example.com",

        "jane@example.com"

      ]

    }

  }

}

Complex MIME Email Message

{

  "0": {

    "type": "email-message",

    "is_multipart": true,

    "received_lines": [

      "from mail.example.com ([198.51.100.3]) by smtp.gmail.com with ESMTPSA id q23sm23309939wme.17.2016.07.19.07.20.32 (version=TLS1_2 cipher=ECDHE-RSA-AES128-GCM-SHA256 bits=128/128); Tue, 19 Jul 2016 07:20:40 -0700 (PDT)"

    ],

    "content_type": "multipart/mixed",

    "date": "2016-06-19T14:20:40.000Z",

    "from_ref": "1",

    "to_refs": [

      "2"

    ],

    "cc_refs": [

      "3"

    ],

    "subject": "Check out this picture of a cat!",

    "additional_header_fields": {

      "Content-Disposition": "inline",

      "X-Mailer": "Mutt/1.5.23",

      "X-Originating-IP": "198.51.100.3"

    },

    "body_multipart": [

      {

        "content_type": "text/plain; charset=utf-8",

        "content_disposition": "inline",

        "body": "Cats are funny!"

      },

      {

        "content_type": "image/png",

        "content_disposition": "attachment; filename=\"tabby.png\"",

        "body_raw_ref": "4"

      },

      {

        "content_type": "application/zip",

        "content_disposition": "attachment; filename=\"tabby_pics.zip\"",

        "body_raw_ref": "5"

      }

    ]

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "jdoe@example.com",

    "display_name": "John Doe"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "bob@example.com",

    "display_name": "Bob Smith"

  },

  "3": {

    "type": "email-addr",

    "value": "mary@example.com",

    "display_name": "Mary Jones"

  },

  "4":{

    "type": "artifact",

    "mime_type": "image/jpeg",

    "payload_bin": "VBORw0KGgoAAAANSUhEUgAAADI== ...",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "effb46bba03f6c8aea5c653f9cf984f170dcdd3bbbe2ff6843c3e5da0e698766"

    }

  },

  "5": {

    "type": "file",

    "name": "tabby_pics.zip",

    "magic_number_hex": "504B0304",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "fe90a7e910cb3a4739bed9180e807e93fa70c90f25a8915476f5e4bfbac681db"

    }

  }

}

​2.7​ ​File Object

Type Name: file

The File Object represents the properties of a file. A File Object MUST contain at least one of hashes or name.

​2.7.1 Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

File Object Specific Properties

hashes, size, name, name_enc, magic_number_hex, mime_type, created, modified, accessed, parent_directory_ref, is_encrypted, encryption_algorithm, decryption_key, contains_refs, content_ref

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be file.

extensions (optional)

dictionary

The File Object defines the following extensions. In addition to these, producers MAY create their own.

ntfs-ext, raster-image-ext, pdf-ext, archive-ext, windows-pebinary-ext

Dictionary keys MUST identify the extension type by name.

The corresponding dictionary values MUST contain the contents of the extension instance.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies a dictionary of hashes for the file.

size (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the file, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

name (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the file.

name_enc (optional)

string

Specifies the observed encoding for the name of the file. This value MUST be specified using the corresponding name from the 2013-12-20 revision of the IANA character set registry [Character Sets]. If the value from the Preferred MIME Name column for a character set is defined, this value MUST be used; if it is not defined, then the value from the Name column in the registry MUST be used instead.

This property allows for the capture of the original text encoding for the file name, which may be forensically relevant; for example, a file on an NTFS volume whose name was created using the windows-1251 encoding, commonly used for languages based on Cyrillic script.

magic_number_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the hexadecimal constant (“magic number”) associated with a specific file format that corresponds to the file, if applicable.

mime_type (optional)

string

Specifies the MIME type name specified for the file, e.g., application/msword.

Whenever feasible, this value SHOULD be one of the values defined in the Template column in the IANA media type registry [Media Types]. 

Maintaining a comprehensive universal catalog of all extant file types is obviously not possible. When specifying a MIME Type not included in the IANA registry, implementers should use their best judgement so as to facilitate interoperability.

created (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the file was created.

modified (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the file was last written to/modified.

accessed (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the file was last accessed.

parent_directory_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the parent directory of the file, as a reference to a Directory Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type directory.

is_encrypted (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the file is encrypted.

encryption_algorithm (optional)

open-vocab

Specifies the name of the encryption algorithm used to encrypt the file. This is an open vocabulary and values SHOULD come from the encryption-algo-ov vocabulary.

This property MUST NOT be used if is_encrypted is false or not included.

decryption_key (optional)

string

Specifies the decryption key used to decrypt the file.

This property MUST NOT be used if is_encrypted is false or not included.

contains_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of references to other Observable Objects contained within the file, such as another file that is appended to the end of the file, or an IP address that is contained somewhere in the the file.

This is intended for use cases other than those targeted by the Archive extension.

content_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the content of the file, represented as an Artifact Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact.

Examples

Basic file with file system properties without observed encoding

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "fe90a7e910cb3a4739bed9180e807e93fa70c90f25a8915476f5e4bfbac681db"

    },

    "size": 25536,

    "name": "foo.dll"

  }

}

Basic file with file system properties with observed encoding

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "841a8921140aba50671ebb0770fecc4ee308c4952cfeff8de154ab14eeef4649"

    },

    "name": "quêry.dll",

    "name_enc": "windows-1252"

  }

}

In this example, the file name would have originally appeared using the bytes 71 75 ea 72 79 2e 64 6c 6c. Representing it in UTF-8, as required for JSON, would use the bytes 71 75 c3 aa 72 79 2e 64 6c 6c.

Basic file with parent directory

{

  "0": {

    "type": "directory",

    "path": "C:\\Windows\\System32"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "ceafbfd424be2ca4a5f0402cae090dda2fb0526cf521b60b60077c0f622b285a"

    },

    "parent_directory_ref": "0",

    "name": "qwerty.dll"

  }

}

​2.7.2​ ​Archive File Extension

Type Name: archive-ext

The Archive File extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to archive files. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be archive-ext.

​2.7.2.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

contains_refs (required)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the files contained in the archive, as a reference to one or more other File Objects.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type file.

version (optional)

string

Specifies the version of the archive type used in the archive file.

comment (optional)

string

Specifies a comment included as part of the archive file.

Examples

Basic unencrypted ZIP Archive

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "ceafbfd424be2ca4a5f0402cae090dda2fb0526cf521b60b60077c0f622b285a"

    }

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "19c549ec2628b989382f6b280cbd7bb836a0b461332c0fe53511ce7d584b89d3"

    }

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "0969de02ecf8a5f003e3f6d063d848c8a193aada092623f8ce408c15bcb5f038"

    }

  },

  "3": {

    "type": "file",

    "name": "foo.zip",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "mime_type": "application/zip",

    "extensions": {

      "archive-ext": {

        "contains_refs": [

          "0",

          "1",

          "2"

        ],

        "version": "5.0"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.7.3​ ​NTFS File Extension

Type Name: ntfs-ext

The NTFS file extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to the storage of the file on the NTFS file system. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be ntfs-ext. An object using the NTFS File Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.7.3.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

sid (optional)

string

Specifies the security ID (SID) value assigned to the file.

alternate_data_streams (optional)

list of type alternate-data-stream-type

Specifies a list of NTFS alternate data streams that exist for the file.

​2.7.3.2​ ​Alternate Data Stream Type

Type Name: alternate-data-stream-type

The Alternate Data Stream type represents an NTFS alternate data stream.

​2.7.3.2.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the alternate data stream.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies a dictionary of hashes for the data contained in the alternate data stream.

size (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the alternate data stream, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

Examples

NTFS File with a single alternate data stream

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "extensions": {

      "ntfs-ext": {

        "alternate_data_streams": [

          {

            "name": "second.stream",

            "size": 25536

          }

        ]

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.7.4​ ​PDF File Extension

Type Name: pdf-ext

The PDF file extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to PDF files. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be pdf-ext. An object using the PDF File Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.7.4.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

version (optional)

string

Specifies the decimal version number of the string from the PDF header that specifies the version of the PDF specification to which the PDF file conforms. E.g., 1.4.

is_optimized (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the PDF file has been optimized.

document_info_dict (optional)

dictionary

Specifies details of the PDF document information dictionary (DID), which includes properties like the document creation data and producer, as a dictionary. Each key in the dictionary SHOULD be a case-preserved version of the corresponding entry in the document information dictionary without the prepended forward slash, e.g., Title. The corresponding value for the key MUST be the value specified for the document information dictionary entry, as a string.

pdfid0 (optional)

string

Specifies the first file identifier found for the PDF file.

pdfid1 (optional)

string

Specifies the second file identifier found for the PDF file.

Examples

Basic PDF file

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "extensions": {

      "pdf-ext": {

        "version": "1.7",

        "document_info_dict": {

          "Title": "Sample document",

          "Author": "Adobe Systems Incorporated",

          "Creator": "Adobe FrameMaker 5.5.3 for Power Macintosh",

          "Producer": "Acrobat Distiller 3.01 for Power Macintosh",

          "CreationDate": "20070412090123-02"

        },

        "pdfid0": "DFCE52BD827ECF765649852119D",

        "pdfid1": "57A1E0F9ED2AE523E313C"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.7.5​ ​Raster Image File Extension

Type Name: raster-image-ext

The Raster Image file extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to raster image files. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be raster-image-ext. An object using the Raster Image File Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.7.5.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

image_height (optional)

integer

Specifies the height of the image in the image file, in pixels.

image_width (optional)

integer

Specifies the width of the image in the image file, in pixels.

bits_per_pixel (optional)

integer

Specifies the sum of bits used for each color channel in the image file, and thus the total number of pixels used for expressing the color depth of the image.

image_compression_algorithm (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the compression algorithm used to compress the image in the image file, if applicable.

exif_tags (optional)

dictionary

Specifies the set of EXIF tags found in the image file, as a dictionary. Each key/value pair in the dictionary represents the name/value of a single EXIF tag. Accordingly, each dictionary key MUST be a case-preserved version of the EXIF tag name, e.g., XResolution. Each dictionary value MUST be either an integer (for int* EXIF datatypes) or a string (for all other EXIF datatypes).

Examples

Simple Image File with EXIF Data

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "name": "picture.jpg",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "extensions": {

      "raster-image-ext": {

        "exif_tags": {

          "Make": "Nikon",

          "Model": "D7000",

          "XResolution": 4928,

          "YResolution": 3264

        }

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.7.6​ ​Windows™ PE Binary File Extension

Type Name: windows-pebinary-ext

The Windows™ PE Binary File extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to Windows portable executable (PE) files. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be windows-pebinary-ext.

​2.7.6.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

pe_type (required)

open-vocab

Specifies the type of the PE binary. This is an open vocabulary and values SHOULD come from the windows-pebinary-type-ov vocabulary.

imphash (optional)

string

Specifies the special import hash, or ‘imphash’, calculated for the PE Binary based on its imported libraries and functions. For more information on the imphash algorithm, see the original article by Mandiant/FireEye: https://www.fireeye.com/blog/threat-research/2014/01/tracking-malware-import-hashing.html.

machine_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the type of target machine.

number_of_sections (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of sections in the PE binary, as a non-negative integer.

time_date_stamp (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the time when the PE binary was created.  The timestamp value MUST be precise to the second.

pointer_to_symbol_table_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the file offset of the COFF symbol table.

number_of_symbols (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of entries in the symbol table of the PE binary, as a non-negative integer.

size_of_optional_header (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the optional header of the PE binary. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

characteristics_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the flags that indicate the file’s characteristics.

file_header_hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies any hashes that were computed for the file header.

optional_header (optional)

windows-pe-optional-header-type

Specifies the PE optional header of the PE binary.

sections (optional)

list of type windows-pe-section-type

Specifies metadata about the sections in the PE file.

​2.7.6.2​ ​Windows™ PE Binary Vocabulary

Vocabulary Name: windows-pebinary-type-ov

An open vocabulary of Windows PE binary types.

Value

Description

exe

Specifies that the PE binary is an executable image (i.e., not an OBJ or DLL).

dll

Specifies that the PE binary is a dynamically linked library (DLL).

sys

Specifies that the PE binary is a device driver (SYS).

​2.7.6.3​ Windows™ PE Optional Header Type

Type Name: windows-pe-optional-header-type

The Windows PE Optional Header type represents the properties of the PE optional header.

​2.7.6.3.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

magic_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the hex value that indicates the type of the PE binary.

major_linker_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the linker major version number.

minor_linker_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the linker minor version number.

size_of_code (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the code (text) section. If there are multiple such sections, this refers to the sum of the sizes of each section. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_initialized_data (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the initialized data section. If there are multiple such sections, this refers to the sum of the sizes of each section. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_uninitialized_data (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the uninitialized data section. If there are multiple such sections, this refers to the sum of the sizes of each section. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

address_of_entry_point (optional)

integer

Specifies the address of the entry point relative to the image base when the executable is loaded into memory.

base_of_code (optional)

integer

Specifies the address that is relative to the image base of the beginning-of-code section when it is loaded into memory.

base_of_data (optional)

integer

Specifies the address that is relative to the image base of the beginning-of-data section when it is loaded into memory.

image_base (optional)

integer

Specifies the preferred address of the first byte of the image when loaded into memory.

section_alignment (optional)

integer

Specifies the alignment (in bytes) of PE sections when they are loaded into memory.

file_alignment (optional)

integer

Specifies the factor (in bytes) that is used to align the raw data of sections in the image file.

major_os_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the major version number of the required operating system.

minor_os_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the minor version number of the required operating system.

major_image_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the major version number of the image.

minor_image_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the minor version number of the image.

major_subsystem_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the major version number of the subsystem.

minor_subsystem_version (optional)

integer

Specifies the minor version number of the subsystem.

win32_version_value_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the reserved win32 version value.

size_of_image (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the image in bytes, including all headers, as the image is loaded in memory. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_headers (optional)

integer

Specifies the combined size of the MS-DOS, PE header, and section headers, rounded up to a multiple of the value specified in the file_alignment header. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

checksum_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the checksum of the PE binary.

subsystem_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the subsystem (e.g., GUI, device driver, etc.) that is required to run this image.

dll_characteristics_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the flags that characterize the PE binary.

size_of_stack_reserve (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the stack to reserve, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_stack_commit (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the stack to commit, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_heap_reserve (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the local heap space to reserve, in bytes.. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

size_of_heap_commit (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the local heap space to commit, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

loader_flags_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the reserved loader flags.

number_of_rva_and_sizes (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of data-directory entries in the remainder of the optional header.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies any hashes that were computed for the optional header.

​2.7.6.4​ ​Windows™ PE Section Type

Type Name: windows-pe-section-type

The Windows PE Section type specifies metadata about a PE file section.

​2.7.6.4.1​ Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the section.

size (optional)

integer

Specifies the size of the section, in bytes. The value of this property MUST NOT be negative.

entropy (optional)

float

Specifies the calculated entropy for the section, as calculated using the Shannon algorithm (https://en.wiktionary.org/wiki/Shannon_entropy). The size of each input character is defined as a byte, resulting in a possible range of 0 through 8.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies any hashes computed over the section.

Examples

Typical EXE File

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "extensions": {

      "windows-pebinary-ext": {

        "pe_type": "exe",

        "machine_hex": "014c",

        "number_of_sections": 4,

        "time_date_stamp": "2016-01-22T12:31:12Z",

        "pointer_to_symbol_table_hex": "74726144",

        "number_of_symbols": 4542568,

        "size_of_optional_header": 224,

        "characteristics_hex": "818f",

        "optional_header": {

          "magic_hex": "010b",

          "major_linker_version": 2,

          "minor_linker_version": 25,

          "size_of_code": 512,

          "size_of_initialized_data": 283648,

          "size_of_uninitialized_data": 0,

          "address_of_entry_point": 4096,

          "base_of_code": 4096,

          "base_of_data": 8192,

          "image_base": 14548992,

          "section_alignment": 4096,

          "file_alignment": 4096,

          "major_os_system_version": 1,

          "minor_os_system_version": 0,

          "major_image_version": 0,

          "minor_image_version": 0,

          "major_subsystem_version": 4,

          "minor_subsystem_version": 0,

          "win32_version_value_hex": "00",

          "size_of_image": 299008,

          "size_of_headers": 4096,

          "checksum_hex": "00",

          "subsystem_hex": "03",

          "dll_characteristics_hex": "00",

          "size_of_stack_reserve": 100000,

          "size_of_stack_commit": 8192,

          "size_of_heap_reserve": 100000,

          "size_of_heap_commit": 4096,

          "loader_flags_hex": "abdbffde",

          "number_of_rva_and_sizes": 3758087646

        },

        "sections": [

          {

            "name": "CODE",

            "entropy": 0.061089

          },

          {

            "name": "DATA",

            "entropy": 7.980693

          },

          {

            "name": "NicolasB",

            "entropy": 0.607433

          },

          {

            "name": ".idata",

            "entropy": 0.607433

          }

        ]

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.8​ ​IPv4 Address Object

Type Name: ipv4-addr

The IPv4 Address Object represents one or more IPv4 addresses expressed using CIDR notation.

​2.8.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

IPv4 Address Object Specific Properties

value, resolves_to_refs, belongs_to_refs

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be ipv4-addr.

value (required)

string

Specifies one or more IPv4 addresses expressed using CIDR notation.

If a given IPv4 Address Object represents a single IPv4 address, the CIDR /32 suffix MAY be omitted.

Example: 10.2.4.5/24

resolves_to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of references to one or more Layer 2 Media Access Control (MAC) addresses that the IPv4 address resolves to.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type mac-addr.

belongs_to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of reference to one or more autonomous systems (AS) that the IPv4 address belongs to.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type autonomous-system.

Examples

IPv4 Single Address

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.3"

  }

}

IPv4 CIDR Block

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.0/24"

  }

}

​2.9​ ​IPv6 Address Object

Type Name: ipv6-addr

The IPv6 Address Object represents one or more IPv6 addresses expressed using CIDR notation.

​2.9.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

IPv6 Address Object Specific Properties

value, resolves_to_refs, belongs_to_refs

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be ipv6-addr.

value (required)

string

Specifies one or more IPv6 addresses expressed using CIDR notation.

If a given IPv6 Address Object represents a single IPv6 address, the CIDR /128 suffix MAY be omitted.

resolves_to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of references to one or more Layer 2 Media Access Control (MAC) addresses that the IPv6 address resolves to.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type mac-addr.

belongs_to_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies a list of reference to one or more autonomous systems (AS) that the IPv6 address belongs to.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type autonomous-system.

Examples

IPv6 Single Address

{  

  "0": {  

    "type": "ipv6-addr",

    "value": "2001:0db8:85a3:0000:0000:8a2e:0370:7334"

  }

}

IPv6 CIDR block

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv6-addr",

    "value": "2001:0db8::/96"

  }

}

​2.10​ ​MAC Address Object

Type Name: mac-addr

The MAC Address Object represents a single Media Access Control (MAC) address.

​2.10.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

MAC Address Object Specific Properties

value

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be mac-addr.

value (required)

string

Specifies a single MAC address.

The MAC address value MUST be represented as a single colon-delimited, lowercase MAC-48 address, which MUST include leading zeros for each octet.

Example: 00:00:ab:cd:ef:01

Examples

Typical MAC address

{

  "0": {

    "type": "mac-addr",

    "value": "d2:fb:49:24:37:18"

  }

}

​2.11​ ​Mutex Object

Type Name: mutex

The Mutex Object represents the properties of a mutual exclusion (mutex) object.

​2.11.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

File Object Specific Properties

name

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be mutex.

name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the mutex object.

Examples

Malware mutex

{

  "0": {

    "type": "mutex",

    "name": "__CLEANSWEEP__"

  }

}

​2.12​ ​Network Traffic Object

Type Name: network-traffic

The Network Traffic Object represents arbitrary network traffic that originates from a source and is addressed to a destination. The network traffic MAY or MAY NOT constitute a valid unicast, multicast, or broadcast network connection. This MAY also include traffic that is not established, such as a SYN flood.

To allow for use cases where a source or destination address may be sensitive and not suitable for sharing, such as addresses that are internal to an organization’s network, the source and destination properties (src_ref and dst_ref, respectively) are defined as optional in the properties table below. However, a Network Traffic Object MUST contain the protocols property and at least one of the src_ref or dst_ref properties and SHOULD contain the src_port and dst_port properties.

​2.12.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Network Traffic Specific Properties

start, end, is_active, src_ref, dst_ref, src_port, dst_port, protocols, src_byte_count, dst_byte_count, src_packets, dst_packets, ipfix, src_payload_ref, dst_payload_ref, encapsulates_refs, encapsulated_by_ref

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be network-traffic.

extensions (optional)

dictionary

The Network Traffic Object defines the following extensions. In addition to these, producers MAY create their own.

http-request-ext, tcp-ext, icmp-ext, socket-ext

Dictionary keys MUST identify the extension type by name.

The corresponding dictionary values MUST contain the contents of the extension instance.

start (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the network traffic was initiated, if known.

end (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time the network traffic ended, if known.

If the is_active property is true, then the end property MUST NOT be included.

is_active (optional)

boolean

Indicates whether the network traffic is still ongoing.

src_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the source of the network traffic, as a reference to one or more Observable Objects.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type ipv4-addr or ipv6-addr or mac-addr or domain-name (for cases where the IP address for a domain name is unknown).

dst_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the destination of the network traffic, as a reference to one or more Observable Objects.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type ipv4-addr or ipv6-addr or mac-addr or domain-name (for cases where the IP address for a domain name is unknown).

src_port (optional)

integer

Specifies the source port used in the network traffic, as an integer. The port value MUST be in the range of 0 - 65535.

dst_port (optional)

integer

Specifies the destination port used in the network traffic, as an integer. The port value MUST be in the range of 0 - 65535.

protocols (required)

list of type string

Specifies the protocols observed in the network traffic, along with their corresponding state.

Protocols MUST be listed in low to high order, from outer to inner in terms of packet encapsulation. That is, the protocols in the outer level of the packet, such as IP, MUST be listed first.

The protocol names SHOULD come from the service names defined in the Service Name column of the IANA Service Name and Port Number Registry [Port Numbers]. In cases where there is variance in the name of a network protocol not included in the IANA Registry, content producers should exercise their best judgement, and it is recommended that lowercase names be used for consistency with the IANA registry.

Examples:

ipv4, tcp, http

ipv4, udp

ipv6, tcp, http

ipv6, tcp, ssl, https

src_byte_count (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of bytes sent from the source to the destination.

dst_byte_count (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of bytes sent from the destination to the source.

src_packets (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of packets sent from the source to the destination.

dst_packets (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of packets sent destination to the source.

ipfix (optional)

dictionary

Specifies any IP Flow Information Export [IPFIX] data for the traffic, as a dictionary. Each key/value pair in the dictionary represents the name/value of a single IPFIX element. Accordingly, each dictionary key SHOULD be a case-preserved version of the IPFIX element name, e.g., octetDeltaCount. Each dictionary value MUST be either an integer or a string, as well as a valid IPFIX property.

src_payload_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the bytes sent from the source to the destination.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact.

dst_payload_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the bytes sent from the destination to the source.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact.

encapsulates_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Links to other network-traffic objects encapsulated by this network-traffic object.

The objects referenced in this property MUST be of type network-traffic.

encapsulated_by_ref (optional)

object-ref

Links to another network-traffic object which encapsulates this object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type network-traffic.

Examples

Basic TCP Network Traffic

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.2"

  },

  "1":{

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.3"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "protocols": [

      "tcp"

    ]

  }

}

Basic HTTP Network Traffic

{

  "0": {

    "type": "domain-name",

    "value": "example.com"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "dst_ref": "0",

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "tcp",

      "http"

    ]

  }

}

Network Traffic with Netflow Data

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.1"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.5"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "tcp"

    ],

    "src_byte_count": 147600,

    "src_packets": 100,

    "ipfix": {

      "minimumIpTotalLength": 32,

      "maximumIpTotalLength": 2556

    }

  }

}

Basic Tunneled Network Traffic

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.2"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.1"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.2"

  },

  "3": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "src_port": 2487,

    "dst_port": 1723,

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "pptp"

    ],

    "src_byte_count": 35779,

    "dst_byte_count": 935750,

    "encapsulates_refs": [

      "4"

    ]

  },

  "4": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "2",

    "src_port": 24678,

    "dst_port": 80,

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "tcp",

      "http"

    ],

    "src_packets": 14356,

    "dst_packets": 14356,

    "encapsulated_by_ref": "3"

  }

}

Web traffic tunneled over DNS

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.1"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.34"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.54"

  },

  "3": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "src_port": 2487,

    "dst_port": 53,

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "udp",

      "dns"

    ],

    "src_byte_count": 35779,

    "dst_byte_count": 935750,

    "encapsulates_refs": [

      "4"

    ]

  },

  "4": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "2",

    "src_port": 24678,

    "dst_port": 443,

    "protocols": [

      "ipv4",

      "tcp",

      "ssl",

      "http"

    ],

    "src_packets": 14356,

    "dst_packets": 14356,

    "encapsulated_by_ref": "3"

  }

}

​2.12.2​ HTTP Request Extension

Type Name: http-request-ext

The HTTP request extension specifies a default extension for capturing network traffic properties specific to HTTP requests. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be http-request-ext.

​2.12.2.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

request_method (required)

string

Specifies the HTTP method portion of the HTTP request line, as a lowercase string.

request_value (required)

string

Specifies the value (typically a resource path) portion of the HTTP request line.

request_version (optional)

string

Specifies the HTTP version portion of the HTTP request line, as a lowercase string.

request_header (optional)

dictionary

Specifies all of the HTTP header fields that may be found in the HTTP client request, as a dictionary.

Each key in the dictionary MUST be the name of the header field and SHOULD preserve case, e.g., User-Agent. The corresponding value for each dictionary key MUST be a string.

message_body_length (optional)

integer

Specifies the length of the HTTP message body, if included, in bytes.

message_body_data_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the data contained in the HTTP message body, if included. 

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type artifact.

Examples

Basic HTTP Request

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.53"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "dst_ref": "0",

    "protocols": [

      "tcp",

      "http"

    ],

    "extensions": {

      "http-request-ext": {

        "request_method": "get",

        "request_value": "/download.html",

        "request_version": "http/1.1",

        "request_header": {

          "Accept-Encoding": "gzip,deflate",

          "User-Agent": "Mozilla/5.0 (Windows; U; Windows NT 5.1; en-US; rv:1.6) Gecko/20040113",

          "Host": "www.example.com"

        }

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.12.3​ ​ICMP Extension

Type Name: icmp-ext

The ICMP extension specifies a default extension for capturing network traffic properties specific to ICMP. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be icmp-ext.

​2.12.3.1​ Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

icmp_type_hex (required)

hex

Specifies the ICMP type byte.

icmp_code_hex (required)

hex

Specifies the ICMP code byte.

Examples

Basic ICMP Traffic

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.9"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "203.0.113.5"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "protocols": [

      "icmp"

    ],

    "extensions": {

      "icmp-ext": {

        "icmp_type_hex": "08",

        "icmp_code_hex": "00"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.12.4​ Network Socket Extension

Type Name: socket-ext

The Network Socket extension specifies a default extension for capturing network traffic properties associated with network sockets. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be socket-ext.

​2.12.4.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

address_family (required)

network-socket-address-family-enum

Specifies the address family (AF_*) that the socket is configured for.

is_blocking (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the socket is in blocking mode.

is_listening (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the socket is in listening mode.

protocol_family (optional)

network-socket-protocol-family-enum

Specifies the protocol family (PF_*) that the socket is configured for.

options (optional)

dictionary

Specifies any options (SO_*) that may be used by the socket, as a dictionary. Each key in the dictionary SHOULD be a case-preserved version of the option name, e.g., SO_ACCEPTCONN. Each key value in the dictionary MUST be the value for the corresponding options key.

socket_type (optional)

network-socket-type-enum

Specifies the type of the socket.

socket_descriptor (optional)

integer

Specifies the socket file descriptor value associated with the socket, as a non-negative integer.

socket_handle (optional)

integer

Specifies the handle or inode value associated with the socket.

​2.12.4.2​ ​Network Socket Address Family Enumeration

Enumeration Name: network-socket-address-family-enum

An enumeration of network socket address family types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

AF_UNSPEC

Specifies an unspecified address family.

AF_INET

Specifies the IPv4 address family.

AF_IPX

Specifies the IPX (Novell Internet Protocol) address family.

AF_APPLETALK

Specifies the APPLETALK DDP address family.

AF_NETBIOS

Specifies the NETBIOS address family.

AF_INET6

Specifies the IPv6 address family.

AF_IRDA

Specifies IRDA sockets.

AF_BTH

Specifies BTH sockets.

​ 

​2.12.4.3​ Network Socket Protocol Family Enumeration

Enumeration Name: network-socket-protocol-family-enum

An enumeration of network socket protocol family types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

PF_INET

Specifies the IP protocol family.

PF_AX25

Specifies the amateur radio AX.25 family.

PF_IPX

Specifies the Novell Internet Protocol family.

PF_INET6

Specifies the IP version 6 family.

PF_APPLETALK

Specifies the Appletalk DDP protocol family.

PF_NETROM

Specifies the Amateur radio NetROM protocol family.

PF_BRIDGE

Specifies the Multiprotocol bridge protocol family.

PF_ATMPVC

Specifies the ATM PVCs protocol family.

PF_X25

Specifies the protocol family reserved for the X.25 project.

PF_ROSE

Specifies the PF_KEY key management API family.

PF_DECNET

Specifies the protocol family reserved for the DECnet project.

PF_NETBEUI

Specifies the protocol family reserved for the 802.2LLC project.

PF_SECURITY

Specifies the Security callback pseudo AF protocol family.

PF_KEY

Specifies the PF_KEY key management API protocol family.

PF_NETLINK

Specifies the netlink routing API family.

PF_ROUTE

Specifies the PF_ROUTE routing API family.

PF_PACKET

Specifies the packet family.

PF_ASH

Specifies the Ash family.

PF_ECONET

Specifies the Acorn Econet family.

PF_ATMSVC

Specifies the ATM SVCs protocol family.

PF_SNA

Specifies the Linux SNA Project protocol family.

PF_IRDA

Specifies IRDA sockets.

PF_PPPOX

Specifies PPPoX sockets.

PF_WANPIPE

Specifies Wanpipe API sockets.

PF_BLUETOOTH

Specifies Bluetooth sockets.

​2.12.4.4​ ​Network Socket Type Enumeration

Enumerations Name: network-socket-type-enum

An enumeration of network socket types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

SOCK_STREAM

Specifies a pipe-like socket which operates over a connection with a particular remote socket, and transmits data reliably as a stream of bytes.

SOCK_DGRAM

Specifies a socket in which individually-addressed packets are sent (datagram).

SOCK_RAW

Specifies raw sockets which allow new IP protocols to be implemented in user space. A raw socket receives or sends the raw datagram not including link level headers.

SOCK_RDM

Specifies a socket indicating a reliably-delivered message.

SOCK_SEQPACKET

Specifies a datagram congestion control protocol socket.

​Examples

Basic Stream Socket

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.2"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "src_port": 223,

    "protocols": [

      "ip",

      "tcp"

    ],

    "extensions": {

      "socket-ext": {

        "is_listening": true,

        "address_family": "AF_INET",

        "protocol_family": "PF_INET",

        "socket_type": "SOCK_STREAM"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.12.5​ TCP Extension

Type Name: tcp-ext

The TCP extension specifies a default extension for capturing network traffic properties specific to TCP. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be tcp-ext. An object using the TCP Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.12.5.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

src_flags_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the source TCP flags, as the union of all TCP flags observed between the start of the traffic (as defined by the start property) and the end of the traffic (as defined by the end property).

If the start and end times of the traffic are not specified, this property SHOULD be interpreted as the union of all TCP flags observed over the entirety of the network traffic being reported upon.

dst_flags_hex (optional)

hex

Specifies the destination TCP flags, as the union of all TCP flags observed between the start of the traffic (as defined by the start property) and the end of the traffic (as defined by the end property).

If the start and end times of the traffic are not specified, this property SHOULD be interpreted as the union of all TCP flags observed over the entirety of the network traffic being reported upon.

Examples

Basic TCP Traffic

{

  "0": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.5"

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "ipv4-addr",

    "value": "198.51.100.6"

  },

  "2": {

    "type": "network-traffic",

    "src_ref": "0",

    "dst_ref": "1",

    "src_port": 3372,

    "dst_port": 80,

    "protocols": [

      "tcp"

    ],

    "extensions": {

      "tcp-ext": {

        "src_flags_hex": "00000002"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.13​ ​Process Object

Type Name: process

The Process Object represents common properties of an instance of a computer program as executed on an operating system. A Process Object MUST contain at least one property (other than type) from this object (or one of its extensions).

​2.13.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Process Object Specific Properties

is_hidden, pid, name, created, cwd, arguments, command_line, environment_variables, opened_connection_refs, creator_user_ref, binary_ref, parent_ref, child_refs

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be process.

extensions (optional)

dictionary

The Process Object defines the following extensions. In addition to these, producers MAY create their own.

windows-process-ext, windows-service-ext

Dictionary keys MUST identify the extension type by name.

The corresponding dictionary values MUST contain the contents of the extension instance.

is_hidden (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the process is hidden.

pid (optional)

integer

Specifies the Process ID, or PID, of the process.

name (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the process.

created (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date/time at which the process was created.

cwd (optional)

string

Specifies the current working directory of the process.

arguments (optional)

list of type string

Specifies the list of arguments used in executing the process. Each argument MUST be captured separately as a string.

command_line (optional)

string

Specifies the full command line used in executing the process, including the process name (depending on the operating system).

environment_variables (optional)

dictionary

Specifies the list of environment variables associated with the process as a dictionary. Each key in the dictionary MUST be a case preserved version of the name of the environment variable, and each corresponding value MUST be the environment variable value as a string.

opened_connection_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the list of network connections opened by the process, as a reference to one or more Network Traffic Objects.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type network-traffic.

creator_user_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the user that created the process, as a reference to a User Account Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type user-account.

binary_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the executable binary that was executed as the process, as a reference to a File Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type file.

parent_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies the other process that spawned (i.e. is the parent of) this one, as reference to a Process Object.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type process.

child_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the other processes that were spawned by (i.e. children of) this process, as a reference to one or more other Process Objects.

The objects referenced in this list MUST be of type process.

Examples

Basic Process

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

  },

  "1": {

    "type": "process",

    "pid": 1221,

    "name": "gedit-bin",

    "created": "2016-01-20T14:11:25.55Z",

    "arguments" :[

      "--new-window"

    ],

    "binary_ref": "0"

  }

}

​2.13.2​ ​Windows™ Process Extension

Type Name: windows-process-ext

The Windows Process extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to Windows processes. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be windows-process-ext. An object using the Windows Process Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.13.2.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

aslr_enabled (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether Address Space Layout Randomization (ASLR) is enabled for the process.

dep_enabled (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether Data Execution Prevention (DEP) is enabled for the process.

priority (optional)

string

Specifies the current priority class of the process in Windows. This value SHOULD be a string that ends in _CLASS.

owner_sid (optional)

string

Specifies the Security ID (SID) value of the owner of the process.

window_title (optional)

string

Specifies the title of the main window of the process.

startup_info (optional)

dictionary

Specifies the STARTUP_INFO struct used by the process, as a dictionary. Each name/value pair in the struct MUST be represented as a key/value pair in the dictionary, where each key MUST be a case-preserved version of the original name. For example, given a name of "lpDesktop" the corresponding key would be lpDesktop.

Examples

Basic Windows Process

{

  "0": {

    "type": "process",

    "pid": 314,

    "name": "foobar.exe",

    "extensions": {

      "windows-process-ext": {

        "aslr_enabled": true,

        "dep_enabled": true,

        "priority": "HIGH_PRIORITY_CLASS",

        "owner_sid": "S-1-5-21-186985262-1144665072-74031268-1309"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.13.3​ ​Windows™ Service Extension

Type Name: windows-service-ext

The Windows Service extension specifies a default extension for capturing properties specific to Windows services. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be windows-service-ext.

​2.13.3.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

service_name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the service.

descriptions (optional)

list of type string

Specifies the descriptions defined for the service.

display_name (optional)

string

Specifies the displayed name of the service in Windows GUI controls.

group_name (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the load ordering group of which the service is a member.

start_type (optional)

windows-service-start-type-enum

Specifies the start options defined for the service.

service_dll_refs (optional)

list of type object-ref

Specifies the DLLs loaded by the service, as a reference to one or more File Objects.

The objects referenced in this property MUST be of type file.

service_type (optional)

windows-service-type-enum

Specifies the type of the service.

service_status (optional)

windows-service-status-enum

Specifies the current status of the service.

​2.13.3.2​ ​Windows™ Service Start Type Enumeration

Enumeration Name: windows-service-start-type-enum

An enumeration of Windows service start types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

SERVICE_AUTO_START

A service started automatically by the service control manager during system startup.

SERVICE_BOOT_START

A device driver started by the system loader. This value is valid only for driver services.

SERVICE_DEMAND_START

A service started by the service control manager when a process calls the StartService function.

SERVICE_DISABLED

A service that cannot be started. Attempts to start the service result in the error code ERROR_SERVICE_DISABLED.

SERVICE_SYSTEM_ALERT

A device driver started by the IoInitSystem function. This value is valid only for driver services.

​2.13.3.3​ Windows™ Service Type Enumeration

Enumeration Name: windows-service-type-enum

An enumeration of Windows service types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

SERVICE_KERNEL_DRIVER

The service is a device driver.

SERVICE_FILE_SYSTEM_DRIVER

The service is a file system driver.

SERVICE_WIN32_OWN_PROCESS

The service runs in its own process.

SERVICE_WIN32_SHARE_PROCESS

The service shares a process with other services.

​2.13.3.4​ Windows™ Service Status Enumeration

Enumeration Name: windows-service-status-enum

An enumeration of Windows service statuses.

Value

Description

SERVICE_CONTINUE_PENDING

The service continue is pending.

SERVICE_PAUSE_PENDING

The service pause is pending.

SERVICE_PAUSED

The service is paused.

SERVICE_RUNNING

The service is running.

SERVICE_START_PENDING

The service is starting.

SERVICE_STOP_PENDING

The service is stopping.

SERVICE_STOPPED

The service is not running.

Examples

Basic Windows Service

{

  "0": {

    "type": "file",

    "hashes": {

      "SHA-256": "35a01331e9ad96f751278b891b6ea09699806faedfa237d40513d92ad1b7100f"

    },

    "name": "sirvizio.exe"

  },

  "1":{

    "type": "process",

    "pid": 2217,

    "name": "sirvizio",

    "command_line": "C:\\Windows\\System32\\sirvizio.exe /s",

    "binary_ref": "0",

    "extensions": {

      "windows-service-ext": {

        "service_name": "sirvizio",

        "display_name": "Sirvizio",

        "start_type": "SERVICE_AUTO_START",

        "service_type": "SERVICE_WIN32_OWN_PROCESS",

        "service_status": "SERVICE_RUNNING"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.14​ ​Software Object

Type Name: software

The Software Object represents high-level properties associated with software, including software products.

​2.14.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

Software Object Specific Properties

name, cpe, languages, vendor, version

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be software.

name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the software.

cpe (optional)

string

Specifies the Common Platform Enumeration (CPE) entry for the software, if available. The value for this property MUST be a CPE v2.3 entry from the official NVD CPE Dictionary [NVD] .

While the CPE dictionary does not contain entries for all software, whenever it does contain an identifier for a given instance of software, this property SHOULD be present.

languages (optional)

list of type string

Specifies the languages supported by the software. The value of each list member MUST be an ISO 639-2 language code [ISO639-2] .

vendor (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the vendor of the software.

version (optional)

string

Specifies the version of the software.

Examples

Typical Software Instance

{

  "0": {

    "type": "software",

    "name": "Word",

    "cpe": "cpe:2.3:a:microsoft:word:2000:*:*:*:*:*:*:*",  

    "version": "2002",

    "vendor": "Microsoft"

  }

}

​2.15​ URL Object

Type Name: url

The URL Object represents the properties of a uniform resource locator (URL).

​2.15.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

URL Object Specific Properties

value

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be url.

value (required)

string

Specifies the value of the URL. The value of this property MUST conform to [RFC3986], more specifically section 1.1.3 with reference to the definition for "Uniform Resource Locator".

Examples

Typical URL

{  

  "0": {  

    "type": "url",

    "value": "https://example.com/research/index.html"

  }

}

​2.16​ ​User Account Object

Type Name: user-account

The User Account Object represents an instance of any type of user account, including but not limited to operating system, device, messaging service, and social media platform accounts.

​2.16.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

User Account Object Specific Properties

user_id, account_login, account_type, display_name, is_service_account, is_privileged, can_escalate_privs, is_disabled, account_created, account_expires, password_last_changed, account_first_login, account_last_login

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be user-account.

extensions (optional)

dictionary

The User Account Object defines the following extensions. In addition to these, producers MAY create their own.

unix-account-ext

Dictionary keys MUST identify the extension type by name.

The corresponding dictionary values MUST contain the contents of the extension instance.

user_id (required)

string

Specifies the identifier of the account. The format of the identifier depends on the system the user account is maintained in, and may be a numeric ID, a GUID, an account name, an email address, etc. The user_id property should be populated with whatever field is the unique identifier for the system the account is a member of. For example, for UNIX systems it would be populated with the UID.

account_login (optional)

string

Specifies the account login string, used in cases where the user_id property specifies something other than what a user would type when they login.

For example, in the case of a Unix account with user_id 0, the account_login might be “root”.

account_type (optional)

open-vocab

Specifies the type of the account.

This is an open vocabulary and values SHOULD come from the account-type-ov vocabulary.

display_name (optional)

string

Specifies the display name of the account, to be shown in user interfaces, if applicable.

On Unix, this is equivalent to the GECOS field.

is_service_account (optional)

boolean

Indicates that the account is associated with a network service or system process (daemon), not a specific individual.

is_privileged (optional)

boolean

Specifies that the account has elevated privileges (i.e., in the case of root on Unix or the Windows Administrator account).

can_escalate_privs (optional)

boolean

Specifies that the account has the ability to escalate privileges (i.e., in the case of sudo on Unix or a Windows Domain Admin account)

is_disabled (optional)

boolean

Specifies if the account is disabled.

account_created (optional)

timestamp

Specifies when the account was created.

account_expires (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the expiration date of the account.

password_last_changed (optional)

timestamp

Specifies when the account password was last changed.

account_first_login (optional)

timestamp

Specifies when the account was first accessed.

account_last_login (optional)

timestamp

Specifies when the account was last accessed.

​2.16.2​ ​Account Type Vocabulary

Vocabulary Name: account-type-ov

An open vocabulary of User Account types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

unix

Specifies a POSIX account.

windows-local

Specifies a Windows local account.

windows-domain

Specifies a Windows domain account.

ldap

Specifies an LDAP account.

tacacs

Specifies a TACACS account.

radius

Specifies a RADIUS account.

nis

Specifies a NIS account

openid

Specifies an OpenID account.

facebook

Specifies a Facebook account.

skype

Specifies a Skype account.

twitter

Specifies a Twitter account.

Examples

Basic Unix Account

{

  "0": {

    "type": "user-account",

    "user_id": "1001",

    "account_login": "jdoe",

    "account_type": "unix",

    "display_name": "John Doe",

    "is_service_account": false,

    "is_privileged": false,

    "can_escalate_privs": true,

    "account_created": "2016-01-20T12:31:12Z",

    "password_last_changed": "2016-01-20T14:27:43Z",

    "account_first_login": "2016-01-20T14:26:07Z",

    "account_last_login": "2016-07-22T16:08:28Z"

  }

}

Basic Twitter Account

{

  "0": {

    "type": "user-account",

    "user_id": "thegrugq_ebooks",

    "account_login": "thegrugq_ebooks",

    "account_type": "twitter",

    "display_name": "the grugq"

  }

}

​2.16.3​ ​UNIX™ Account Extension

Type Name: unix-account-ext

The UNIX account extension specifies a default extension for capturing the additional information for an account on a UNIX system. The key for this extension when used in the extensions dictionary MUST be unix-account-ext. An object using the UNIX Account Extension MUST contain at least one property from this extension.

​2.16.3.1​ Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

gid (optional)

integer

Specifies the primary group ID of the account.

groups (optional)

list of type string

Specifies a list of names of groups that the account is a member of.

home_dir (optional)

string

Specifies the home directory of the account.

shell (optional)

string

Specifies the account’s command shell.

Examples

Basic UNIX Account

{

  "0": {

    "type": "user-account",

    "user_id": "1001",

    "account_login": "jdoe",

    "account_type": "unix",

    "display_name": "John Doe",

    "is_service_account": false,

    "is_privileged": false,

    "can_escalate_privs": true,

    "extensions": {

      "unix-account-ext": {

        "gid": 1001,

        "groups": ["wheel"],

        "home_dir": "/home/jdoe",

        "shell": "/bin/bash"

      }

    }

  }

}

​2.17​ ​Windows™ Registry Key Object

Type Name: windows-registry-key

The Registry Key Object represents the properties of a Windows registry key.

​2.17.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

File Object Specific Properties

key, values, modified, creator_user_ref, number_of_subkeys

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be windows-registry-key.

key (required)

string

Specifies the full registry key including the hive.

The value of the key, including the hive portion, SHOULD be case-preserved. The hive portion of the key MUST be fully expanded and not truncated; e.g., HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE must be used instead of HKLM.

values (optional)

list of type windows-registry-value-type

Specifies the values found under the registry key.

modified (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the last date/time that the registry key was modified.

creator_user_ref (optional)

object-ref

Specifies a reference to the user account (represented as a User Account Object) that created the registry key.

The object referenced in this property MUST be of type user-account.

number_of_subkeys (optional)

integer

Specifies the number of subkeys contained under the registry key.

​2.17.2​ ​Windows™ Registry Value Type

Type Name: windows-registry-value-type

The Windows Registry Value type captures the properties of a Windows Registry Key Value.

​2.17.2.1​ Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

name (required)

string

Specifies the name of the registry value. For specifying the default value in a registry key, an empty string MUST be used.

data (optional)

string

Specifies the data contained in the registry value.

data_type (optional)

windows-registry-datatype-enum

Specifies the registry (REG_*) data type used in the registry value.

​2.17.3​ ​Windows™ Registry Datatype Enumeration

Enumeration Name: windows-registry-datatype-enum

An enumeration of Windows registry data types.

Vocabulary Value

Description

REG_NONE

No defined value type.

REG_SZ

A null-terminated string. This will be either a Unicode or an ANSI string, depending on whether you use the Unicode or ANSI functions.

REG_EXPAND_SZ

A null-terminated string that contains unexpanded references to environment variables (for example, "%PATH%"). It will be a Unicode or ANSI string depending on whether you use the Unicode or ANSI functions.

REG_BINARY

Binary data in any form.

REG_DWORD

A 32-bit number.

REG_DWORD_BIG_ENDIAN

A 32-bit number in big-endian format.

REG_LINK

A null-terminated Unicode string that contains the target path of a symbolic link.

REG_MULTI_SZ

A sequence of null-terminated strings, terminated by an empty string (\0).

REG_RESOURCE_LIST

A series of nested lists designed to store a resource list used by a hardware device driver or one of the physical devices it controls. This data is detected and written into the ResourceMap tree by the system and is displayed in Registry Editor in hexadecimal format as a Binary Value.

REG_FULL_RESOURCE_DESCRIPTION

A series of nested lists designed to store a resource list used by a physical hardware device. This data is detected and written into the HardwareDescription tree by the system and is displayed in Registry Editor in hexadecimal format as a Binary Value.

REG_RESOURCE_REQUIREMENTS_LIST

Device driver list of hardware resource requirements in Resource Map tree.

REG_QWORD

A 64-bit number.

REG_INVALID_TYPE

Specifies an invalid key.

Examples

Simple registry key

{

  "0": {

    "type": "windows-registry-key",

    "key": "HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\\System\\Foo\\Bar"

    }

}

Registry key with values

{

  "0": {

    "type": "windows-registry-key",

    "key": "hkey_local_machine\\system\\bar\\foo",

    "values": [

      {

        "name": "Foo",

        "data": "qwerty",

        "data_type": "REG_SZ"

      },

      {

        "name": "Bar",

        "data": "42",

        "data_type": "REG_DWORD"

      }

    ]

  }

}

​2.18​ ​X.509 Certificate Object

Type Name: x509-certificate

The X.509 Certificate Object represents the properties of an X.509 certificate, as defined by ITU recommendation X.509 [X.509]. An X.509 Certificate Object MUST contain at least one property (other than type) from this object.

​2.18.1​ ​Properties

Common Properties

type, extensions

File Object Specific Properties

is_self_signed, hashes, version, serial_number, signature_algorithm, issuer, validity_not_before, validity_not_after, subject, subject_public_key_algorithm, subject_public_key_modulus, subject_public_key_exponent, x509_v3_extensions

Property Name

Type

Description

type (required)

string

The value of this property MUST be x509-certificate.

is_self_signed (optional)

boolean

Specifies whether the certificate is self-signed, i.e., whether it is signed by the same entity whose identity it certifies.

hashes (optional)

hashes

Specifies any hashes that were calculated for the entire contents of the certificate.

version (optional)

string

Specifies the version of the encoded certificate.

serial_number (optional)

string

Specifies the unique identifier for the certificate, as issued by a specific Certificate Authority.

signature_algorithm (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the algorithm used to sign the certificate.

issuer (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the Certificate Authority that issued the certificate.

validity_not_before (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date on which the certificate validity period begins.

validity_not_after (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date on which the certificate validity period ends.

subject (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the entity associated with the public key stored in the subject public key field of the certificate.

subject_public_key_algorithm (optional)

string

Specifies the name of the algorithm with which to encrypt data being sent to the subject.

subject_public_key_modulus (optional)

string

Specifies the modulus portion of the subject’s public RSA key.

subject_public_key_exponent (optional)

integer

Specifies the exponent portion of the subject’s public RSA key, as an integer.

x509_v3_extensions (optional)

x509-v3-extensions-type

Specifies any standard X.509 v3 extensions that may be used in the certificate.

​2.18.2​ ​X.509 v3 Extensions Type

Type Name: x509-v3-extensions-type

The X.509 v3 Extensions type captures properties associated with X.509 v3 extensions, which serve as a mechanism for specifying additional information such as alternative subject names. An object using the X.509 v3 Extensions type MUST contain at least one property from this type.

Note that the X.509 v3 Extensions type is not a STIX Cyber Observables extension, it is a type that describes X.509 extensions.

​2.18.2.1​ ​Properties

Property Name

Type

Description

basic_constraints (optional)

string

Specifies a multi-valued extension which indicates whether a certificate is a CA certificate. The first (mandatory) name is CA followed by TRUE or FALSE. If CA is TRUE then an optional pathlen name followed by an non-negative value can be included. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.19.

name_constraints (optional)

string

Specifies a namespace within which all subject names in subsequent certificates in a certification path MUST be located. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.30.

policy_constraints (optional)

string

Specifies any constraints on path validation for certificates issued to CAs. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.36.

key_usage (optional)

string

Specifies a multi-valued extension consisting of a list of names of the permitted key usages. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.15.

extended_key_usage (optional)

string

Specifies a list of usages indicating purposes for which the certificate public key can be used for. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.37.

subject_key_identifier (optional)

string

Specifies the identifier that provides a means of identifying certificates that contain a particular public key. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.14.

authority_key_identifier (optional)

string

Specifies the identifier that provides a means of identifying the public key corresponding to the private key used to sign a certificate. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.35.

subject_alternative_name (optional)

string

Specifies the additional identities to be bound to the subject of the certificate. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.17.

issuer_alternative_name (optional)

string

Specifies the additional identities to be bound to the issuer of the certificate. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.18.

subject_directory_attributes (optional)

string

Specifies the identification attributes (e.g., nationality) of the subject. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.9.

crl_distribution_points (optional)

string

Specifies how CRL information is obtained. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.31.

inhibit_any_policy (optional)

string

Specifies the number of additional certificates that may appear in the path before anyPolicy is no longer permitted. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.54.

private_key_usage_period_not_before (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date on which the validity period begins for the private key, if it is different from the validity period of the certificate.

private_key_usage_period_not_after (optional)

timestamp

Specifies the date on which the validity period ends for the private key, if it is different from the validity period of the certificate.

certificate_policies (optional)

string

Specifies a sequence of one or more policy information terms, each of which consists of an object identifier (OID) and optional qualifiers. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.32.

policy_mappings (optional)

string

Specifies one or more pairs of OIDs; each pair includes an issuerDomainPolicy and a subjectDomainPolicy. The pairing indicates whether the issuing CA considers its issuerDomainPolicy equivalent to the subject CA's subjectDomainPolicy. Also equivalent to the object ID (OID) value of 2.5.29.33.

Examples

Basic X.509 certificate

{

  "0": {

    "type": "x509-certificate",

    "issuer": "C=ZA, ST=Western Cape, L=Cape Town, O=Thawte Consulting cc, OU=Certification Services Division, CN=Thawte Server CA/emailAddress=server-certs@thawte.com",

    "validity_not_before": "2016-03-12T12:00:00Z",

    "validity_not_after": "2016-08-21T12:00:00Z",

    "subject": "C=US, ST=Maryland, L=Pasadena, O=Brent Baccala, OU=FreeSoft, CN=www.freesoft.org/emailAddress=baccala@freesoft.org"

    }

}



​3​ ​Conformance

​3.1​ ​Defined Object Producers

A "Defined Object Producer" that creates an Object from section 2 (Defined Object Data Models) is a “Producer” of that Object. Defined Object Producers MUST conform to all normative requirements in the section for that Object along with all of the general requirements pertaining to Objects as defined in section 3 of STIX™ Version 2.0. Part 3: Cyber Observable Core Concepts.

For example, a "Defined Object Producer" that can produce File Object is a "File Object Producer". That producer has to conform to all normative requirements in Cyber Observable Objects section 2.7, File Object.

​3.2​ ​Defined Object Consumers

A "Defined Object Consumer" that receives an Object from section 2 (Defined Object Data Models) is a "Consumer" of that Object. Defined Object Consumers MUST conform to all normative requirements in the section for that Object along with all of the general requirements pertaining to Objects as defined in section 3 of STIX™ Version 2.0. Part 3: Cyber Observable Core Concepts.

For example, an "Object Consumer" that can receive Network Traffic Objects is a "Network Traffic Object Consumer". That consumer has to conform to all normative requirements in Cyber Observable Objects Section 2.12, Network Traffic Object.



​Appendix A. Glossary

CAPEC - Common Attack Pattern Enumeration and Classification

Consumer - Any entity that receives STIX content

CTI - Cyber Threat Intelligence

Embedded Relationship - A link (an "edge" in a graph) between one STIX Object and another represented as a property on one object containing the ID of another object

Entity - Anything that has a separately identifiable existence (e.g., organization, person, group, etc.)

IEP - FIRST (Forum of Incident Response and Security Teams) Information Exchange Policy

Instance - A single occurrence of a STIX object version

MTI - Mandatory To Implement

MVP - Minimally Viable Product

Object Creator - The entity that created or updated a STIX object (see section 3.3 of STIX™ Version 2.0. Part 1: STIX Core Concepts).

Object Representation - An instance of an object version that is serialized as STIX

Producer - Any entity that distributes STIX content, including object creators as well as those passing along existing content

SDO - STIX Domain Object (a "node" in a graph)

SRO - STIX Relationship Object (one mechanism to represent an "edge" in a graph)

STIX - Structured Threat Information Expression

STIX Content - STIX documents, including STIX Objects, STIX Objects grouped as bundles, etc.

STIX Object - A STIX Domain Object (SDO) or STIX Relationship Object (SRO)

STIX Relationship - A link (an "edge" in a graph) between two STIX Objects represented by either an SRO or an embedded relationship

TAXII - An application layer protocol for the communication of cyber threat information

TLP - Traffic Light Protocol

TTP - Tactic, technique, or procedure; behaviors and resources that attackers use to carry out their attacks



​Appendix B. Acknowledgments

Cyber Observable Subcommittee Chairs:

Trey Darley, Kingfisher Operations, sprl

Ivan Kirillov, MITRE Corporation

STIX Subcommittee Chairs:

Sarah Kelley, Center for Internet Security (CIS)

John Wunder, MITRE Corporation

 

Special Thanks:

Substantial contributions to this specification from the following individuals are gratefully acknowledged:

 

Sarah Kelley, Center for Internet Security (CIS)

Terry MacDonald, Cosive

Jane Ginn, Cyber Threat Intelligence Network, Inc. (CTIN)

Richard Struse, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications

Iain Brown, GDS

Jason Keirstead, IBM

Tim Casey, Intel

Trey Darley, Kingfisher Operations, sprl

Allan Thomson, LookingGlass Cyber

Greg Back, MITRE Corporation

Ivan Kirillov, MITRE Corporation

Jon Baker, MITRE Corporation

John Wunder, MITRE Corporation

Sean Barnum, MITRE Corporation

Richard Piazza, MITRE Corporation

Christian Hunt, New Context Services, Inc.

John-Mark Gurney, New Context Services, Inc.

Aharon Chernin, Perch

Dave Cridland, Surevine

Bret Jordan, Symantec Corp.

Participants:

The following individuals were members of the OASIS CTI Technical Committee during the creation of this specification and their contributions are gratefully acknowledged:

David Crawford, Aetna

Marcos Orallo, Airbus Group SAS

Roman Fiedler, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

Florian Skopik, AIT Austrian Institute of Technology

Russell Spitler, AlienVault

Ryan Clough, Anomali

Nicholas Hayden, Anomali

Wei Huang, Anomali

Angela Nichols, Anomali

Hugh Njemanze, Anomali

Katie Pelusi, Anomali

Dean Thompson, Australia and New Zealand Banking Group (ANZ Bank)

Alexander Foley, Bank of America

Sounil Yu, Bank of America

Vicky Laurens, Bank of Montreal

Humphrey Christian, Bay Dynamics

Ryan Stolte, Bay Dynamics

Alexandre Dulaunoy, CIRCL

Andras Iklody, CIRCL

Rapha‘l Vinot, CIRCL

Sarah Kelley, CIS

Syam Appala, Cisco Systems

Ted Bedwell, Cisco Systems

David McGrew, Cisco Systems

Mark-David McLaughlin, Cisco Systems

Pavan Reddy, Cisco Systems

Omar Santos, Cisco Systems

Jyoti Verma, Cisco Systems

Doug DePeppe, Cyber Threat Intelligence Network, Inc. (CTIN)

Jane Ginn, Cyber Threat Intelligence Network, Inc. (CTIN)

Ben Othman, Cyber Threat Intelligence Network, Inc. (CTIN)

Jeff Odom, Dell

Sreejith Padmajadevi, Dell

Ravi Sharda, Dell

Will Urbanski, Dell

Sean Sobieraj, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

Richard Struse, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

Marlon Taylor, DHS Office of Cybersecurity and Communications (CS&C)

Jens Aabol, Difi-Agency for Public Management and eGovernment

Wouter Bolsterlee, EclecticIQ

Marko Dragoljevic, EclecticIQ

Oliver Gheorghe, EclecticIQ

Joep Gommers, EclecticIQ

Sergey Polzunov, EclecticIQ

Rutger Prins, EclecticIQ

Andrei S”rghi, EclecticIQ

Raymon van der Velde, EclecticIQ

Ben Sooter, Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI)

Chris Ricard, Financial Services Information Sharing and Analysis Center (FS-ISAC)

Phillip Boles, FireEye, Inc.

Prasad Gaikwad, FireEye, Inc.

Rajeev Jha, FireEye, Inc.

Anuj Kumar, FireEye, Inc.

Shyamal Pandya, FireEye, Inc.

Paul Patrick, FireEye, Inc.

Scott Shreve, FireEye, Inc.

Jon Warren, FireEye, Inc.

Remko Weterings, FireEye, Inc.

Gavin Chow, Fortinet Inc.

Steve Fossen, Fortinet Inc.

Kenichi Terashita, Fortinet Inc.

Ryusuke Masuoka, Fujitsu Limited

Daisuke Murabayashi, Fujitsu Limited

Derek Northrope, Fujitsu Limited

Jonathan Algar, GDS

Iain Brown, GDS

Adam Cooper, GDS

Mike McLellan, GDS

Tyrone Nembhard, GDS

Chris O'Brien, GDS

James Penman, GDS

Howard Staple, GDS

Chris Taylor, GDS

Laurie Thomson, GDS

Alastair Treharne, GDS

Julian White, GDS

Bethany Yates, GDS

Robert van Engelen, Genivia

Eric Burger, Georgetown University

Allison Miller, Google Inc.

Mark Risher, Google Inc.

Yoshihide Kawada, Hitachi, Ltd.

Jun Nakanishi, Hitachi, Ltd.

Kazuo Noguchi, Hitachi, Ltd.

Akihito Sawada, Hitachi, Ltd.

Yutaka Takami, Hitachi, Ltd.

Masato Terada, Hitachi, Ltd.

Peter Allor, IBM

Eldan Ben-Haim, IBM

Allen Hadden, IBM

Sandra Hernandez, IBM

Jason Keirstead, IBM

John Morris, IBM

Laura Rusu, IBM

Ron Williams, IBM

Paul Martini, iboss, Inc.

Jerome Athias, Individual

Peter Brown, Individual

Joerg Eschweiler, Individual

Stefan Hagen, Individual

Elysa Jones, Individual

Sanjiv Kalkar, Individual

Terry MacDonald, Individual

Alex Pinto, Individual

Tim Casey, Intel Corporation

Kent Landfield, Intel Corporation

Karin Marr, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Julie Modlin, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Mark Moss, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Mark Munoz, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Nathan Reller, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

Pamela Smith, Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

David Laurance, JPMorgan Chase Bank, N.A.

Russell Culpepper, Kaiser Permanente

Beth Pumo, Kaiser Permanente

Michael Slavick, Kaiser Permanente

Trey Darley, Kingfisher Operations, sprl

Gus Creedon, Logistics Management Institute

Wesley Brown, LookingGlass

Jamison Day, LookingGlass

Kinshuk Pahare, LookingGlass

Allan Thomson, LookingGlass

Ian Truslove, LookingGlass

Chris Wood, LookingGlass

Greg Back, Mitre Corporation

Jonathan Baker, Mitre Corporation

Sean Barnum, Mitre Corporation

Desiree Beck, Mitre Corporation

Michael Chisholm, Mitre Corporation

Nicole Gong, Mitre Corporation

Ivan Kirillov, Mitre Corporation

Michael Kouremetis, Mitre Corporation

Chris Lenk, Mitre Corporation

Richard Piazza, Mitre Corporation

Larry Rodrigues, Mitre Corporation

Jon Salwen, Mitre Corporation

Charles Schmidt, Mitre Corporation

Alex Tweed, Mitre Corporation

Emmanuelle Vargas-Gonzalez, Mitre Corporation

John Wunder, Mitre Corporation

James Cabral, MTG Management Consultants, LLC.

Scott Algeier, National Council of ISACs (NCI)

Denise Anderson, National Council of ISACs (NCI)

Josh Poster, National Council of ISACs (NCI)

Mike Boyle, National Security Agency

Joe Brule, National Security Agency

Jessica Fitzgerald-McKay, National Security Agency

David Kemp, National Security Agency

Shaun McCullough, National Security Agency

John Anderson, NC4

Michael Butt, NC4

Mark Davidson, NC4

Daniel Dye, NC4

Angelo Mendonca, NC4

Michael Pepin, NC4

Natalie Suarez, NC4

Benjamin Yates, NC4

Daichi Hasumi, NEC Corporation

Takahiro Kakumaru, NEC Corporation

Lauri Korts-P_rn, NEC Corporation

John-Mark Gurney, New Context Services, Inc.

Christian Hunt, New Context Services, Inc.

Daniel Riedel, New Context Services, Inc.

Andrew Storms, New Context Services, Inc.

Stephen Banghart, NIST

David Darnell, North American Energy Standards Board

Cory Casanave, Object Management Group

Aharon Chernin, Perch

Dave Eilken, Perch

Sourabh Satish, Phantom

Josh Larkins, PhishMe Inc.

John Tolbert, Queralt Inc.

Ted Julian, Resilient Systems, Inc..

Igor Baikalov, Securonix

Joseph Brand, Semper Fortis Solutions

Duncan Sparrell, sFractal Consulting LLC

Thomas Schreck, Siemens AG

Rob Roel, Southern California Edison

Dave Cridland, Surevine Ltd.

Bret Jordan, Symantec Corp.

Curtis Kostrosky, Symantec Corp.

Juha Haaga, Synopsys

Masood Nasir, TELUS

Greg Reaume, TELUS

Alan Steer, TELUS

Crystal Hayes, The Boeing Company

Wade Baker, ThreatConnect, Inc.

Cole Iliff, ThreatConnect, Inc.

Andrew Pendergast, ThreatConnect, Inc.

Ben Schmoker, ThreatConnect, Inc.

Jason Spies, ThreatConnect, Inc.

Ryan Trost, ThreatQuotient, Inc.

Patrick Coughlin, TruSTAR Technology

Chris Roblee, TruSTAR Technology

Mark Angel, U.S. Bank

Brian Fay, U.S. Bank

Joseph Frazier, U.S. Bank

Mark Heidrick, U.S. Bank

Mona Magathan, U.S. Bank

Yevgen Sautin, U.S. Bank

Richard Shok, U.S. Bank

James Bohling, US Department of Defense (DoD)

Eoghan Casey, US Department of Defense (DoD)

Gary Katz, US Department of Defense (DoD)

Jeffrey Mates, US Department of Defense (DoD)

Evette Maynard-Noel, US Department of Homeland Security

Robert Coderre, VeriSign

Kyle Maxwell, VeriSign

Eric Osterweil, VeriSign

Patrick Maroney, Wapack Labs LLC

Anthony Rutkowski, Yanna Technologies LLC



​Appendix C. Revision History

Revision

Date

Editor

Changes Made

01

2017-01-20

Bret Jordan,

John Wunder,

Rich Piazza,

Ivan Kirillov,

Trey Darley

Initial Version

02

2017-04-24

Bret Jordan,

John Wunder,

Rich Piazza,

Ivan Kirillov,

Trey Darley

Changes made from first public review

stix-v2.0-wd03-part4-cyber-observable-objects                     Working Draft 03                                                                    19 June 2017

Standards Track Draft                                     Copyright © OASIS Open 2017. All Rights Reserved.                                    Page  of