WJEC: AS Film Studies

Section A: PRODUCERS AND AUDIENCES

Case study workbook

PRODUCTION

DISTRIBUTION

EXHIBITION

         


The purpose of this workbook is to help you develop case studies for your AS film studies exam in the summer. There are no answers but if you need further help look on the blog heathenmedia.co.uk. This book acts as a revision guide as you are able to revise all the issues and debates surrounding production, distribution and exhibition in the film industry.

Write a list of the case study films you are going to develop

Hollywood Blockbuster……………………………………………………………………………….

American Indie………………………………………………………………………………………….

UK big budget (eg Working Title) ……………………………………………………………………………………………

British Independent film………………………………………………………………………………………


Contemporary Hollywood studios/ UK film production companies

Below is all the key terminology you can use to describe the structure of both Hollywood and British film production companies. Use them to write a paragraph showing your understanding.

If you need help look on the blog heathenmedia.co.uk

Conglomerate

Big 6

Oligopoly/ hegemony

Subsidiary company

Multi-industry company

Vertical integration

Horizontal integration

Synergy (internal and external)

Working Title films

Warp/ Film 4

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Film case studies

Production

Use the questions below to help you research information about the production of your chosen case study films.

Which studio was it produced by?..................................................................................

Directed by?....................................................................................................................

Budget?...........................................................................................................................

Gross profit?...................................................................................................................

Release date?.................................................................................................................

Idea/ Inspiration?...........................................................................................................

Main actors/ actresses?.................................................................................................

Locations?.......................................................................................................................

SFX/ CGI?........................................................................................................................

From your research what have you found about issues surrounding the production of your case study films? Insert links from websites or print out news articles to help you revise.


Film Distribution

USPs and posters

To make their film stand out against others the distributor must find a ‘hook’ to capture the audience’s attention. This is called a USP or unique selling point. For example Jaws is about a giant shark. King Kong is about a large gorilla. The USP can be defined in a number of ways:

Storyline/ plot

Genre of film

Actors/ Actresses

Special effects

Filming (eg IMAX)

Film director

An effective method of advertising to get the USP across is the film poster. A poster gets it’s message across in a number of ways:

Image/ or images used

Use of ‘star’ names and faces

Specific words

Use of colour

Graphic style, size of words

Film certificate

Analyse the two posters below. How have they ‘hooked’ their target audience to create a ‘want to see’ feel?

http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608051980895518976&w=193&h=145&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2felrincondealexiss.blogspot.com%2f2014%2f10%2fotro-nuevo-quad-poster-para-uk-de.html&pid=1.7                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608006114942386287&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0


Distribution: Posters

How many different posters can you find for your case study films? Print out as many as you can and stick them on this page. What do you notice about posters from different countries?

Distribution: Posters

Now print out one of the posters for each case study film and analyse how it appeals to its target audience. Think about colours, font, images and language.

How does the poster ‘sell’ the film?

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Distribution: Trailers

There are three main types of trailer. These are the teaser trailer, the full trailer and the TV spot.

Watch each type of trailer for your blockbuster film and write a paragraph on each analyzing how it appeals to its target audience.

Teaser trailer

Insert youtube or IMDB link…………………………………………………………………………………..

How does this trailer excite its target audience/ sell the film?

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Full trailer

Insert youtube or IMDB link…………………………………………………………………………………..

How does this trailer excite its target audience/ sell the film?

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TV spot

Insert youtube or IMDB link…………………………………………………………………………………..

How does this trailer excite its target audience/ sell the film?

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Distribution: Promotions and Merchandise

Special concessionary deals may be offered to sectors of the public believed most likely to be interested in the film being promoted; competitions connected to the film may be set up in magazines or newspapers, or on food packaging likely to be picked up by the target audience.; and merchandise related to the film in some way may be given away or offered at special rates. In each case the effort will be to raise awareness of the forthcoming film among potential consumers within the profiled target audience.

Paddington (2014) Poster

Below are all examples of film promotions or merchandise. Label each one and say who they would appeal to.

http://annieneugebauer.com/wp-content/uploads/2011/11/Twilight_book_cover_second.jpg         http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608003477826306915&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607993912934926212&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

http://1.bp.blogspot.com/_4s7p9OtxH_s/TOwuHeer1RI/AAAAAAAAOpA/V8YT6093tD0/s1600/Free%252520movie%252520Lucky%252520Charms%255B1%255D.jpg                        http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608039521197950604&w=152&h=151&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2ftwinqu.com%2fmickey-mouse-souvenir-merchandise%2f&pid=1.7

    http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608055159170337992&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0               http://www.wildsound.ca/images/dark_knight_merchandise.jpg             http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608048622220608344&pid=1.7

http://www.the-studio-deluxe.de/images/product_images/lens_images/2354_0.jpg                      http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608034440244102975&pid=1.7

Now research examples of promotions and merchandise for your case study films. Copy and paste examples on to this page or just write a list of examples.


Digital distribution

What is Digital Distribution?

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Technology is changing the rules of the film industry just as it did for the music industry. These advancements are enabling new opportunities for the film industry including online, CD’s, DVD’s and in cinemas.

Increased internet speeds and processors are making the PC a more popular choice for consumers. These capabilities also open up opportunities and challenges to film distributors.

Traditionally, films are shown on 35mm film. But these are increasingly difficult to distribute due to their size and transportation (fuel) costs. Towards the end of 2005, the UK distribution and exhibition sectors were starting to move towards digital distribution and exhibition. This favoured due to the reasons below:

Opportunities:

Cost – it’s cheaper to distribute electronically rather than send film reels in vans.

No degradation issues – a film can be shown multiple times and no damage can be caused to the image projected.

Greater programming flexibility – when a cinema is set up to receive and exhibit films digitally, more films can be shown more regularly to fit the needs of the audience.

Flexible advertising – Advertisers love advertising in theatres because they have a captive audience. Filming adverts for cinemas is an expensive business but with digital capabilities, more adverts can be produced and can be shown in multiple screens for relatively low cost.

Challenges:

No security – little control over a film once it leaves their facilities. They have to hope it’s delivered safely to the appropriate theatres and doesn’t fall into the wrong hands (piracy) or is damaged along the way.

Cost – small independent cinemas may not be able to afford to convert and upgrade their technology to accommodate digital copies. It can cost up to £50k per screen to convert to digital.


Distribution: Film home page

The film home page is another method of distribution used to excited or attract the target audience. Look at your chosen films home page and write a list of the ways it targets and appeals to the target audience.

Insert home page link here:……………………………………………………………………………………….

Way of selling the film:

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Digital distribution: Viral marketing

Pop-up ads, spam in the inbox and sponsored search links have failed to attract audiences. Advertisers are finding that viral marketing is the key to keeping costs down and returns high. With less money spent on traditional advertising and more energy spent on creative ways of spreading the word about products, viral marketing is changing the advertising scene.

Wikipedia explains that viral marking refers to marketing techniques that use existing social networks to increase brand awareness. Viral marketing creates the sense that the consumer has the power over the product. Rather than feeling bombarded by ads, the consumer actually becomes part of the ad campaign themselves and passes the information along to others without feeling pressured into buying the product because of pushy advertising.

Viral marketing is more passive when compared to traditional advertising techniques, but that’s the brilliance of it. The consumer is fed information from another consumer and not from the ‘corporate businesses’ that have a product to promote and sell.

The idea behind viral marketing is to create a buzz among consumers with a catchy campaign idea and then sit back and watch as word about your product spreads like a cold virus. When the campaign works, they don’t even have to pay for media spaces such as TV slots or radio time as they will be talking about your product anyway.

Examples of successful viral marketing film campaigns

This blog has good examples of successful marketing campaigns.

http://amandacobb.co.uk/2013/09/top-10-viral-film-marketing-campaigns/

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607994814885463736&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607989884266155926&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608051001649793318&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

Now research your case study films to investigate if they used viral marketing to create a ‘buzz’ or ‘hype’ around the film.

Distribution: New Media Technologies

Below are examples of new media technologies. Label them and list how they can be used by film distributors to market a film.

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608050219962009624&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608011513714836032&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608032288477611900&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.607990842041043697&w=210&h=139&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.paypromedia.com%2f2012%2f11%2f23%2ffriday-fun-blog-buying-an-hdtv%2f&pid=1.7        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608055751883227877&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607989781185628193&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://lazytechguys.com/wp-content/uploads/2012/05/Twitter-Bird-Logo.png                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608041745994286948&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608000651747852563&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608027963449936531&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

How can film companies use new media technologies in the advertising and promotion of films?

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Now write some examples of how your case studies used new media technologies to advertise and promote their film.

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What is Technological Convergence?

Technological convergence is when difference technological systems evolve to perform similar tasks.

Technological convergence is the trend of technologies to merge into new technologies that bring together a myriad of media. While historically, technology handled one medium or accomplished one or two tasks, through technological convergence, devices are now able to present and interact with a wide array of media.

In the past, for example, each entertainment medium had to be played on a specific device. Video was played on a television by using a video player of some sort, music was played on a tape deck or compact disc player, radio was played on an AM/FM tuner, and video games were played through a console of some sort. Similarly, different communication media used their own technologies. Voice conversation was carried on using a telephone, video communication briefly used high-end video phones, facsimile copies used fax machines, and e-mail used a computer.

Technological convergence in the last few years has resulted in devices that not only interact with the media they are primarily designed to handle, but also with a number of other formats. For example, the XBox video game console has as its primary purpose the playing of console games, but it is also able to play back video and music and to connect to the Internet. Similarly, most modern DVD players are capable not only of playing DVDs, but also of playing music CDs displaying photos from photo CDs, playing encoded video in formats such as DIVX or VCD, and playing DVD music.  A mobile phone are another good example, in that they are increasingly incorporate digital cameras, mp3 players, camcorders, voice recorders and other devices.

Positives of Technological Convergence:

Consumers need to spend less money on separate devices.

Combined devices take up less space and are more compact.

Negatives of Technological Convergence:

First examples of these devices can often be less functional and reliable e.g. a DVD may perform better on a traditional DVD player than on a games console.

As the amount of functions in a single device increases, the ability of that device to serves its original function decreases. (There’s only a certain amount of space)

Film Exhibition

Exhibition- a public display of works of art or other items of interest, held in a public place; a display or demonstration of a particular skill.

 When we refer to “film exhibition” we are talking about ways in which the film is shown (eg cinema, new media technologies)

Name films you would see in each of the different types of cinema below.

  1. Multiplex………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  2. Multi screen ………………………………………………………………………………………………….
  3. Single screen…………………………………………………………………………………………………
  4. IMAX……………………………………………………………………………………………………………..
  5. 3D…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  6. Omnimax………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  7. 4D…………………………………………………………………………………………………………………
  8. Independent cinemas………………………………………………………………………………….

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607986448289040141&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0        http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608025871801581911&w=215&h=121&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.imax.com%2fcommunity%2fblog%2fpvr-cinemas-launches-the-first-digital-imax-theatre-in-south-india%2f&pid=1.7                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608022951211830989&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608019021320817645&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                 http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.607997593722620381&w=190&h=138&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.filmoria.co.uk%2f2012%2f12%2fcineworld-acquires-picturehouse-cinemas-for-47-3m%2f&pid=1.7

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607998938055247622&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608014760713521860&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

Town centre Vs out of town cinemas

There are advantages and disadvantages of watching films at an out of town cinema or a cinema in the town centre.

10 reasons why you would visit VUE cinema in Reading town centre

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10 reasons why you would visit Showcase cinema (out of town)

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Exhibition: Independent cinemas.

Case study: Curzon cinemas

The Curzon cinemas are a chain of independent cinemas in London. Research all about them on this website http://www.curzoncinemas.com/ and answer the following questions:

  1. How many Curzon cinemas are there in London?
  2. What films are they showing now?
  3. What films are coming soon?
  4. What events are they holding in the near future?
  5. What sort of membership do they offer?
  6. How do they advertise to their target audience?

Finally…

  1. Who are their main target audience? How do they appeal to their audience? How do they extend this target audience to others (eg what do they offer children?)

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Exhibition and new media technologies

New media technologies are changing the way audiences consume films. Make a list of alternative ways to watch films (not in the cinema)

  1. (for example) On my iPad

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http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608033018621789372&w=224&h=125&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fvialogue.wordpress.com%2f2010%2f09%2f29%2f3023%2f&pid=1.7                http://ts4.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.607992233612545620&w=208&h=130&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwhatshappeningatmyhouse.wordpress.com%2ftag%2flovefilm%2f&pid=1.7

http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608045839098775213&w=200&h=121&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.techhive.com%2farticle%2f259600%2famazon_prime_instant_video_grows_again_still_no_match_for_netflix.html&pid=1.7        http://ts3.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.608029350722076825&w=183&h=140&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fwww.cavsi.com%2fpreguntasrespuestas%2fque-es-apple-tv%2f&pid=1.7        

        http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607993728263324194&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608046612192100707&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

How are new media technologies changing the way audiences consume films?

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Exhibition and PIRACY

Movie piracy: threat to the future of films intensifies

Almost 30% of Britons are now watching movies illegally online or buying counterfeit DVDs, costing the industry £500m a year

Pirate button on computer keyboard

'There's a perception it's a victimless crime, but it's not,' says Mark Batey of the FDA.

The movie industry excels in selling dreams. But since the dawn of the digital revolution, there is one narrative they've consistently and conspicuously failed to sell: that piracy is theft and consumers who indulge ought to feel guilty about it. Recent research by Ipsos suggests that almost 30% of the UK population is active in some form of piracy, either through streaming content online or buying counterfeit DVDs. Such theft costs the UK audiovisual industries about £500m a year.

Given such scale, why has that the message failed to sink in? "There's a perception that it's a victimless crime," says Mark Batey, chief executive of trade body the Film Distributors' Association. "But it's not. There are just a handful of super successes every year among hundreds of movies that are brought to market. And when a film is copied or made available online, it reduces the value of that film around the world."

This, says Batey, can be particularly detrimental to the independent film-maker who may have spent years raising money for the film and may have had to remortgage their house.

Former lobbyist and US senior government official Jean Prewitt agrees. "The impact of piracy tends to play out differently and arguably more immediately on the independent sector than it does on the studios," she says. "The indies are totally dependent on local distributors in all countries to take risk and invest in the making of a film before it is made. This is how these films get financed."

Prewitt, who now heads the Independent Film and Television Alliance, points to its members who go to markets at festivals such as Cannes, Berlin and the American Film Market in Los Angeles (which is produced by IFTA) to present their project to buyers, who pre-commit to the film and then take it when it is finished, guaranteeing a minimum level of royalties to the film-maker.

These pre-sales are then taken to a bank and used as collateral to finance the film. If the pre-sales aren't secured, the bank won't loan the money and the film doesn't get off the ground.

"Distributors are not able to take the risks they used to. What this means to the consumer is not that some producers don't get rich, it means the product doesn't get made."

Dallas Buyers Club

At risk from piracy ... Dallas Buyers Club. Photograph: Anne Marie Fox

Each year, a huge number of these independent films are lauded at the Oscars: Dallas Buyers Club, 12 Years a Slave, American Hustle and The Wolf of Wall Street all went to market to seek independent financing.

This reduction of revenue caused in part by piracy has also resulted in studios and production houses making less adventurous choices when it comes to films – just think of the prequels, sequels and remakes hitting screens this summer. Similarly, streaming television content illegally has a huge effect on the business, says Gareth Neame, executive producer of Downton Abbey.

"Broadcasters will pay us money upfront, but it's not sufficient to cover the cost of the whole production, so we look at the long-term value of our product and, based on all the ways we can exploit this, we cashflow against anticipated revenues," he says. "If it comes to pass that the show doesn't make those revenues because of illegal downloads, we don't recoup the money, and we have to be more cautious.

"Long term, movies and TV and other content simply won't be created in the first place. One may think an individual act of piracy doesn't matter, but if that becomes a way of life then the value of intellectual property becomes eroded, shows like Downton Abbey won't get made."

Phil Clapp, chief executive of trade organisation the Cinema Exhibitors' Association, says that cinemas are losing about £220m a year at the UK box office due to piracy, representing about two months' income in an average year.

"We recognise that the vast majority of illegal content starts its life in the cinema, and because we remain the key source we have put a huge amount of effort into making our sites more secure and training staff and giving them the ability to take action," he says.

Clapp adds that the financial impact is felt most acutely by the long list of people you see on the credits of a film. "Makeup artists, costume designers,, studios and facilities, even box office staff – they are the ones who are greatly affected by this loss of revenue."

Downton Abbey

Piracy hurts TV too ... Downton Abbey. Photograph: Nick Briggs/Carnival Films/ITV

According to a 2010 TERA report, up to a quarter of a million jobs will be at risk if nothing is done about copyright infringement in the UK by 2015.

Alex Hamilton, managing director of eOne Films UK, which has brought films such as the Twilight saga and 12 Years a Slave to British theatres, agrees with that assessment.

"The audiovisual industry supports hundreds of thousands of people's livelihoods and if the industry has trouble supporting itself, it's going to put people out of work," he says. "People aren't pirating to make themselves better or put food on the table; they are doing it for recreational purposes. An individual has to acknowledge that their actions don't exist in isolation."

There are a number of ways to consume content legally, says Hamilton, from cinema to video on demand subscriptions such as Amazon Prime and Netflix, and the cost is relatively low. Another crucial point pirates should understand is that nothing is free. When a consumer streams illegal content, these sites are making money, either through advertising or subscription costs.

"It's straightforward plagiarism for profit," says Prewitt. "Every consumer click is driving legitimate dollars out of the legal industry and into the pockets of these criminals."

The Federation Against Copyright Theft (Fact) works with law enforcement agencies to prosecute piracy but also works to educate the public on the consequences of copyright infringement.

"One message that is key is that, whether you're pirating physical copy or streaming, you are putting money into the hands of a criminal," says Kieron Sharp, director general of Fact.

Many pirates who produce counterfeit DVDs on a large scale can be traced to organised crime rings in the far east, he says, who then reinvest that money in other strands of criminal activity, such as prostitution, drugs and dog-fighting. "Our view is that most of these people [who stream illegally] are film and TV fans and we want them on our side, not on the side of criminals, who will profit from their consumption."

Fact general counsel Byron Jacobson says the organisation has also been working hard to prevent companies from advertising on infringing websites. There seems to be evidence, he says, of a significant decrease in the number of high-street brands doing so.

And while Fact has proved to be a strong backbone for the entertainment industry when it comes to copyright infringement, support from outside the business has waned.

Setting up a stall at the Cannes film festival's Marche du Film

Out of business ... film sales stands at Cannes's Marche du Film Photograph: Loic Venance/AFP/Getty Images

The UK coalition government has moved slowly in implementing the Digital Economy Act, which addresses policy issues related to digital media, including copyright infringement, and it has been an uphill struggle to get internet service providers to help combat the issue.

However, there is light at the end of the tunnel. In the UK, BT, Sky, Virgin Media and TalkTalk have reached a deal with the Motion Picture Association and the BPI, which represents the British music industry to send "educational" letters to customers who have downloaded illegal content. The process is expected to come into effect in 2015.

"The difficulty is there is no end point," says one industry insider. "It's not really going to divert or stop even medium-level or hardcore pirates. Maybe it will quash the nervous teenager, but that's about it."

And it's not just the entertainment industry that will suffer if the value of copyright is not respected, says Neame. "IP businesses and learning-based business industries are hugely increasing in the west," he says. "The erosion of IP will have an increasingly large impact on the global economies and economies in Europe. It's important that we try to educate people to behave like responsible citizens and to be honest and understand why copyright matters."


The importance of STARS for the film industry.

By turning actors into stars you acknowledge that they are a commercial asset to your business and that their presence is capable of attracting a large audience. AT this point you have to start paying the star an inflated rate to obtain the leading man/ woman you want for the film. Studios recognize the chance to boost the ratings of their films by creating stars but they are also driven by public demand to know the naems of these actors. This suggests the importance of actors/ stars but also the importance of fans. Since the Studio System where stars essentially belonged to a particular studio, the power has shifted in favour of the stars. There is still a battle between the studio who like to keep the star working on winning formulas and those actors that want to vary their roles.

What sort of star identity do the following have? Do they play the same role for each film? If so, what is it?

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607988015950335798&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607997220064070368&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608033138885200294&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608013442160462824&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

How are these female stars represented in film? Strong, independent women or weak, manipulated and in the mercy of others?

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608007351891922139&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts2.mm.bing.net/th?id=HN.607994935139766225&w=168&h=135&c=7&rs=1&url=http%3a%2f%2fcelebrityhair24.blogspot.com%2f2012%2f06%2fhelle-berry-mens-hairstyles.html&pid=1.7

http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.608022530304705539&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0                http://ts1.mm.bing.net/th?&id=HN.607986263604920549&w=300&h=300&c=0&pid=1.9&rs=0&p=0

A star is a media- constructed image. Constructed from a range of activites. Not only films but also advertising, promotional work and media coverage. The star is not a person, they are a cultural product. (eg we do not know Bradd Pitt the human being or the man, only the film star)

Who has the control/ power? The Star---The Studio---The Fan???

Today, films stars have to compete against a much wider range of celebrity figures, from television and sport in particular. However, stars are said to have more power now than they did before but they depend on the media more so than ever.

How has the rise of new media technologies affected the power of stars and the influence of fans?

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Past exam questions

Plan or write some or all of these past paper questions. I am happy to mark them if you would like to email me

lgoodhew@littleheath.w-berks.sch.uk

How can producers work to keep the current high level of interest in British cinema?

How far has the internet changed the film experience for audiences?

How important are stars for US and UK film producers?

‘Film reviews are of no importance for audiences today.’ How far do you agree with this statement?

‘Neither producers nor audiences need stars any more.’ How far do you agree with this statement?

‘The current revolution in technology is changing the way both producers and audiences think of film and the film experience.’ How far do you agree with this statement?

Why do some UK films achieve more success than others?

How important is merchandising to Producers and Audiences?

Finally- work hard and good luck