Lesson 8
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In addition to the tens mentioned in the previous chapter, the powers of ten up til one billion are listed below:

 mel - hundred pol - thousand dua - ten thousand wisti - hundred thousand bena - million nungu - ten million gos - hundred million kas - billion

Powers of ten are treated the same way as ten and form compounds with basic numerals. Compare:

 sunini - twenty yenini - thirty panini - forty jonini - fifty vainini - sixty teonini - seventy dianini - eighty sastanini - ninety sumel - two hundred yemel - three hundred pamel - four hundred jomel - five hundred vaimel - six hundred teomel - seven hundred diamel - eight hundred sastamel - nine hundred

 sumpol - two thousand yempol - three thousand pampol - four thousand jompol - five thousand vaipol - six thousand teopol - seven thousand diapol - eight thousand sastapol - nine thousand sundua - twenty thousand yendua - thirty thousand pandua - forty thousand jondua - fifty thousand vaidua - sixty thousandd teodua - seventy thousand diadua - eighty thousand sastadua - ninety thousand

8.1 Al kuka tiso

 Dainah: -Hea Ben. Haya akuka na titom?Dana: -Hey Ben. What's the weather forecast?Ben: -Al kuka tiso.Ben: -They predict rain. Dainah: -Nong weyun shina kakwa.Dana: -I don't see any clouds.Ben: -Al kuka. Ka en tiso bon ze banin.Ben: -It has been predicted. They say it will rain in the afternoon. Dainah: -Tontoye tenza tio en pazanu tau, nong ha?Dana: -In that case it is best to go shopping now, isn't it?Ben: -Al kai podo yo.Ben: -All shops are closed. Dainah: -Haya? Hamun? Tiso nong kwi bon!Dana: -What? Why? It isn't raining yet!Ben: -Al jampi podola.Ben: -The mall has been set fire to. ...

 akuka - forecast, prediction titom - weather kuka - to predict tiso  - rain bon - to fall shina - cloud kakwa - any, at all banin - noon tenza - useful tio - best, surpassing all pazanu - to shop, go shopping tau - now kai - to close hamun - why?

Another phenomenon in Kah, is the absence of true passive forms. In the first conversation of this lesson, the following phrases occurred:

al kuka - it has been predicted

al kai podo yo - all shops are closed

al jampi podola - the mall has been set fire to

The word al in many instances it can be translated with the impersonal use of the word "they" as in "they say trainsurfing tends to be a bad idea" or "they said it could never be done". With this in mind, the phrases above can be read as:

al kuka - they predicted it

al kai podo yo - they closed all the shops

al jampi podola - they set fire to the mall

To understand the difference between an personal "they" and an impersonal one, compare:

Yunyo ka en rupunto la bandola

They (i.e. a specific group of people) say there are riots in the center.

Al ka en rupunto la bandola

They (i.e. rumours, reports, gossip) say there are riots in the center

The words al is more diverse than this however. It can be described as an "impersonal pronoun", meaning a pronoun not referring to a known or specific person or persons. More examples of it's use are:

 al minza nia - my car was stolen / they stole my caral cheche simbu mimia - the boy was beaten to deathal nong tengi jesa ako yun kochi - you can't judge a book by it's coveral jo en bau janja jaru meo - it is known dogs tend to fight with cats al jo uyu yun lulanyo - a man is known by the company he keeps al puyun shiren chumun abas - the end justifies the means   nia - carcheche - to beat, hit repeatedlymimia - to killjesa - to judge, have an opinion aboutkochi - coverlulanyo  - companypuyun  - to justifyshiren - method, meansabas - end

Take for example the proverb al nong tengi yun kochi jesa kaiko "you can't judge a book by it's cover". The basic pronoun for the English word "you" is li. Then, why isn't it used?

This is because the "you" in the proverb "you can't judge a book by it's cover" does not refer to someone or in particular, as is the case in a sentence like "You ate pie" (Li kiza kichi) or "Come here you!" (De lo, li!). The "you" in the proverb can be replaced by a word like "one" or "they" to express the same impersonal principle. This priciple causes Kah counterpart of the following saying to use al as well:

Al nong tengi mau nentoza mau tompale

one not can also feast also get rich

One cannot both feast and get rich

8.2  Titom

 Dainah: -Haya? Hamun? Tiso nong kwi bon!Dana: -What? Why? It is not raining yet!...

In the snippet of conversation above, Dana uses the words tiso nong kwi bon  to say "It is not raining yet". The more basic phrase tiso bon can be translated literally as "rain falls".

In an English sentence like "it's raining", it remains unclear what exactly is raining. The "it" does not refer to something in particular. Kah does not have so called "dummy pronouns". Compare the following phrases:

 tiso bon - it's raining mwere bon - it's snowing tikos bon - it's hailing tihum fum  - it's blowing nin dindi  - it's sunny amam dindi  - the moon is shining lai sham  - it's hot (here) achi ven  - it's cold outside mwere - snow tikos  - hail tihum  - wind fum  - to blow nin  - sun dindi  - to shine amam  - moon achi  - outside, the outside

Similary, the English phrase "it's five o'clock" is translated as ata rio na jom, or "the time is five o'clock". Also compare the following temporal expressions:

 haya rio? - what time is it? ata rio na nini sun - it's twelve o'clock  haya anin? - what day is it? anin Teota - it's Saturday haya ninka? - what's the date? ninka Vaimaro na sunini  - it's June 20th haya tiro? - what year is it? tiro sumpol sasta  - it's 2009 anin  - day ninka - date

 Dainah: -Ahana je tinti paza?Dana: -Which one do you think we should buy?Ben: -Nia hana chauku leza?Ben: -Which car were you just holding? Dainah: -Anyu. Dana: -The orange one.Ben: -Simbu keju nia na fifi hen lo, nong nyuvu hen lo.Ben: -It's a new toy car the boy wants, not a new carrot. Dainah: -Nia nyu nong nen ha? Echu afoyam ha?Dana: -An orange car won't do? So what about pink one then?Ben: -Simbu lo nentoza senchuto, nong simwana lo. Nong keju nia foyam.Ben: -The boy is celebrating, not the girl. He doesn't want a pink car. Dainah: -Nen, tontoye asaska wau ke yonen.Dana: -Okay, then this blue one would be perfectBen: -Yonen, nia saska tos usenchuto.Ben: -Perfect, a blue car for our birthday boy. Dainah: -Ha usita lo la nentoza eom unaita?Dana: -Say is it the little one that is celebrating or the big one?...

 ahana - which one? hana - which? leza - to hold anyu  - the orange one fifi - to play hen - new nyuvu - carrot nyu - orange afoyam - the pink one simbu - boy nentoza - to celebrate, feast senchuto - birthday simwana - girl foyam - pink asaska - the blue one yonen - perfect saska - blue tos - for, about, concerning usenchuto - person celebrating his or her birthday usita - the young or little one unaita - the old or big one

A couple of words for colors came up in this section: nyu for "orange", foyam for "pink" and saska for "blue". More color terms in Kah are:

 sol bes lam saska susan foyam pesan rai yam saska lam jin nyu

The words saska lam literally mean "white blue" or "light blue". Similarly the word sol or "black, dark" can be added to saska in order to form saska sol or "dark blue". More of these combinations are:

 pesan lam - light green pesan sol  - dark green jin lam  - light yellow jin sol  - dark yellow yam lam - light red yam sol - dark red rai lam - light brown, beige rai sol  - dark brown

Color terms got marked by a prefix a-  a couple of times in the conversation: anyu means "the orange one". The a-prefix makes a noun from the word it is added to. This noun denotes an object or an action:

 saska - bluewan - bigpya - to jumpkuka - to predictla  - to be at asaska - the blue oneawan  - the big oneapya - leapakuka - predictionala  - place

Another prefix much like it, i-,  turns words to nouns as well, but these nouns describe states:

 saska - bluewan - bigdia - freewi - much, many isaska - bluenessiwan - sizeidia - freedomiwi - quantityihai  - life

Compare the difference between the a- and i- prefix:

 anyu gele tiothe orange one (i.e. car, motorbike, something substantial) is the fastestinyu na kwesho wau la jampi yumbonumthe orange (i.e. the state, the color) of this website is burning my retinasgele - fast, capable of considerable speedtio - to surpass all, be the best inkwesho - websiteyumbonum - retina

Furthermore we encountered the au- prefix in the previous lesson in the word audo. This prefix denotes a noun that is the result of an action or "thing that has been...". In order to show you what this means in practice, compare the following examples:

 -do-   build, construct-ko-   writing-tan-  picture-tol-  to wrap, swathe audo - building "thing that has been built"auko - text "thing that has been written"autan - drawing "thing that has been pictured"autol - scroll, roll "thing that has been rolled"

Then there is a prefix -u turning words into nouns denoting an animate being, such as a human being or an animal:

 nai - longMajara - Hungarianjetum - brilliantfiti - to winmumpo - to sell unai - snakeUmajara - Hungarian (person)ujetum - geniusufiti - winnerumumpo - vendor

And lastly there is the prefix wo- denoting an animate being having undergone or undergoing some action:

 fono - to accusezayun - to test-nyo-  collectivekwara - to gather, assemble wofono - the accused (person)wozayun - guinea pigwonyo - group, partywokwara - assembly

8.3  Tiro hiwi le?

 Dainah: -Uhana usenchoto ha?Dana: -Which one is the birthday boy again?Ben: -Simbu le tiro vai lai.Ben: -The six year old boy over there. Dainah: -Nong tengi weyun. Uyo la lilia kwala. Dana: -I can't see him. There all squirming together.Ben: -Nong tengi wehim mau? Le kika sil wi.Ben: -Can't you hear him either? He has a very shrill voice. Dainah: -Uyo la wanka. Hashi ke tengi wehim ukwa sisi? Uyo la wanka, pya, papya ai le kika silDana: -They're all yelling. How could I be able to hear only one? They are all yelling, jumping, hopping and have a shrill voice.Ben: -Wu nyeka sisi en ben nong le.Ben: -I am just so glad I don't have kids. Dainah: -Sus lo! Mea ke wehim!Dana: -Be quiet! Your sister will hear you!Ben: -Oi deka yu, deka senka!Ben: -Come on, call him, call his name! Dainah: -Haya senka wai?Dana: -What was his name again?Ben: -Haya lo?Ben: -What?! Dainah: -Ahau sisi. Jash zai, de lo!Dana: -Just kidding. Josh honey, come here!Jash: -Luba Ben! Luba Dainah! Haya deza wa? Haya?Josh: -Uncle Ben! Uncle Dana! What did you bring me? What? Ben: -La kuta, ka en tiro hawi pauza?Ben: -First, tell me how old you have become?Jash: -Tiro vai le tau. Li ha?Josh: -I'm six years old now. What about you? Dainah: -Wu wanta yu!Dana: -Oh he's so old!Ben: -Sunini sasta sisi le.Ben: -I'm only twenty nine. Dainah: -Nong him yu. Tato pan kwa ze kwa yu pauza tiro sunini sasta la tau.Dana: -Don't listen to him He turned twenty nine four times in a row by now....

 uhana? - which one? which person? lai - there, over there lilia - to quirm kwala  - together kika - voice sil - shrill wanka - to yell, scream pya - to jump papya - to hop, jump up and down deka - to call, summon ahau - joke luba - uncle deza - to bring kuta - beginning la kuta - in the beginning, to start with, first pauza - to receive, get wanta - old him - to listen tato - time kwa ze kwa - one after another, in a row

In the previous conversation Josh says:

Jash: -Tiro vai le tau.

Josh: -I'm six years old now.

Yet earlier a similar sentence regarding someone's age read:So apparently there are two ways to state one's age. What's the difference?

(wa) le tiro sasta - (I) am ten years old

tiro sasta (wa) le - (I) am ten years old

When it comes to the semantic load, both express pretty much the same. The only difference is the topic. In the first sentence the person is the main subject, whereas the second sentence focuses on the age.

This is called topic-marking. The element the sentence revolves around in meaning, what it is all about in the conversation, is placed in the beginning of the sentence. In the following sentences the topic is underlined:

 tiro sasta le -  he is nine years oldremos keju -  I want icecreamhaya weyun? -  what did you see?hata denu de? -  when will you be coming?kaiko wau nenju tio -  I like this book best.ahana tinti paza? -  Which one should we buy?yayang jo -  I don't know anythingyuyung wa -  I'm nobody

Please notice the difference in meaning between groups of sentences like:

uba paza wa fia -  father bought me a toy

uba lo paza wa fia -  it was father who bought me a toy

fia uba paza wa -  father bought me a toy

uba paza wa fia lo -  it was a toy father bought me

uba paza wa lo fia -  it was me father bought a toy for

Just like anything in Kah, the earlier context is vital. Take the following sentences and context for example:

 bua hawi le? -  how many brothers do you have?bua sun le -  I have two brothersbua nong le, li ha? -  I have no brothers, what about you?le bua sun -  I have two brothersmea le ha? -  do you have any sisters?bua sisi le -  I only have brothersvawana umukwan le? -  does the teacher have a wife?vawana le -  he does have a wifeumukwan nong le vawana ha? -  doesn't the teacher have a wife?eo le vawana -  he does have a wifehaya la kwan? -  what are you studying?Arabaka la kwan -  I'm studying Arabicla kwan ha? -  are you studying?la kwan Arabaka -  I'm studying Arabic

Although topicalization is an aspect of the Kah language which requires a certain sensitivity to the feel of the language, not quite mastering in will not affect the comprehensability of the speaker. Whether one has the sense to answer a question tiro hiwi le? with the age topicalized (tiro sunini le) or not (wa le tiro sunini), the basic meaning will come through in most cases. The bottom line is word order in Kah is flexible as can be.

However, in cases where topicalization itself could confuse the meaning of a sentence, an additional marker be can be placed directly after the topic:

 Merih Jan nenju -  John loves Mary / Mary loves JohnMerih be Jan nenju -  John loves Mary / *Mary loves Johnhayu weyun -  who did you see? / who saw it?hayu be weyun? -  who did you see? / *who saw it?haya mun? -  what did you cause? / what caused it? haya be mun? -  what did you cause? / *what caused it?