All Answers are to be in Purple text

Documents for the first 6 questions are to be found on my website. It is called Handout-Documents Lowell Mills

Station 1: Lowell Bill of Mortality 1846 (Additional information)

Read through these definitions of some of the more common causes of death during the Industrial Revolution.

Asthma: illness that causes lungs to sell and narrow. Can be triggered by environment.

Cholera: Infection of small intestine, causes diarrhea and vomiting. Can lead to severe dehydration. Very contagious.  Can be spread through water.

Consumption, also known as Tuberculosis – infection in lungs, coughing up blood. Very contagious.

Croup: Infection in lungs, difficulty breathing, air passage is difficult. VERY contagious.

Whooping cough: Bacterial disease that causes uncontrollable violent coughing. Very contagious.

Measles: Virus disease infecting respiratory system. Causes high fever, rash, and runny nose/eyes. VERY contagious.

Typhoid fever: disease passed through contaminated drink, food. Causes fever, severe diarrhea, and rash. Very contagious.  Can be spread through water.

Life in Lowell Station Activity.

Directions in your groups you will be rotating around and looking at a variety of primary sources today that are related to life in Lowell. The purpose of this activity is for you draw conclusions of what life was like based on what you see from the images, numbers, and texts that are available to you. Work with care and focus. Help your partners out and try to come up with compelling follow-up questions that show real active thinking. The goal is for you to start at a station and rotate every 6-8 minutes. You must use your time wisely.

Document #1: Lowell Bill of Mortality - 1846

  1. Which illness was the biggest threat to children under the age of 5? _                        Scarlet was one of the illnesses that was a threat to the children.
  2. Which illness was most common for adults between ages of 15-30

        The typhoid fever was one of the common ones between ages 15-30.

  1. Which illness was the 2nd most common for adults between the ages of 15-30? 

        Consumption was the 2nd most common for adults.

  1. Thinking about what you know of life in Lowell for the mill girls and other workers of the Industrial Revolution, how might their living and working conditions perhaps play a role in why these diseases were often the cause of death?Because of the increase of breathing dangerous particles in the air it increases the chance of diseases.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                
  2. What two additional questions do you have from looking at this primary source? Two additional ones is that Consumption killed more people than any other illness and mostly females died of these illnesses.                                                                                                                                                                                                        

Document #2: An Idyl of Work (idyl = short poem)

1. One member of the group should read the whole poem aloud to the rest of the group.

2.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the SOUNDS                                                         Great groaning wheels and spindles buzzing are some sounds.                                                                                                

3.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the machines of the mills:                                A carding room with great groaning wheels and spindles buzzing like ten thousand bees are phrases that capture machines of the mills.                                                                                                                

4.  Identify 2 phrases that capture the people of the mills:                                Hands and eyes following the shuttles light and arms hand and heads,moved with the moving looms are phrases of people in the mills.                                                                                                                

6.   Read the last 2 lines of the poem “Arms, hands, and heads, moved with the moving looms, That closed them in as if all were one shape, One motion.” What do you think this means?   It means that the people were moving and working in the same way.                                                                                

Document #3: Review the Regulations of the Amoskeag Manufacturing Company. Pay particular attention to the section highlighted.

What are 3-4 rules that the employees of the mill must follow to keep their jobs?  For each rule, why do you think this rule was important to the mill owners?

7. Rule 1

Why is it important to mill owner?

Its important because he wants no one to stay while the workers are busy at work.

Rule 2

Why is it important to mill owner?

Its important because he doesńt want anyone that is not responsible for themselves.

Rule 3

Why is it important to mill owner?

Its important because the mill owner doesn't want any delays in workers coming to work.

Rule 4

Why is it important to mill owner?

Its important because the mill owner wants everyone to avoid getting sick.

Document #4: Time Table of the Lowell Mills

8. According to the first line, how many hours a day are workers supposed to work in 1853?  They are suppose to work over 12 hours per day.

9. Look at the schedule from March to September.  

  1. What time does work start?At 6:30A.M    When does it end?It ends at 6:30 P.M
  2. How much time do they have for lunch (called dinner in the 1840s)?

They have 45 minutes  to eat lunch in the 1840s.

  1. What might be difficult about having lunch in that time? (think about where lunch might be) It might affect the way they work if they have low energy and its late.

10. Look at the section entitled “Bells”

  1. From March to September, what time does the first bell ring to wake girls up? It wakes them up at 4:30 A.M.
  2. Why are there two other times for morning bells?There are two so the adults can wake up as well.
  3. Think—Why would the mills need two different schedules, March- September and September to March? because it probably the times when cotton is harvested during those monthly periods.                                                                                
  4. How is the Saturday schedule different? Its different because it is a shorter day because people must have at least the day off.                                                                                                                                                

11. What two additional questions do you have from looking at this primary source?  One is that the schedule is very complex and has certain days in it don't get and second is that way is lunch time dinner in the schedule.                                                                                                                                                                                                

Document #5: Ladies’ Fur Store and J.H. Kimball Retailer Advertisements (these were advertisements made in local Lowell newspapers)

12. What do these sources tell you about life in Lowell for the people who lived there?  It tells me that life in Lowell fro people is very busy and has a lot of businesses.                                                                                                                                                                                                

13. Looking closely at the ads, who do you think are the potential customers for these stores? How do you know?  Mostly rich people who can afford the items in the stores.                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                

14. Add at least 2 other observations/connections _                                                Two observations was that they had advertisements about imported guns and on the top they sold furs 1 dollar to 50 dollars.                                                                                                

Document #6: I Cannot Be a Slave.

15. Read the document, beginning with the ‘typical early morning scene in the boarding house’.

16. What happened in 1836 in Lowell?  _                                                                The employers cut the wages in the factory and the girls in the factory are not happy.                                                                                                                                                                                        

17. What do the lyrics of the song suggest?                                                 It suggest that the girl must be paid higher wages or they will make a protest.                                                                                                        

Document 7

The following is an excerpt from William Cooper's testimony before the Sadler Committee in 1832.  The committee, led by Michael Sadler, investigated working conditions in factories and mills.  

Sadler:  What is your age?

Cooper:  I am eight and twenty.

Sadler:  When did you first begin to work in the mills?

Cooper:  When I was ten years of age.

Sadler:  What were your usual hours of working?

Cooper:  We began at five in the morning and stopped at nine in the night.

Sadler:  What time did you have for meals?

Cooper:  We had just one period of 40 minutes in the 16 hours.  That was at noon.

Sadler:  What means were taken to keep you awake and attentive?

Cooper:  At times we were frequently strapped (whipped).

Sadler:  When your hours were so long, did you have time to attend school?

Cooper:  We had no time to go to school.

Sadler:  Can you read and write?

Cooper:  I can read, but I cannot write.

18.  Describe work conditions in the factory based on the testimony.

Its very poor and people are not treated as well in them.

19. How did the Industrial Revolution affect children working in the mills

It affected their learning in school and writing.

Document 8

The following is an excerpt from the testimony of textile worker Joseph Hebergam to the Sadler Committee.

Sadler:  What is the nature of your illness?

Hebergam:  I have damaged lungs.  My leg muscles do not function properly and will not

                support the weight of my bones.

Sadler:  A doctor has told you that you will die within the year, is that correct?

Hebergam:  I have been so told.

Sadler:  Did he tell you the cause of your illness?

Hebergam:  He told me that it was caused by dust in the factories and from overwork and insufficient diet.

Sadler:  To what was your brother's death attributed?

Hebergam:  He was cut by a machine and died of infection.

20. Explain in Detail how  factory conditions impact the health of some workers?

The factory condition were very dusty the air was polluted in which it caused many of the people to get sick and die.

21. Based on the photograph above, describe in detail  the work conditions for factory employees. Very dirty,dusty,and very hot. 

22. What impact did the Industrial Revolution have on the environment?  It affected the environment around it and polluted the air and water around it.