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UNIT 1 DEVELOPING THE PERIODIC TABLE

VIDEO 1 BEFORE CHEMISTRY

VIDEO 2 CAVENDISH

VIDEO 3 PRIESTLEY DISCOVERS DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR (OXYGEN)

VIDEO 4 LAVOISIER NAMES HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

VIDEO 5 UNDERSTANDING COMBUSTION

VIDEO 6 DAVY DISCOVERS SODIUM

VIDEO 7 DALTON’S ATOMIC MODEL

VIDEO 8 MENDELEEV CREATES FIRST PERIODIC TABLE

UNIT 2 THE ELECTRICAL NATURE OF MATTER

VIDEO 1  FRANKLIN DEFINES POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE CHARGE

VIDEO 2  J.J. THOMSON DISCOVERS THE ELECTRON

VIDEO 3  RUTHERFORD DISCOVERS THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS

VIDEO 4  FURTHER REFINEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC MODEL

VIDEO 1 BEFORE CHEMISTRY

Image 1a Alchemist equipment

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alchemist_Filling_Wet_Drug_Jars_FA_2000.001.282.jp

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Image 2a Alchemist equipment 2  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:An_elderly_alchemist_sitting_next_to_his_equipment._Engravin_Wellcome_V0025557.jpg

Image 3a Alchemist equipment 3 https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jabir_ibn_Hayyan#/media/File:Jabir_ibn_Hayyan_Geber,_Arabian_alchemist_Wellcome_L0005558.jpg

Image 1  Alchemist painting         Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 2  Drawing of Earth and the heavens     Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 3  Aristotle bust     Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 4  Second depiction of Earth and heavens    Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 5 Drawing of alchemist in his laboratory     Public Domain {PD-US}}

Image 6  Painting of alchemist in his laboratory  Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 7   Gold ore        JamesSt. John   (click name)

Red Lake Gold Ore - gold                 stockwork in biotite-carbonate altered, partially silicified                 metabasalt, Red Lake Mine, Ontario, Canada 2  cc

Image 8  Silver ore     Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 9  Copper ore.   Jonathan Zander  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Natural_Copper_Ore_Macro_1.JPG

Image 10    Copper ore   https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/17651885734   James St. John (click name)    Bornite (latest Cretaceous to earliest Tertiary, 62-66 Ma; Butte Mining District, Montana, USA) 3  cc

Image 11  Copper penny    Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 12   Tin ore    Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 13  Tin metal https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tin-2.jpg  This file is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported license.     Jurii

Image 14   Bronze helmet   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ancient_Greek_Bronze_Helmet.jpg    Attribution-Share Alike 2.0 Generic license                           Claire H.

Image 15  Iron ore. Peter Craven  (click name) Washed iron ore from M2500   cc  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdeimages/6324888205/in/photolist-aCUGUD-ctfQN7-bFbBxK-6juDu-6F7Fqg-bQWRDT-5yoNr-o75dxe-cPunKA-aaGXfR-ojZbWu-q6HmpL-aaKwvm-6NkCZp-bAgF5v-fEhXQW-fEhqnh-5WA888-6Tqg7k-6LiUd9-9X4sWw-fDE7Gg-dJhTp8-fDWMaQ-8JTPNX-CVJGoV-oPHJJW-aCWuc8-pTpQc-s92Y4-aoPAeg-cRiPEm-DdXtfA-8RP4Pf-rduat6-abp96t-6hnqs9-f5h3wG-abp92H-aCWw3v-gV7uWc-ptLy5N-qcjRxq-aCYuMf-aCWhJp-dLq5Bp-aCWpc8-8Tk3hb-aD19FA-7jU2ENtarget=%22_blank%22/ This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 2.0 UK: England & Wales License

Image 16  Iron smelting on small scale     Hans Splinter  (click name)   Iron Smelting  https://www.flickr.com/photos/archeon/5079901751 Creative Commons

Image 17   Iron bars      Photo by user:geni     https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iron_bar_currency.JPG

Image 18   Home made iron smelter     Hans Splinter  Attribution-NoDerivs 2.0 Generic (CC BY-ND 2.0)

VIDEO 2 CAVENDISH

Image 1   Copper penny {PD-us}

Image 2   Copper ore   https://www.flickr.com/photos/jsjgeology/17651885734

Image 3 Tin metal    Jurii   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Tin-2.jpg

Image 4  Tin ore Public Domain {PD-US}

Image 5   Iron bars   Photo by user:geni       https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Iron_bar_currency.JPG

Image 6 Iron ore.     Peter Craven  (click name)  https://www.flickr.com/photos/cdeimages/6324888205/in/photolist-aCUGUD-ctfQN7-bFbBxK-6juDu-6F7Fqg-bQWRDT-5yoNr-o75dxe-cPunKA-aaGXfR-ojZbWu-q6HmpL-aaKwvm-6NkCZp-bAgF5v-fEhXQW-fEhqnh-5WA888-6Tqg7k-6LiUd9-9X4sWw-fDE7Gg-dJhTp8-fDWMaQ-8JTPNX-CVJGoV-oPHJJW-aCWuc8-pTpQc-s92Y4-aoPAeg-cRiPEm-DdXtfA-8RP4Pf-rduat6-abp96t-6hnqs9-f5h3wG-abp92H-aCWw3v-gV7uWc-ptLy5N-qcjRxq-aCYuMf-aCWhJp-dLq5Bp-aCWpc8-8Tk3hb-aD19FA-7jU2ENtarget=%22_blank%22/

Image 7 (video)   Iron filings in a flame.     https://youtu.be/DHWoniaWmpw     https://www.youtube.com/user/turk4lyf007

Image 8  Cavendish lab set-up to create hydrogen from acid and metals    Public Domain {PD-US}

VIDEO 3 PRIESTLEY DISCOVERS DEPHLOGISTICATED AIR (OXYGEN)

Image 1  Portrait of Joseph Priestly      https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Priestley.jpg

Image 2  Mercury video by Jeff Taofledermaus CC

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kMR5KbNZ7b8

https://www.youtube.com/user/taofledermaus

Image 3  Mercury oxide  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_lead.jpg


Image 4 (video)  Heating mercury oxide to produce mercury metal

Ali Mirrajei  https://youtu.be/k4dIL0wPvEI 

https://www.youtube.com/user/247Chemist

Image 5 (video)  Exploding 3 balloons.       https://youtu.be/a6qGIMqDKwA?t=57

Published on Aug 13, 2012  eCHEM 1A: Online General Chemistry   https://www.youtube.com/user/UCBerkeley

College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley  http://chemistry.berkeley.edu/echem1a

VIDEO 4 LAVOISIER NAMES HYDROGEN AND OXYGEN

Image 1 Antoine Lavoisier  http://portrait.kaar.at/Naturwissenschaftler%20Teil%202/image42.html
Author:        Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825) Link back to Creator infobox template wikidata:Q83155
     James Caldwall (1739-1822) ?
Permission (Reusing this file)        Public domain.This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.

Image 2   Description:  Lavoisier's Laboratory, Musée des Arts et Métiers, Paris:Pneumatic chemistry two gazomèters     Date        17 August 2010  Source Own work        Author        Edal Anton Lefterov

Image 3  Description:  Lavoisier’s lab http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Lavoisier.html Larger copy from http://jn.nutrition.org/content/133/3/638/F1.large.jpg       Licensing: Public domain        
This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.

Image 4   Artist: Jacques-Louis David (1748–1825) https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:David_-_Portrait_of_Monsieur_Lavoisier_and_His_Wife.jpg 

Image 5   Description:Hand sketch engraving made by madamme Lavoisier in the 18th century featured in "Traité élémentaire de chimie" retrieved from http://mattson.creighton.edu/History_Gas_Chemistry/Lavoisier.html

Image 6  Sketch of experiment separating hydrogen and oxygen in water                               Traité élémentaire de chimie - Lavoisier - Tom. I Pl. VII Fig. 11


Image 7 (Video)  

From “Einstein’s Big Idea” produced by WGBH    https://youtu.be/VU9bnYW-DAU

VIDEO 5 UNDERSTANDING COMBUSTION

Image 1 (video)  Exploding 3 balloons.        https://youtu.be/a6qGIMqDKwA?t=57

Published on Aug 13, 2012   eCHEM 1A: Online General Chemistry

College of Chemistry, University of California, Berkeley    http://chemistry.berkeley.edu/echem1a

Image 2    Mercury oxide  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Red_lead.jpg

Image 3  Antoine Lavoisier, Public domain

Image 4 Photosynthesis  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Photosynthesis_Images.jpg

VIDEO 6   DAVY DISCOVERS SODIUM

Image 1   Early voltaic cells (battery)  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VoltaBattery.JPG

Image 2  

Description:  Portrait of Humphry Davy  LA2-NSRW-4-0221.jpg


Image 3  Hydrolysis of Salt   "Chemical Principles/Atoms, Molecules, and Ions."   https://en.wikibooks.org/wiki/File:Chemical_Principles_Fig_1.8.png

Image 4     Chlorine gas  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chlorinegas.jpg

Image 5   Sodium metal   Sodium metal from the Dennis s.k collection. Selfmade photo taken 12/12-07

Image 6  Ashes   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Spodomancy_on_white_paper_-_thin_ashes_01.jpg

Image 7  Magnesium     https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magnesium.jpg

Image 8  Calcium metal    https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calcium_unter_Argon_Schutzgasatmosph%C3%A4re.jpg

Image 9 Bromine    http://images-of-elements.com/bromine.php     Attribution 3.0 Unported License

Image 10    Portrait of John Dalton

This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID     http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b12511/

VIDEO 7 DALTON’S ATOMIC MODEL

Image 1 Portrait of John Dalton    This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID     http://loc.gov/pictures/resource/cph.3b12511/

Image 2  Dalton’s list of symbols for known elements     Public domain  {PD-US}        
The author died in 1844, so this work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 100 years or less.
This work is in the public domain in the United States because it was published (or registered with the U.S.

Copyright Office) before January 1, 1923.

Image 3

Dalton’s estimates of relative atomic masses of known elements.
Public domain        .  
{PD-US 1923}

Image 4

Daltons diagrams of molecules created from known elements
Public domain        
{PD-US 1923}

Image 5

Amedeo Avogadro portrait        
Public domain        
{PD-US 1923}

Image 6  Dimitri Mendeleev   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dmitri_Mendeleev.jpg


VIDEO 8 MENDELEEV CREATES FIRST PERIODIC TABLE

Image 1

Dalton’s portrait

This image is available from the United States Library of Congress's Prints and Photographs division under the digital ID cph.3b12511.

Image 2  Amedeo Avogadro portrait        https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Avogadro_Amedeo.jpg

Image 3   Dimitri Mendeleev   https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Dmitri_Mendeleev.jpg

Image 4

Mendeleev at his desk  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:DIMendeleevCab.jpg

Image 5  Magnesium      https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Magnesium.jpg

Image 6  Calcium metal  https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Calcium_unter_Argon_Schutzgasatmosph%C3%A4re.jpg

Image 7 Periodic Table      Published by Sargent Welch VWR International Copyright 2007

  https://www.sargentwelch.com/store/product/8882208/chart-atomic-french-100-pk

www.sargentwelch.com 

Image 8  Mendeleev’s first periodic table  {PD-US}

This work is in the public domain in its country of origin and other countries and areas where the copyright term is the author's life plus 70 years or less.

Image 9

Plumb Pudding Model

https://askeyphysics.org/2015/01/25/119-12315-con-of-mom/plum-pudding-model-thomson/

VIDEO 1  FRANKLIN DEFINES POSITIVE AND NEGATIVE ELECTRICAL CHARGE

Image 1

Periodic Table (Sargent Welch)

Copyright 2007

www.sargentwelch.com 

This is the best table on the market, since it contains so much information on each element.

Image 2

Collecting sodium from molten sodium chloride

Source: Boundless. “Electrolysis of Sodium Chloride.” https://www.boundless.com/chemistry/textbooks/boundless-chemistry-textbook/electrochemistry-18/electrolysis-132/electrolysis-of-sodium-chloride-529-3650/

Image 3  Portrait of Benjamin Franklin

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Franklin-Benjamin-LOC-head.jpeg

Image 4 ( Video)Electrostatic demonstration by David Roberts                www.quantumboffin.com   Search for electrostatic demonstration on his web site.

Image 5 Portrait of J.J. Thomson

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:J.J_Thomson.jpg   {PD-US 1923}

Image 6  Cathode ray tube drawing

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_tube.png

VIDEO 2   J.J. THOMSON DISCOVERS THE ELECTRON

Image 1  Portrait of English physicist J J Thomson

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:J.J_Thomson.jpg   {PD-US 1923}


Image 2

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_tube.png

Image 3    Luigi Galvani

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Luigi_galvani.jpg       {PD-US 1923}

Image 4  Holding dissimilar metals on frog muscle.

File:LA2-NSRW-4-0221.jpg                               {PD-US 1923}

Image 5        
Alessandro Giuseppe Antonio Anastasio Volta
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alessandro_Volta.jpeg       {PD-1996}

Image 6  Early Volta battery

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:VoltaBattery.JPG 

Image 7  Portrait of Humphry Davy

This file has been extracted from another file: LA2-NSRW-4-0221.jpg


Image 8  
Carbon arc powered by voltaic cells

To Fred Meshna: easyaspi.org

The Edison Tech Center grants you a lifetime license to use the Edison Tech Center graphic of a voltaic pile powering a carbon arc lamp in consideration for Edison Tech Center getting credit and for telling educators about the Edison Tech Center website edisontechcenter.org.

--Craig Cantello, Edison Tech Center Manager     Email:   info@edisontechcenter.org

Image 9  Bright light from carbon arc.

https://youtu.be/8RHBuvl5GO4

Image 10  Carbon Arc Streetlights        
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Yablochkov_candles_illuminating_Avenue_de_l%27Opera_ca1878.jpg

Image 11   Carbon arc lamp design

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Angold_arc_lamp,_1898_(Forty_Years_of_Electrical_Progress).jpg

Image 12       Crookes Tube showing a beam of electrons being deflected by a magnet.
https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crookes_magnetic_deflection_tube.png   {PD-1923}

Image 13  Geisler tube

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cabinet_V_-_Geissler_tubes_1862.jpg

Image 14   Heinrich Geissler    

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Heinrich_Geissler.jpg

Image 15   Discharge tube with hydrogen

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Deuterium_discharge_tube.jpg

Image 16     Gas discharge tube with He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Edelgase_in_Entladungsroehren.jpg

Image 17    William Crookes

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_William_Crookes_1906.jpg    {PD-1923}

Image 18  Dark region under low gas pressure.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Glow_discharge_regions.jpg

Image 19  Crookes tube with Iron Cross.  Tube only glows at the end

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crookes_tube-in_use-lateral_view-standing_cross_prPNr%C2%B011.jpg

Image 20 Crookes tube with Iron Cross.  Front view

https://youtu.be/Xt7ZWEDZ_GI

Image 21  Drawing of cathode ray tube.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_tube.png

Image 22   Drawing of cathode ray tube showing the spot where rays strike the end of the tube.

https://youtu.be/GzMh4q-2HjM

Image 23  Drawing of cathode ray tube showing deflection coils and fluorescent screen

https://commons.wikimedhttps://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_tube_2.pngia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_Tube.PNG

Image 24  Drawing of cathode ray deflection between negative and positive plates.

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cathode_ray_tube_2.png

Image 25  Cathode ray tube with magnetic and electric field deflection

 Image from Openstax, CC BY 4.0.  

Image 26  Thomson’s plum pudding model

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Plum_pudding_model.svg

Image 27  Plumb pudding https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Jersey_Christmas_pudding_pod%C3%AEn_d%27flieu.j

VIDEO 3  RUTHERFORD DISCOVERS THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS

Image 1     Portrait of Ernest Rutherford

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Rutherford_LOC.jpg

Image 2   The atom

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Atom_diagram.png

Image 3 Gold Foil Experiment

http://m.teachastronomy.com/astropedia/article/The-Structure-of-the-Atom

Astropedia by Astropedia/Chris Impey is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs 3.0 Unported License

Image 4  Alpha particle

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alpha_Decay.svg

Image 5  Young Rutherford

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Rutherford_1892.jpg

Image 6  The Cavendish

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:The_Cavendish_Laboratory_-_geograph.org.uk_-_631839.jpg

Image 7  The Cavendish lab

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_Ernest_Rutherfords_laboratory,_early_20th_century._(9660575343).jpg

Image 8 Wilhelm Roentgen

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Roentgen2.jpg

Image 9 Roentgen discovers x rays

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qVn3mgt8Two

Image 10  Experiments with x rays

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Crookes_tube_xray_experiment.jpg

Image 11  x ray of hand

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:X-ray_by_Wilhelm_R%C3%B6ntgen_of_Albert_von_K%C3%B6lliker%27s_hand_-_18960123-02.jpg

Image 12  Henri Becquerel

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Portrait_of_Antoine-Henri_Becquerel.jpg

Image 13   Becquerel in his lab

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Becquerel_in_the_lab.jpg

Image 14  Rutherford at the end of his first time at the Cavendish lab

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Rutherford_1908.jpg

Image 15   Diagram of Rutherford’s experimental setup.  

http://www.chemteam.info/Chem-History/Rutherford-Alpha&Beta.html  

Image 16 McGill University

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:McGill_Arts_Building2.jpg

Image 17  Rutherford in his lab

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Ernest_Rutherford_1905.jpg

Image 18  Three types of radiation from Uranium deflect differently through charged plates

https://opentextbc.ca/chemistry/chapter/21-3-radioactive-decay/

Image 19 Penetrating power of alpha, gamma and beta rays

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Alfa_beta_gamma_radiation_penetration.svg

Image 20  University of Manchester England

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:University_of_Manchester_building,_Oxford_Road_-_DSC05626.JPG

Image 21  Alpha beam diffusion through thin metal foil

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Geiger-Marsden_experiment_expectation_and_result.svg

Image 22  Hans Geiger and Ernest Marsden

https://socratic.org/questions/who-were-hans-geiger-and-ernest-marsden

Image 23  Gold Foil

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Pure_Gold_Foil_(Talai_Warq_or_Sonay_Ka_Warq).JPG

Image 24.  Replica of Geiger-Marsden apparatus

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Geiger-Marsden_apparatus_photo.jpg

Image 25  Diagram of Geiger-Marsden apparatus

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Geiger-Marsden_apparatus_CGI_mock-up.png

Image 26 Top view of alpha particle deflection in gold foil experiment

http://nsb.wikidot.com/pl-9-8-1-1

Image 27  Top view of Geiger-Marsden set up

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Geiger-Marsden_experiment_expectation_and_result.svg

VIDEO 4  FURTHER REFINEMENTS IN THE ATOMIC MODEL

Image1 Portrait of Rutherford

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Sir_Ernest_Rutherford.jpg

Image ? Periodic Table 1

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_table_simple_nl_bw.svg

Image ? Periodic Table 2

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Periodic_table_Goldschmidt_af.svg

Image ? Hydrogen atom

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bohr_model.jpg

Image ?  Helium atom

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Helium-Bohr.svg

Image ? Electron structure of group 1, 14, 17, 18 elements

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Figure_02_01_06.png

Image 5  James Chadwick

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:James_Chadwick.jpg

Image ?  Diagram of Chadwick’s experiment leading to the discovery of the neutron

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Chadwick_Neutron_Discovery.png

Crookes tube emitting xrays used by mosely

https://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Cosser_Crookes_xray_tube.jpg

Experimenting with Xrays

DescriptionCrookes tube xray experiment.jpg

English: Photo of experimenters taking an X-ray with an early Crookes tube apparatus, from the late 1800s. The Crookes x-ray tube is visible suspended at center. The upper man is examining the bones of his hand with a fluoroscope screen. The lower man is taking a radiograph of his hand with a photographic plate. The power source is an induction coil, seen at left, and the mechanism immediately to its right against the wall is a motor-operated 'break wheel' interrupter in the coil's primary circuit. The large flat disk on the table is a rheostat (adjustable resistor) power control to adjust the primary current to the coil. Several spare Crookes X-ray tubes are seen in a rack on the wall. The apparatus is described and diagrammed on p.88 of the source. No precautions against radiation exposure are taken; its hazards were not known at the time. The original image was half-tone. Alterations: removed frame.

Date

1896

Source

Downloaded 2007-12-23 from William J. Morton and Edwin W. Hammer (1896) The X-ray, or Photography of the Invisible and its value in Surgery, American Technical Book Co., New York, fig. 54 on Google Books

Author

William J. Morton

Permission

(Reusing this file)

Public domain - published in USA before 1923

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