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Lesson 6
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La chipola -  At the market

In the following chapter foods, adjectives, directions and some basic numerals are introduced as well of the principles of telling the time.

Yunus ai Nur la nuvu la chiponyo. Lai upopo wi la mumpo aki. Yunus yun nonoi, ano yo. La kuno, seki opizu la. Umumpo za loiki, fim ai fen shunshu tila seki ai pizu ti pedu. Jafu shu wi.

La zano, chipo na gun la. La yino, peki la. Yunus weyun sausu pesan ai sol, sefo opombo, pem wan, shoro, nyuvu, chichi ai peo wishi mau.

Yunus and Nour are walking at the market. There are many traders selling food there. Yunus is looking here and there, in all directions. Ahead, there is roasted meat. The vendors sprinkle meat with spices, salt and pepper and roast them over coal. It smells very good.

On the right side, there are fruit stands. On the left, there are vegetables. Yunus sees green and black olives, stuffed mushrooms, big potatoes, cabbages, carrots, onions and all kinds of nuts as well. 

Yunus: -Hea! Yun Nur, yun lo! Peo! Peo keju paza!

Yunus: -Hey! Look Nour, look! Nuts! I want to buy nuts!

Nur: -Nong lo! Mama ka en paza lanki ai fua sisi.

Nour: -No! Mom told us to buy rice and garlic only.

Yunus: -Eye, tente tengi paza shuki si.

Yunus: -Then, maybe we can buy a little candy.

Nur: -Nong tinza shuki mau.

Nour: -We don't need candy either. 

Yunus: -Wa eo tinza!

Yunus: -I do need it!

Nur: -Ha ho? Nong tengi hai leleng shuki?

Nour: -Really? You can not live without candy? 

Yunus: -Ke ju oyunung.

Yunus: -I'd feel neglected

Nour: -Jo ha? Ke paza li peo ai shuki mau.  

Nur: -You know what? I'll buy you nuts and candy too.

Yunus: -Ha ho?

Yunus: -Really?

Nur: -Sisi nong pombo fuku, soi.

Nour: -Just don't stuff them up your nose, will you?


 nuvu - to walk

 chipola - market

 lai - there, over there

 upopo - trader

 mumpo - to sell

 aki - food

 ano - direction

 kuno - front side

 la kuno  - in front, straight ahead

 seki - meat

 opizu - roasted

 umumpo - vendor

 za - to take, use

 loiki - herbs, spices

 fim - salt

 fen - pepper

 shunshu  - to sprinkle

 pizu - to roast

 pedu - coal

 jafu - to smell, give off a smell

 shu - sweet, nice, having a good taste

 zano - right side 

 la zano  - on the right

 chipo - stand, place where something is sold

 gun - fruit

 yino - left side

 la yino - on the left

 peki - vegetable

 sausu - olive

 pem - potato

 sefo - mushroom

 opombo - stuffed

 peo - nut

 wishi - various, all kinds of

 paza - to buy

 lanki - rice

 fua - garlic

 tente - maybe, perhaps

 shuki - candy

 si - few, little

 tinza - to need

 mau - also

 hai - to live

 leleng - without

 ke - to intend to, would, to be going to

 ju - to feel

 oyunung - neglected, ignored

 jo ha? - you know what?

 pombo - to stuff

In the previous conversation, the adjectives wi, yo, opizu, pesan, sol, opombo and wiyin were used. In every instance they were placed directly behind the noun they were modifying:

upopo wi - many traders

ano yo - all directions

seki opizu - roasted meat

sausu pesan ai sol - green and black olives

pem wan - big potatoes

sefo opombo - stuffed mushrooms

peo wiyin - various nuts

Everything modifying a noun is placed after it in Kah:

yudo ye - that house

yudo wau - this house

yudo wan - big house 

yudo yam - red house

yudo sun - two houses

yudo kwa - one, a house

yudo wi - many houses

yudo opi - the burnt house

kwando wan  - big school

dola wan - big city 

vanyo wan - large family

ben wan - big kid

meo wan - big cat

titi wan - big head

When a modifier is placed in front of a noun, the result is something resembling the X=Y effect as discussed earlier in Lesson 2. Compare the following constructions:

wan kwando - the school is big

wi ben - the children are many 

sun ben - the children are two

opi yudo - the house is burnt

sol zizi - the hair is black

yam yudo - the house is red

kwando wan - big school

ben wi - many children 

ben sun - two children

yudo opi - burnt house

zizi sol- black hair

yudo yam - red house


 6.1 Hiwi popa? Hata rio?

Numerals are put behind the noun they are modifying just like adjectives. Compare the following conversation taking place on the market at a vendor's stand:

Umumpo: -Mai nende. Haya soi?

Vendor: -Welcome. What would you like?

Nur: -Mai wai. Soi seo vai chu lanki ai fua ye.

Nour: -Hello. I would like six cups of rice and that garlic.

Umumpo: -Mai za.

Vendor: -Here you go.

Nur: -Pai li. Hawi popa?

Nour: -Thank you. How much does it cost? 

Umumpo: -Pio vai ai sumbe.

Vendor: -Six and a half bucks.

Nur: -Hu! Zapa wi! Nong, zapa vivi lo.

Nour: -Whoa! That's very expensive. No, it's too expensive really.  

Umumpo: -Zapa ha? Wa je nong! Tente li ke je pio vai nong zapa?

Vendor: -Expensive huh? I think not! Maybe you would think six bucks is not expensive?

Yunus: -Yun Nur, yun lo! Naini lai!

Yunus: -Look Nour, look! A bus over there!

Nur: -Sus lo, li!

Nour: -Be quiet, you!

Nur: -Yau, ka ha vai? Tonto ka jom, ke jeto.

Nour: -Excuse me, did you say six? If you say five, I'll think about it.

Umumpo: -Jom sisi ka ha? Hashi tinti lara hai? Le ben dia ai vawana yu kike tayo!

Vendor: -Only five you say? How am I supposed to stay alive? I have eight kids and a wife who's always hungry!

Nur: -Baba le ben sasta ai vawana pan. Mau, vama yo la dora la vado.

Nour: -My father has nine kids and four wives. Also, all his mothers in law are living in our house.

Umumpo: -Pio jom ka ha?

Vendor: -Five bucks you said?

Nur: -Mai za. Yau, jo haya rio?

Nour: -Here you go. Excuse me, do you know what time it is? 

Umumpo: -Ata rio na pan.

Vendor: -It's four o'clock

Nur: -Hu, pan kwi ha? De lo, Yunus! Tim de ge vado!

Nour: -Oh, four o'clock already? Come, Yunus! We have to go home quickly!

Umumpo: -Yau, hayu be ka?

Vendor: -Excuse me, who are you talking to?

Nur: -A, weyun bua sin ha?

Nour: -Er, have you seen my little brother?


hawi - how much?

popa - cost

seo - cup

vai - six

pio - buck, monetary unit

sumbe - half

zapa - expensive

naini - bus

lai - there, over there

tonto - if

jeto - to consider, think it over, think about it

jom - five

hashi - how?

tinti - should, supposed to, ought to

lara - stay, remain, keep

le - to have

ben - kid, child

dia - eight

kike - hungry, having an appetite

tayo - always

sasta - nine

pan - four

mau - also

vama - mother in law

dora - to live, live at

rio - hour

haya rio? - what time is it?

ata - time

ge - fast, quickly

hayu - who

be - object marker

sin - small, little

The following noun phrases containting a numeral were used in the conversation text:

wambio kwa - one kilo

pio vai ai sumbe - six and a half bucks

pio vai - six bucks

ben dia - eight kids

ben sasta - nine kids

vawana pan - four wives

The phrase "four o'clock" is expressed as rio na pan in Kah, "the hour of four". This phrases consists of the words rio "hour", na "of"  and pan "four". This in fact is an ordinal number, translating a phrase like rio na pan as "the fourth hour".  More examples of this construction are represented below:

 rio na pan  - four o'clock

 rio na kwa - one o'clock

 rio na jom - five o'clock

 Kwamaro na nini - January 10th

 tiro na teo - the seventh year

 bembu na teo na bembu na teo - seventh son of a seventh son

The basic numerals from zero to ten are represented below:

 meng - zero

 kwa - one

 sun - two

 yem - three

 pan - four

 jom - five

 vai - six

 teo - seven

 dia - eight

 sasta - nine

 nini - ten


6.2. Pesho opombo

The previous paragraphs contained a great deal of words for aki "food". More food-related vocabulary is represented below:

 kibonyo - ingredients

 zuyoko - recipe

 vosko - mix, mixture

 autol - roll

 kia - eating utensil

 kianyo - cudlery

 kichal - spoon

 tuya - knife

 kipyu - fork

 kihu - plate

 zudeo - saucepan

 piseo - wok

 huzu - frying pan

 seo - cup

 kiseo - bowl

 buseo - mortar

 kipe - chopstick

 kipenyo - pair of chopsticks

 api - fire

 zubeo - oven

 gombeo   - microwave

 janzu  - to cook, prepare food (generic)

 murum - to boil

 sawa - to fry

 gepi - to stirfry

 mumore - to melt

 mwezu - to simmer

 kwezu - to grill

 hunzu - to bake

 javen  - to chill, cool down

 jamau - to add

 tuska - to allow, let, leave

 pomporo - to stir

 bus - to crush, squash

 bubus - to mash, pound

 jara - to put, place

 monshem - to unfold

 totolu - to roll up

 kura - to proceed

 tu - to cut

 tutu - to chop up

 tichi - to smear, spread

 bobon - to pour

 otutu - chopped, chopped up

 osawa - fried

 orum - cooked

 ohunzu - baked

 omore - melted

 oven - cooled, chilled

 bio - gram

 lio  - liter

 wambio  - kilo

 sinsilio  - milliliter

 sirio  - minute

 sinsirio  - second

 tau - now

 pambe - a quarter

 sumbe - half

 ambe - part, clove

 choi - sour, acidy

 finju - salty

 fenju - spicy, hot

 von - bitter

 sau - oil, grease

 mosau  - cream

 mosana - butter

 reo  - egg

 binki - bread

 sobin - pasta, noodles

 koshum - couscous

 runso - soup

 runsoso - stock

 kiso - sauce

 nombus - jam

 lanki - rice

 sebin - soy

 vunki - wheat

 buna - corn, maize

 sepem - yam

 vonki - cassava, manioc

 shuvu - sweet potato

 rishum - sesame

 sonsu - raisin

 chom - tomato

 solpos  - eggplant

 pesapos  - cucumber

 chombus - ketchup

 fengun - bell pepper, paprika

 vuvos - peanut

 vuvosana - peanut butter

 pesau  - coconut

 kipil - banana

 was - pear

 bol - apple

 sopos  - melon

 sawas - avocado

 nunyu - orange

 poizi - dill

 pesho - leaf

 vensho - lettuce

 fansho - spinach

 mwe  - soft

 memwe  - gently

 tuntu  - thorough, thoroughly, through and through

 lum  - on the edge

 deche - until

 vu - below, under

We encountered a couple of forms starting with an o- in the vocabulary and conversations in this lesson:

opombo - stuffed

opizu - roasted

oyunung - neglected

otutu - chopped

We also saw two of these verbs without the o- , namely pombo "to stuff" and pizu "to roast". Compare:

pombo  - to stuff

opombo  - stuffed

pizu - to roast

opizu - roasted

The o- prefix turns a verb to an adjectival form called a resultative. It expresses the result of an action. Below are some examples of resultative o- forms paired with the verb they were derived from:

pombo - to stuff

pizu - to roast

yunung - to neglect, ignore

tutu - to chop, chop up

bus - to crush

ven - cold

mumpo - to sell

shunshu - to sprinkle

rum - to boil

shem - to fold

opombo - stuffed

opizu - roasted

oyunung - neglected

otutu - chopped

obus - crushed

oven - chilled, cooled

omumpo - sold

oshunshu - sprinkled

orum - boiled

oshem - folded

These o-forms behave exactly like other modifiers. Compare:

chichi wan - big onion

seki yo - all meat

sausu pan - four olives

wan chichi - the onion is big

pesan chom - the tomato is green

chichi otutu - chopped onion

seki opizu - roasted meat

sausu opombo - stuffed olives

otutu chichi - the onion is chopped

opizu chom - the tomato is roasted

Please make the following exercise:

1 ) Soi kwan kayanyo na janzu tuntu.

2 ) Soi janzu kisa na vu: 

Pesho na shoro opombo



-shoro kwa

-seo le lanki

-kichal yem le mosana

-nyuvu otutu sun

-chichi otutu sun

-bio sumbe chu sefo otutu

-fim ai fen

-kichal kwa le poizi otutu

-sio kwa chu runsoso na peki

-sio pambe chu mosau choi

-ambe chu fua sun


Murum lanki.

Tu pesho chu shoro.

Jara pesho bo zudeo le aso ofim ai murum sirio nini.

Bobon aso chu zudeo ai tuska pesho toven.

Mumore kichal yem na mosana bo huzu ai mwezu nyuvu ai chichi sirio jom.

Jamau sefo ai lara sawa sirio jom.

Pomporo lanki oven ai poizi bo ai jamau fim ai fen si.

Za pesho na shoro kwa ai monshem memwe tila kihu.

Jara vosko na sefo si lum pesho.

Shem alu sun na pesho ti vosko ai totolu pesho jam autol. Kura deche pesho yo opombo.

Tau jara autol bo zudeo ai bobon runsoso bo deche autol yo vu aso.

Murum memwe autol bo zudeo rio kwa.

Bus fua ai pomporo bo mosau. Awau kiso.

Mai kiza!