ICS Calendar Title: Theories of Truth

ICS Course Code: ICS 220510 F14

Instructor: Lambert Zuidervaart, email address: lambertz@icscanada.edu,

Office hours: Tuesdays: 5:00-6:00 pm; Wednesdays: 12:30-1:30pm

Term and Year: Tuesdays, 6:00-9:00 pm, Fall 2014

Last Updated: September 24, 2014


1. Course Description

2. Course Requirements

3. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

4. Course Texts

5. Recommended Readings

6. Office Hours

7. Presentation

8. Research Paper

9. Schedule

10. Selected Bibliography

1. Course Description

Defined by Plato as lovers of truth, philosophers have long debated what truth is. Recently they have disagreed about how important truth is. This seminar examines prominent theories of truth since 1900, as proposed by such thinkers as Pierce, Heidegger, Davidson, Putnam, and Habermas. Feminist, deflationist, and postmodernist critiques of truth theory will be considered and an alternative proposed.


The seminar is a course in systematic philosophy at the Institute for Christian Studies and occurs under the general rubric “Discourse and Society.” It is listed at ICS as ICS 220705, at the University of Toronto as PHL2089F (Seminar in Twentieth-Century Continental Philosophy: Theories of Truth), and at the Toronto School of Theology as ICT3762/6762HF.It has three learning goals:

2. Course Requirements

Seminar participants are expected to:

3. Description and Weighting of Elements to be Evaluated

The approximate weight assigned each component for the course mark is as follows:

4. Course Texts

Required Readings        Abbreviations in parentheses are used in the course schedule below.


Dewey, John. “The Significance of Logical Reconstruction.” In John Dewey, Reconstruction in Philosophy (1920), 132-60. Enlarged ed. Boston: Beacon Press, 1948. (D) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B 945 .D42 1948]

Horkheimer, Max. “On the Problem of Truth” (1935). In Max Horkheimer, Between Philosophy and Social Science: Selected Early Writings, 177-215, 404-6. Trans. G. Frederick Hunter et al. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1993. (H) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B 3279 .H8473 E25 1993]

Lynch, Michael P., ed. The Nature of Truth: Classic and Contemporary Perspectives. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2001.ISBN: 978-0262621458 (L) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD 171 .N35 2001]

Medina, José, and David Wood, eds. Truth: Engagements across Philosophical Traditions. Oxford; Malden, MA: Blackwell, 2005.ISBN: 978-1405115506 (MW) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BC 171 .T75 2005]

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “Artistic Truth.” In Lambert Zuidervaart, Artistic Truth: Aesthetics, Discourse, and Imaginative Disclosure, 118-39. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. (Z1) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BH 301.T77 Z85 2004]

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “How Not to Be an Anti-Realist: Habermas, Truth, and Justification.” In Truth Matters: Knowledge, Politics, Ethics, Religion, 23-45.Edited by Lambert Zuidervaart, Allyson Carr, Matthew Klaassen, and Ronnie Shuker. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013. (Z2) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD 171 .T78 2013]

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “Propositional and Existential Truth in Edmund Husserl’s Logical Investigations.” Unpublished manuscript, 2014. (Z3)

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “Truth and Authentication: Heidegger and Adorno in Reverse.” In Adorno and Heidegger: Philosophical Questions, 22-46. Ed. Iain Macdonald and Krzysztof Ziarek. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press, 2008. (Z4) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3279 .H49 A33 2008]

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “Truth Matters: Heidegger and Horkheimer in Dialectical Disclosure.” Telos, no. 145 (Winter 2008): 131-60. (Z5) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf]

Zuidervaart, Lambert. “Unfinished Business: Toward a Reformational Conception of Truth.” Philosophia Reformata 74 (2009): 1-20. (Z6) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: PER]

5. Recommended Readings

Allen, Barry. Truth in Philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1993. ISBN: 978-0674910911 (A) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD 171 .A3855 1993]

Kirkham, Richard L. Theories of Truth: A Critical Introduction. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1992.ISBN: 978-0262611084 (K) [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BC171 .K55 1992]

Truth Matters: Knowledge, Politics, Ethics, Religion.Edited by Lambert Zuidervaart, Allyson Carr, Matthew Klaassen, and Ronnie Shuker. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2013.ISBN: 978-0773542709(TM) ICS Library Reserve Shelf: [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD 171 .T78 2013]

6. Office Hours

Please feel free to talk to me about creating favorable conditions for your work in the seminar. I welcome spontaneous visits during my office hours, listed above. You will need to make an appointment if you want to meet at some other time.

7. Presentation

Each seminar participant will introduce at least one required reading in class. Your introduction will last about 20 minutes, depending on the number of presenters. It will summarize the reading, identify important issues in it, and state your position on these issues. You should also hand out two typed questions for us to discuss. They will help us think about the issues the reading raises. You should explain why you ask these questions and how the reading prompts them. Please keep your presentation succinct and lively, using the blackboard, photocopied handouts, computer projector, or other equipment where appropriate. Criteria for evaluation will include organization, clarity, perceptiveness, and scope.

8. Research Paper

Due Tuesday, January 20, 2015

Format: The research paper will be typed double-spaced, include footnotes or endnotes and a bibliography, and contain approximately 4000 words; papers by doctoral students will contain approximately 5000-7000 words. A typed one-page proposal will be handed in during class on October 28. The proposal should include a brief bibliography (3-5 entries) that lists the key sources for your research. Papers are due January 20, and they should be submittedas Word documents and as e-mail attachments. Be sure to make consistent use of one of the following styles for format and documentation: either The MLA Style Manual or Kate L. Turabian’s A Manual for Writers (based on The Chicago Manual of Style). On the title page of your paper, be sure to identify the style used.


Approach: The paper will state, explain, and defend your position on one question, puzzle, or problem in recent theories of truth. To accomplish this you will need to examine what other philosophers have said on your topic. Rather than simply report what others say, however, you should use their writings to develop your own position. In general, the more specific your focus, the stronger your paper will be. (Exceptions to the recommended approach should be discussed with the instructor well before the paper’s due date.)


Evaluation: I shall assess your paper according to four criteria, each of which has similar weight: research, writing, reasoning, and scope. A paper that has been properly researched will demonstrate familiarity with relevant sources and will make strategic use of these sources. A well-written paper will be free from errors of spelling, punctuation, and grammar; it will be clear, concise, imaginative, and persuasive; and it will use gender-inclusive language. A well-reasoned paper will use valid and sound arguments; it will also be open and fair to alternative positions—not one-sided or small-minded. A paper with sufficient scope will be thorough, and it will probe beneath the surface of its subject matter.


Policies on Course Work: According to ICS policy, the due date for course papers falls between the third and the sixth week after the semester’s end. Since this occurs after the deadline at U of T and TST for the submission of grades, U of T and TST students will need to complete petitions for extensions if they choose to submit their papers after the U of T and TST deadlines.


ICS policy gives the instructor discretion to refuse extensions for late work by ICS Junior Members, and also to penalize late work. I have five reasons to resist granting extensions beyond the stated due date:

So aim to get your paper in on time, and talk with me right away if you are running stuck.

9. Schedule



Topics and reminders








Background: Alcoff (2001) & Zuidervaart (2008)

L xi-6; MW 1-6, 336-49; TM vii-19; Z5 131-60

(K ix-72; TM 245-82)



Correspondence Theory: Russell (1912), Austin (1950), & Alston (2001?)

L 7-66

(A 1-37; K 119-40)




Coherence Theory: Blanshard (1939), Walker (1989),& Alcoff (2001?)

L 99-182

(K 73-118)




Pragmatism: Peirce (1878), James (1907), &

Dewey (1920/1948)

L 185-228; D 132-60

(A 56-69)




Verificationism and Neopragmatism: Dummett (1958-9), Putnam (1981), & Rorty (1995)

L 229-86

(TM 66-82, 283-95)




Tarski (1944) & Quine (1990)

Hand in paper proposals

L 323-63, 473-81

(K 141-73)




Deflationism: Ramsey (1929?) & Strawson (1950)

L 421-71

(A 113-48; K 307-50)




Primitivism & Pluralism: Davidson (1999), Putnam (1994), & Lynch (2001?)

L 615-40, 705-49

(K 223-70; TM 83-99)




Political Perspectives: Nietzsche (1870s-1880s), Arendt (1967), & Foucault (1970s)

MW 9-25, 291-335

(A 41-55, 149-82;

TM 138-54)



Phenomenology: Husserl (1900/01), Heidegger (1930, 1935-6), & Levinas (1972)

MW 229-70; Z3

(A 73-112; TM 103-21, 195-210)



Critical Theory: Horkheimer (1935), Rorty (1988), & Habermas (2000)

H; MW 95-129; Z2 23-45

(TM 122-37)




Reformational Philosophy: Zuidervaart (2004, 2008, 2009)

Z1 118-39; Z4 22-46;

Z6 1-20 (TM46-65, 175-94, 225-42, 296-312)



Notes: Required readings are in bold; recommended supplementary readings are in parentheses.

A = Allen, Truth in Philosophy. D = Dewey, “The Significance of Logical Reconstruction.”

H = Horkheimer, “On the Problem of Truth.” K = Kirkham, Theories of Truth. L = Lynch, ed., The Nature of Truth. MW = Medina and Wood, eds.,Truth: Engagements. TM = Truth Matters, ed. Zuidervaart et al. Z = Zuidervaart (Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5, and Z6 are explained in the list of readings above).There is no class on October 21, due to the Reading Week at ICS.

10. Selected Bibliography

This bibliography arises from research I did in January 2005 when I first proposed this seminar. The bibliography mostly excludes writings included or excerpted in the course texts listed earlier. I have updated it in recent years. For an excellent annotated bibliography, see:

Engel, Pascal. “Truth.” In Oxford Bibliographies in Philosophy. Ed. Duncan Pritchard. Oxford University Press, 2011; http://www.oxfordbibliographies.com/obo/page/philosophy.




Blackburn, Simon and Keith Simmons, eds. Truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. [Robarts Library: BC171 .T76 1999X]

Garcia-Carpintero, Manuel, and Max Kölbel, eds. Relative Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2008. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8048066]

Lowe, E. J., and Rami Adolf, eds.Truth and Truth-Making. Montreal: McGill-Queen’s University Press, 2009. [UofT at Mississauga Library: BD171 .T785 2009]

Pitcher, George, ed. Truth. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, 1964. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD 171 .P57]

Schantz, Richard, ed. What is Truth? New York: de Gruyter, 2002. [Robarts Library: BT50 .S48 2001]


Introductions and Bibliographic Resources


Blackburn, Simon. Truth: A Guide. London: Penguin, 2005. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8184317]

Engel, Pascal. Truth. Chesham, UK: Acumen, 2002. [St. Michael’s College Library: BC171 .E54 2002]

Johnson, Lawrence E. Focusing on Truth. New York: Routledge, 1992. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8121455]

Mosteller, Timothy M. Theories of Truth: An Introduction. London: Bloomsbury, 2014.

Schmitt, Frederick F. Truth: A Primer. Boulder, CO: Westview Press, 1995. [Robarts Library: BD171 .T473 2004]

Wright, Crispin. “Truth: A Traditional Debate Reviewed.” Canadian Journal of Philosophy 24 (1999): 31–74. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7693216]



Monographs and Essays


Alcoff, Linda Martin. Real Knowing: New Versions of the Coherence Theory. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. [Robarts Library: BD161 .A43 1996]

Allen, Barry. Knowledge and Civilization. Boulder: Westview Press, 2004. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD161 .A45 2003]

Alston, William P. A Realist Conception of Truth. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1996. [Robarts Library: BD171 .A42 1996X]

Armstrong, David. Truth and Truthmakers. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8158406]

Ayer, A. J. Language, Truth and Logic. London: Dover, 1936. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B53 .A9 1952]

Barnes, Jonathan. Truth, Etc. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8719865]

Boghossian, Paul. Fear of Knowledge. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2006. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7918129]

Brandom, Robert. Making It Explicit: Reasoning, Representing, and Discursive Commitment. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. [Robarts Library: P106 .B694 1994]

Campbell, Richard. The Concept of Truth. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2011. [Robarts Library: BD171 .C355 2011X]

Campbell, Richard. Truth and Historicity. New York: Oxford University Press, 1992.[Robarts Library: BD171 .C33 1992]

Cartwright, Richard. “A Neglected Theory of Truth.” In Philosophical Essays, 71–93. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1987. [Robarts Library: B29 .C384 1987]

Crivelli, Paolo. Aristotle on Truth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2004. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/6704380]

Dahlstrom, Daniel O. Heidegger’s Concept of Truth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2001. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3279.H49 D343 2001]

David, Marian. Correspondence and Disquotation: An Essay on the Nature of Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1994. [Robarts Library: BD171 .D285 1994]

Davidson, Donald. Inquiries into Truth and Interpretation. 2nd ed. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7063647]

Davidson, Donald. “The Structure and Content of Truth.” Journal of Philosophy 87 (1990): 279-328. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7726591]

De Sousa, Ronald. Emotional Truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011. [Robarts Library: B815 .D39 2011X]

Deutsch, Eliot. On Truth: An Ontological Theory. Honolulu: University Press of Hawaii, 1979. [Robarts Library: BD171 .D37]

Devitt, Michael. Realism and Truth. 2nd ed. Oxford: Blackwell, 1991. [Robarts Library: B835 .D48 1991]

Dewey, John. Logic: The Theory of Inquiry (1938). New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston, 1960. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BC50 .D424]

Dooyeweerd, Herman. “The Epistemological Problem in the Light of the Cosmonomic Idea.” Part II in A New Critique of Theoretical Thought, vol. 2, pp. 427-598. Trans. David H. Freeman et al. Rpt ed. Philadelphia: Presbyterian and Reformed Publishing, 1969. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B4051 .D64 W5513 1969 v.2]

Dummett, Michael A. E. Truth and Other Enigmas. London: Duckworth, 1978. [Robarts Library: B29 .D86]

Dummett, Michael A. E. Truth and the Past. New York: Columbia University Press, 2004. [Robarts Library: B1626 .D853 T78 2004X]

Ellis, B. D. Truth and Objectivity. Cambridge, MA: Basil Blackwell, 1990. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8848207]

Engel, Pascal. “Is Truth a Norm?” In Interpreting Davidson, 37–51. Ed. Peter Kotatko, Peter Pagin, and Gabriel Segal. Stanford, CA: Center for the Study of Language and Information, 2000. [Robarts Library: B945 .D384 I59 2001X]

Farley, Wendy. Eros for the Other: Retaining Truth in a Pluralistic World. University Park: Pennsylvania State University Press, 1996. [Robarts Library: BD171 .F33 1996X]

Field, Hartry H. Truth and the Absence of Fact. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8964755]

Foucault, Michel. The Archaeology of Knowledge and The Discourse on Language. Trans. A. M. Sheridan Smith. New York: Pantheon Books, 1982. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/9139491]

Foucault, Michel. “The Concern for Truth.” In Michel Foucault: Politics, Philosophy, Culture. Ed. Lawrence D. Kritzmann. New York: Routledge, 1988. [Victoria University, Pratt Library: B2430 .F722 E5 1990]

Frege, Gottlob. “The Thought.” Mind 65 (1956): 289–311. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7735189]

Gadamer, Hans-Georg. Truth and Method. 2nd, rev. ed. Translation revised by Joel Weinsheimer and Donald G. Marshall. New York: Crossroad, 1989. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD241 .G313]

Geach, P. T. Truth and Hope. Notre Dame, IN: University of Notre Dame Press, 2001. [Robarts Library: BD171 .G43 2001X]

Goodman, Lenn E. In Defense of Truth: A Pluralistic Approach. Amherst, NY: Humanity Books, 2001. [Robarts Library: BD171 .G58 2001X]

Habermas, Jürgen. Truth and Justification. Ed. Barbara Fultner. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2003. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3258 .H323 W3413 2003]

Hart, Hendrik. “Conceptual Understanding and Knowing Other-wise: Reflections on Rationality and Spirituality in Philosophy.” In Knowing Other-wise: Philosophy at the Threshold of Spirituality, 19-53. Ed. James H. Olthuis. New York: Fordham University Press, 1997. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B831.2 .K66]

Heal, Jane. “The Disinterested Search for Truth.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 88 (1987–1988): 97–108. [Robarts Library: B11 .A72]

Heiden, Gerrit Jan van der. The Truth (and Untruth) of Language: Heidegger, Ricoeur, and Derrida on Disclosure and Displacement. Pittsburgh, PA: Duquesne University Press, 2010. [Robarts Library: BD241 .H345 2010X]

Heidegger, Martin. Being and Time. Trans. Joan Stambaugh. Foreword by Dennis Schmidt. Rev. ed. Albany: State University of New York Press, 2010. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3279 .H48 S413 2010]

Hekman, Susan J. The Future of Differences: Truth and Method in Feminist Theory. Malden, MA: Polity Press, 1999. [Robarts Library: HQ1150 .H45 1999]

Horwich, Paul. Truth. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8089413]

Horwich, Paul. “The Value of Truth.” Noûs 40.2 (2003): 347-60. [Robarts Library: B1 .N6]

James, William. Pragmatism and Other Writings. Ed. Giles Gunn. New York: Penguin Books, 2000. [Robarts Library: B945 .J23 P7 2000]

Kitcher, Philip. Science, Truth, and Democracy. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7063344]

Kölbel, Max. Truth without Objectivity. New York: Routledge, 2002. [Robarts Library: BD171 .K62 2002]

Kripke, Saul. “Outline of a Theory of Truth.” Journal of Philosophy 72 (1975): 690-716. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7726591]

Kristeva, Julia. “The True-Real” (1979). In The Kristeva Reader, 214-37. Ed. Toril Moi. New York: Columbia University Press, 1986. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: P99 .K75]

Künne, Wolfgang. Conceptions of Truth. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 2003. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7063625]

Lynch, Michael P. True to Life: Why Truth Matters. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. [Robarts Library: BD171 .L869 2004X]

Lynch, Michael. Truth as One and Many. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2009. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7063589]

Lynch, Michael P. Truth in Context: An Essay on Pluralism and Objectivity. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1998. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD171 .L87 1998]

McDowell, John. Mind and World. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1994. [Robarts Library: BD418.3 .M37 1994]

McGee, Vann. Truth, Vagueness, and Paradox: An Essay on the Logic of Truth. Indianapolis: Hackett, 1991. [Robarts Library: BD171 .M37 1991]

Misak, C. J. Truth, Politics, Morality: Pragmatism and Deliberation. New York: Routledge, 2000. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8184321]

Newman, Andrew. The Correspondence Theory of Truth: An Essay on the Metaphysics of Predication. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8115456]

Norris, Christopher. Truth Matters: Realism, Anti-Realism and Response-Dependence. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2002. [Robarts Library: BC171 .N67 2002]

Peirce, Charles Sanders. “What Pragmatism Is.” Monist 15 (1905): 161-81. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7736115]

Piercey, Robert. The Crisis in Continental Philosophy: History, Truth and the Hegelian Legacy. London: Continuum, 2009. [Robarts Library: B791 .P54 2009]

Plantinga, Alvin. “How to Be an Anti-Realist.” Proceedings and Addresses of the American Philosophical Association 56 (1982): 47-70. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7746214]

Putnam, Hilary. Realism with a Human Face. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1990. [Robarts Library: B835 .P875 1990]

Putnam, Hilary. Reason, Truth, and History.Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1981. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD171 .P875]

Putnam, Hilary. Words and Life. Ed. James Conant. Cambridge, MA: Harvard UP, 1994. [Robarts Library: B835 .P884 1994]

Quine, W. V. Pursuit of Truth. Rev. ed. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. [Robarts Library: B945 .Q53 P87 1992]

Ramsey, F. P. “Facts and Propositions.” Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society, supp. vol. 7 (1927): 153-70. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7746443]

Ricoeur, Paul. History and Truth. Evanston, IL: Northwestern University Press, 1965. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B2430 .R532 E513 2007]

Rorty, Richard. Objectivity, Relativism, and Truth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B945 .R52 1991 v.1]

Rorty, Richard. Philosophy and the Mirror of Nature. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1979. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B53 .R67]

Rorty, Richard. Truth and Progress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1998. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B945 .R52 1991 v.3]

Rouse, Joseph. Knowledge and Power: Toward a Political Philosophy of Science. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1987. [Robarts Library: Q175 .R685 1987]

Russell, Bertrand. An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth. New York: W.W. Norton, 1940. [Robarts Library: B1649 .R93 I5]

Russell, Bertrand. Problems of Philosophy. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1912. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BD21 .R8 1959]

Sini, Carlo. Images of Truth: From Sign to Symbol. Atlantic Highlands, NJ: Humanities Press, 1993. [Robarts Library: BL603 .S5513 1993]

Soames, Scott. Understanding Truth. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/7063298]

Stich, Stephen. The Fragmentation of Reason. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 1990. [Robarts Library: BD161 .S68 1990]

van der Hoeven, Johan. “History and Truth in Nietzsche and Heidegger.” In Life is Religion: Essays in Honor of H. Evan Runner, 61-82. Ed. Henry Vander Goot. St. Catharines, ON: Paideia Press, 1981. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B29 .L5 1981]

Vattimo, Gianni. A Farewell to Truth. New York: Columbia University Press, 2011. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: B3654 .V383 A3313 2011]

Vision, Gerald.Veritas: The Correspondence Theory and Its Critics. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press, 2004. [Robarts Library: BD171 .V56 2004X]

Vroom, Hendrik M. Religions and the Truth: Philosophical Reflections and Perspectives. Trans. J. W. Rebel. Amsterdam: Editions Rodopi, 1989. [ICS Library Reserve Shelf: BL51 .V7613 1989]

Westphal, Merold. History and Truth in Hegel's Phenomenology. 3rd ed. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1998.[Robarts Library: B2929 .W47 1998X]

Williams, Bernard Arthur Owen. Truth & Truthfulness: An Essay in Genealogy. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 2002. [UTL e-resource: http://go.utlib.ca/cat/8848209]

Wrathall, Mark A. Heidegger and Unconcealment: Truth, Language, and History. New York: Cambridge University Press, 2011. [Robarts Library: B3279 .H49 W725 2011X]

Wright, Crispin. Realism, Meaning, and Truth. 2nd ed. Cambridge, MA: Blackwell, 1993. [Robarts Library: B840 .W77 1993]

Wright, Crispin. Truth and Objectivity. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1992. [Robarts Library: B835 .W75 1992]

Copyright, Institute for Christian Studies. All Rights Reserved.