Treating Yellow Peril:
Resources to Address Coronavirus Racism
As a university professor and program administrator, I recognize the need to be able to respond to the political, historical, and cultural dimensions of the contemporary situation. My name is Jason Oliver Chang (twitter @chinotronic) and I’m an Associate Professor of History and Asian American Studies at the University of Connecticut.
Thank you for your contributions and spreading the word about this resource.
As we continue to track the development of the coronavirus, racial fears and anxieties have become a dominant frame in which people evaluate the concerns over the ongoing COVID-19 coronavirus infection. This page is intended to gather textual and digital resources to provide easy access to material useful for teach-ins, talking points, and classroom teaching.
Consider using this hashtag, started by our French brothers and sisters:
#JeNeSuisPasUnVirus | #IAmNotAVirus
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Volunteer editors welcome: correct formatting and sort entries
Student Health Services. (n.d.). Frequently asked questions about 2019 novel coronavirus. George Mason University. https://shs.gmu.edu/frequently-asked-questions-about-2019-novel-coronavirus/?fbclid=IwAR2Rva-C14-kn4a1KBcuOyLLYqxRbRKSw5igqbElTKbVk808i3ZV3ETSQpg
Imada, A. et al (n.d.) A message from the executive committee. University of California, Irvine - Center for Medical Humanities. Spotlight Detail | UCI Humanities Commons
Ethnic Studies Department. (2020, March 2). DES statement about anti-Asian harassment and the COVID-19/novel coronavirus. University of Colorado, Boulder. https://www.colorado.edu/ethnicstudies/2020/03/02/des-statement-about-anti-asian-harassment-and-covid-19novel-coronavirus?fbclid=IwAR1SIkmjIsE5duJuHptUUtLbcp8TPHNgUAKjx34uGE35TqI8UL3pchVphBI
Office of Diversity & Inclusion. (2020, February 19). Coronavirus statement. University of Maryland. https://diversity.umd.edu/news-events/statements/coronavirus/?fbclid=IwAR1qBJ5oMI5pPyQZuxx2te-DmSpun4Ch3Szt-5KS31lYk28LE3xyLrNW4nA
University of Michigan Office of the President (2020, February 20). Statement on COVID-19 Virus at February 2020 Board of Regents Meeting.
Association for Asian American Studies statement on Anti-Asian Harassment and the Novel Coronavirus/COVID-19
“The Centers for Disease Control recently announced that the Novel Coronavirus/COVID-19 may spread in the United States. As people take precautions to manage their health (the two biggest precautions are frequent handwashing and staying home if you are sick), the Association for Asian American Studies (AAAS) wants to also acknowledge the rise of anti-Asian (especially anti-Chinese) harassment that many Asian Americans (particularly those who look East Asian) are experiencing. As an organization dedicated to the study of Asian Americans, we want to be very clear that xenophobia has no place in our communities or workplaces, and that harassment of Asians due to fears of the coronavirus are not only unwarranted but sadly part of a longer history of stereotypes associating Asians, especially Chinese, with disease. We stand firm in rejecting anti-Asian bigotry in the guise of people expressing fear of Novel Coronavirus/COVID-19. We also urge people to find resources that will educate them about how to manage their health as well as why their prejudices/biases in assuming all Asians have the virus are rooted in a history of Yellow Peril rhetoric, xenophobia, ableism, and anti-Asian racism. Please encourage your colleagues and friends to explore this open-source syllabus that addresses anti-Asian bias associated with the coronavirus. And please remember: frequent handwashing, not anti-Asian stereotypes/harassment, is your best means of preventing the spread of coronavirus.”
Jewish Council on Public Affairs - Letter of Support to our Friends in the Chinese American and Chinese Communities - February 21, 2020
Statement from the National Association of Asian American Professionals on Xenophobia and Racism in Response to Coronavirus
Created by Natalia Molina, Professor of American Studies & Ethnicity, University of Southern California
Created by Jason Oliver Chang, Associate Professor of History & Asian and Asian American Studies, University of Connecticut.
National Council of Asian Pacific Americans. “Asian American and Pacific Islander Civil Rights Organizations on the Coronavirus: ‘Not a Green Light to Target Asian Americans and Asian immigrants with Racism and Hate.’” February 7. 2020.
“The National Council of Asian Pacific Americans (NCAPA) issued the following statement: While the coronavirus represents a legitimate public health concern, it is not a green light to target Asian Americans and Asian immigrants with racism and hate. We are concerned with the growing xenophobic rhetoric that harkens back to the dehumanizing, anti-Asian trope of the “yellow peril,” that was used during the 19th century. We have consistently stood against efforts to cast our community as “perpetual foreigners,” and sadly, we find ourselves having to do so again. We call on news outlets and social media platforms to do more to curb racist and inaccurate content in addition to removing misinformation on the coronavirus alone.”
Asian American Journalists Association. “Guide to Covering Asian America.” <https://www.aaja.org/aajahandbook>
Useful quick check for terminology and concepts.
American Society for Microbiology. Novel Coronavirus (2019-nCoV) Resources. https://asm.org/Press-Releases/2020/nCoV2019-Resources
Includes free access to scholarly articles as well as press releases and ability to speak to an expert.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). (2020). Novel Coronavirus, Wuhan, China. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/index.html
Updated regularly; a reliable epidemiological source.
World Health Organization (WHO). (2020). Novel Coronavirus (2019 n-CoV). https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019
Reliable epidemiological source.
Center for Infectious Disease Research and Policy (University of Minnesota)
Regular updates; a variety of articles by professionals
CDC Policy - does not release the name, race, gender, age of suspected and confirmed cases of infected people. *tip for spotting false info
Singer, Peter A et al. “Ethics and SARS: lessons from Toronto.” BMJ (Clinical research ed.) vol. 327,7427 (2003): 1342-4. doi:10.1136/bmj.327.7427.1342. <https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC286332/>
Ten key ethical values discussed by Toronto working group: Individual liberty; Protection of the public from harm; Proportionality; Reciprocity; Transparency; Privacy; Protection of communities from undue stigmatisation; Duty to provide care; Equity; Solidarity
Abbigail Tumpey, David Daigle, Glen Nowak. “Communicating During an Outbreak or Public Health Investigation.” The CDC Field Epidemiological Manual. Epidemic Intelligence Service. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. <https://www.cdc.gov/eis/field-epi-manual/chapters/Communicating-Investigation.html>
Contains guidance for reporting and messaging for media communication.
Agata Kwapien. “Remove Your Rose Tinted Glasses: Data Visualizations Designed to Mislead.” Datapine. 2 December 2015. <https://www.datapine.com/blog/misleading-data-visualization-examples/>
Identifies common ways that visual representation of data can lead to mistaken conclusions. *not covered in this piece, although important - data points on a map misrepresent the scale of significance. The visual marker for a single person on a map may cover the space of the map representing several square miles. This is important for interpreting maps showing occurrence of infection.
Alvin Powell, “What We Do and Don’t Know about the Corona Virus Outbreak” Harvard Gazette, Jan. 30, 2020,
Q and A with Infectious Disease Specialist Marc Lipsitch who worked on SARS about current outbreak
Elsevier Coronavirus Information Center. https://www.elsevier.com/connect/coronavirus-information-center
Ongoing curated resource based on information from Elsevier content and experts. Elsevier is the company that owns Scopus, Pure, SciVal, and a number of other products in the research output space. They and a number of other publishers have signed the Wellcome Trust statement (https://wellcome.ac.uk/press-release/sharing-research-data-and-findings-relevant-novel-coronavirus-ncov-outbreak) to provide open access to developing research findings around nCoV from their academic press. Other journal publishers have sites similar to this one, including:
Frequently updated and well-sourced information about many aspects of the epidemic.
Asian American Feminist Antibodies: Care in the Time of Coronavirus, eds. Salon Bhaman, Rachel Kuo, Matilda Sabal, Vivian Shaw, and Tiffany Diane Tso. 2020.
“With the COVID-19 pandemic neither behind us or solely ahead of us, this zine offers a way to make meaning of the coronavirus crisis through long-standing practices of care that come out of Asian American histories and politics. We bring together first-hand accounts and analyses from our communities, including health and service workers and caregivers on the frontlines, students, people living with chronic illness, journalists, and organizers. Together, this collection of stories, essays, and artwork shows how we experience, resist, and grapple with a viral outbreak that has been racialized as Asian, is spoken of in the language of contagion and invasion, and reveals the places where our collective social safety net is particularly threadbare.”
Charis Hill. “‘The Cripples Will Save You’: A Critical Coronavirus Message from a Disability Activist.” Creakyjoints.org. <https://creakyjoints.org/living-with-arthritis/coronavirus-disability-activism/?fbclid=IwAR2Kd5weyYi8MO-ulxhfOpU-e-3Y1T99bAn0u_pd9s8wYxjcHg9u5cnRIg8>
Identifies the universality of disability activist work and the absence of inclusive public responses. Shows ways disability activists are tapped for the COVID-19 response and ignored as high-risk persons, except as “examples for why healthy people shouldn’t be concerned.”
Kelly Hayes (and 25 other signees). Transformative Spaces. “Demands from Grassroots Organizers Concerning COVID-19.” 3/4/2020
“Some demands may fit your community’s needs, others may not. One may jump out at you as your area of focus. To figure out what you should be demanding locally, you will want to find out if your city and state are in compliance with the following demands…”
Asian Pacific American Labor Alliance, AFL-CIO: Protecting Asian American and Pacific Islander Working People in response to COVID-19
“Employers must include a protocol against racial discrimination in their responses to COVID-19. APALA issues the following to protect AAPI workers.”
It’s Going Down. “Autonomous Groups Are Mobilizing Mutual Aid Initiatives to Combat Coronavirus.” 14 March 2020.
“outside of the gaze of neoliberal TV pundits who now pander to studios with empty audiences across the so-called United States, autonomous groups are mobilizing to provide mutual aid to their neighbors and those hit the hardest by the exploding virus.” News and resources about autonomous mutual aid groups and actions.
News Content Analysis
Russell Jeung, Saras Gowing, and Kara Takasaki. “News Accounts of COVID-19 Xenophobia.” Asian Pacific Policy & Planning Council. 2 March 2020.
This report reviews 433 news articles related to the Covid-19 virus and xenophobia found on the Proquest Global Newstream database over a four week period (Jan. 28 through February 24, 2020).
Russell Jeung, Saras Gowing, and Kara Takasaki. “News Accounts of COVID-19 Xenophobia.” Asian Pacific Policy & Planning Council. 2 March 2020.
This report reviews 216 news articles related to the Covid-19 virus, xenophobia, and discrimination found on the America’s News database over a four-week period (Feb. 9 through March 7, 2020)
“Documenting Hate: Asian American Nonprofits Create Websites to Monitor and Report Discrimination Linked to Coronavirus.” Responding to the alarming rise in hate crimes against Asian people tied to the coronavirus outbreak, several Asian American groups have announced the creation of websites for individuals to document incidents of discrimination and speak out collectively against hate. In California, Chinese for Affirmative Action, the Asian Pacific Planning and Policy Council(A3PCON), and the San Francisco State Asians American Studies Department announced the groups have joined together to open a reporting center of hate crimes. March 19, 2020.
News in English (Canada, U.S., Europe, Australia)
Frank Shyong. "Column: ‘It’s just too much’: Asian Americans confront xenophobia, economic devastation and the coronavirus." Los Angeles Times. March 23 2020. <https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-03-23/coronavirus-devastation-immigrants>
"Asian American communities whose support systems have already been eroded by gentrification are fighting to protect their most vulnerable residents. And for months, they’ve been suffering an economic slowdown fueled by misplaced xenophobic fear."
Sabrina Tavernise and Richard A. Oppel Jr. “Spit on, Yelled At, Attacked: Chinese-Americans Fear for Their Safety.” New York Times, March 23, 2020.
“As bigots blame them for the coronavirus and President Trump labels it the “Chinese
virus,” many Chinese-Americans say they are terrified of what could come next.”
Kimmy Yam, “Progress is why viruses aren't named after locations anymore, experts say,” NBC News, March 22, 2020.
“While the White House has stood by President Donald Trump's frequent use of the phrase ‘Chinese virus’ in reference to COVID-19 — citing the previous names of illnesses like ‘West Nile Virus’ as justification — experts say the argument just doesn't hold up. Critics said we must ‘learn from the past’ in handling viruses, slamming the White House's tweet on Wednesday citing ‘Spanish Flu. West Nile Virus. Zika. Ebola. All named for places.’"
Matthew Lee. “Coronavirus fears show how 'model minority' Asian Americans become the 'yellow peril'.” NBCNews.com. 9 March 2020.
“In some instances, we are wielded as a “model minority” against other groups, particularly other people of color; in others, we are cast as “perpetual foreigners” who pose a threat to stability and order. These dually harmful, racist and pervasive stereotypes — of Asian Americans as both the “model minority” and the “yellow peril” — shape the narrative of how we can place these hostilities that consistently emerge during moments like the current outbreak in context.”
Champe Barton. “Asian-Americans Terrified of Coronavirus Backlash Stock Up on Guns.” The Daily Beast. 6 March 2020.
“People are panicking because they don’t feel secure,” said David Liu, who is Chinese American and owns Arcadia Firearm and Safety, which is just east of Los Angeles. “They worry about a riot or maybe that people will start to target the Chinese.” Liu said his store had seen a fivefold increase in sales over the past two weeks.
Jack Guy. “East Asian Student assaulted in ‘Racist’ coronavirus attack in London.” CNN. 3/3/20.
Chinese Singaporan student in London was assaulted. Attacker said “I don’t want your coronavirus in my country.”
Natalie Escobar. “When Xenophobia Spreads Like A Virus.” Code Switch Podcast, March 4, 2020.
“The global response to COVID-19 has made clear that the fear of contracting disease has an ugly cousin: xenophobia. As the coronavirus has spread from China to other countries, anti-Asian discrimination has followed closely behind, manifesting in plummeting sales at Chinese restaurants, near-deserted Chinatown districts and racist bullying against people perceived to be Chinese. We asked our listeners whether they had experienced this kind of coronavirus-related racism and xenophobia firsthand. And judging by the volume of emails, comments and tweets we got in response, the harassment has been intense for Asian Americans across the country — regardless of ethnicity, location or age. A common theme across our responses: Public transit has been really hostile.”
Alex Walker. “News outlets contribute to anti-Asian racism with careless stock photos on coronavirus coverage.” 3 March 2020. <https://www.mediamatters.org/coronavirus-covid-19/news-outlets-contribute-anti-asian-racism-careless-stock-photos-coronavirus>
Reports on contradictions by newspapers which warn against anti-Asian racism in pathogen fears, but then use stock photos of Asians in masks to report on COVID-19 updates.
Sean Illing, “Why pandemics activate xenophobia,” March 3, 2020
Transcript for interview with Dr. Natalia Molina, professor of history and American Studies at USC. “our fears about immigrants and outsiders have always been bolstered by fears about disease and contamination… We saw this in Los Angeles when Proposition 187 was passed nearly 25 years ago. This was legislation that denied public services to undocumented immigrants, which many people said was dangerous because if you’re trying to stop the spread of communicable diseases, you want to make sure that people can still get vaccinated, that people still go to hospitals and get treated.”
Stacy Torres and Xuemei Cao, “Coronavirus on college campuses: fight fear and racism along with the outbreak.” March 1, 2020.
“Infectious disease has often proved divisive for societies: If anyone can give you a disease, everyone is potentially a threat and your enemy. Crises such as the latest outbreak test not only the scientific community’s knowledge and technology but also social infrastructure and trust. But each of us has a responsibility to help calm the hysteria, correct misperceptions, and resist vilifying any group of people, even the infected. Students across the country need to hear this message, early and often. Given current public health efforts, we may conquer the virus and save lives, but if we neglect our duty to defeat festering racism and xenophobia lurking below the surface of health concerns, we risk losing our collective souls.”
Malaka Gharib, “Just For Kids: A Comic Exploring The New Coronavirus,” February 28, 2020.
“Kids, this comic is for you. It's based on a radio story that NPR education reporter Cory Turner did. He asked some experts what kids might want to know about the new coronavirus discovered in China. To make this comic, we've used his interviews with Tara Powell at the University of Illinois School of Social Work, Joy Osofsky at the LSU Health Sciences Center in New Orleans and Krystal Lewis at the National Institute of Mental Health.”
BBC News, “Norwich Filipino nurse 'dumbfounded' by coronavirus abuse,” February 11, 2020.
“An NHS nurse from the Philippines said he was left ‘dumbfounded’ after being abused over the coronavirus outbreak. Mark Nopia, 32, was travelling home from university by bus in Norwich when a fellow passenger challenged him for not wearing a face mask. He said he was ‘on the verge of tears’ after the elderly man told him: ‘You Asians. Stop spreading the virus.’ Norfolk Police said it was investigating the man's comments as a hate crime. Mr Nopia, who came to the UK three years ago, is studying for a degree in acute and critical care, and works a cardiology nurse at the Norfolk and Norwich Hospital.”
Kimmy Yam, “The Wall Street Journal criticized for op-ed with derogatory reference to China in title The phrase “sick man of Asia” has been historically used to perpetuate the stereotype that Chinese people were disease-ridden and unclean.,” February 7, 2020
“An op-ed that appeared this week in The Wall Street Journal, comparing China’s financial markets to a market linked to the coronavirus outbreak, has prompted social media users to accuse the outlet of perpetuating anti-Chinese sentiments. ‘The consequences of publishing an opinion like this by mainstream media include stoking more fear and anxiety, and increasing hostility against Chinese and other Asians throughout the world,’ Catherine Ceniza Choy, a professor of ethnic studies at the University of California, Berkeley, told NBC News. ‘This is extremely harmful and wrong.’ ‘Disease does not see color. It does not recognize the borders of nation-states or ethnic enclaves like Chinatowns,’ she said. ‘Yet, there have already been reports across the U.S. and other parts of the world where Chinese people or anyone who looks “Chinese” are targeted for exclusion and prejudice.’ Anthony Ocampo, a sociologist and associate professor at Cal Poly Pomona, explained that the headline also frames the outbreak in a dehumanizing way. ‘People died and they died suddenly,’ he said. ‘Countless other lives -- families, people being quarantined --are changed forever,’ Ocampo said. ‘So my initial reaction to this piece is, where is the concern for their humanity?’
Jane C. Hu, “The Panic Over Chinese People Doesn’t Come From Coronavirus,” February 4, 2020.
“As soon as the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention announced the first known U.S. case of the Wuhan coronavirus on Jan. 21, the panic began. . . . Casual acts of racism against Asians were spreading more quickly than the virus itself. . . . It’s easy to read these incidents as the product of knee-jerk fear and ignorance. But that fear isn’t merely instinctive—it’s acculturated. ‘There’s a long history of thinking of Asians as disease carriers that’s at least 200 years old,’ says Jason Oliver Chang, an associate professor of history and Asian American studies at the University of Connecticut. ‘People don’t have to know that they’ve learned this racial story; it’s already a part of how you react, and it shows how pervasive it is in our popular culture.’”
Suhauna Hussain, “Fear of coronavirus fuels racist sentiment targeting Asians,” February 3, 2020, https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-02-03/fear-panic-around-the-coronavirus-fuels-racist-sentiment?fbclid=IwAR0qdWt7LKzSSOtzOIzUgbjERtKLCmeEZvdqD1VeHytrCcoVRApBKl2_IaY
Frank Shyong, “Coronavirus, the outbreak narrative and how our fear fuels our xenophobia and racism,” February 3, 2020
Maria Godoy. “On Social Media, Racist Responses To Coronavirus Can Have Their Own Contagion,” https://www.npr.org/2020/02/02/801995347/on-social-media-racist-responses-to-coronavirus-can-have-their-own-contagion
Alex Wigglesworth. “Corona Virus fears Hoaxes and Misinformation.” Los Angeles Times. 2 February 2020. <https://www.latimes.com/california/story/2020-02-02/coronavirus-hoaxes-misinformation>
Multiple schools and universities, and even the city of Carson, have been forced to refute rumors and hoaxes that members of their communities have contracted the virus. Many of the false reports were spread through Facebook posts, Snapchat messages and tweets.
Jonathan Corpus Ong and Gideon Lasco. “Coronavirus shows how epidemics can spread racism”. OpenDemocracy. 30 January 2020.
Useful digest of links and recent stories on xenophobia, racism, and coronavirus.
Deanna Pan. “Fears of coronavirusm fuel anti-Chinese racism.” The Boston Globe. 30 January 2020.
“Since the virus hit, that’s when more jokes started coming up,” said Deng, while she and Chen were hanging out at Tea-Do in Chinatown after school on Wednesday. “They say we eat dogs. They make fun of our eyes a lot, how they’re smaller.”
Will Peischel. “Three of the most viral claims about the coronavirus are fake.” Mother Jones. 29 January 2020.
Reports on social media spread of r-Nought (infection rate), HIV cure, and quarantine exodus myths about Coronavirus.
Maddy Shaw Roberts. “Outrage as Italian conservatoire bans all “oriental” students over coronavirus fears.” Classic FM News. 31 January 2020.
The message (translated from Italian), signed by director Roberto Giuliani, reads: “Dear colleagues, because of the well-known events relating to the Chinese epidemic, the lessons of oriental students (Chinese, Korean, Japanese etc.) are suspended, as well as others who have come from the countries concerned.”
Lauren Frias. “UC Berkeley had to apologize for saying anti-Chinese xenophobia is a ‘normal reaction’ to the coronavirus.” Business Insider. 31 January 2020.
“UC Berkeley is facing backlash for a social media post that called anti-Chinese xenophobia a "normal reaction" to the Wuhan coronavirus.”
Evan Young. “‘This is racism’: Chinese Australians say they’ve faced increased hostility since the coronavirus outbreak began.” SBS News. 31 January 2020.
I was sitting on the tram when a white man came and sat next to me. He started talking about how Chinese people are spreading the coronavirus everywhere,”
Brandy Zadrozny, Kalhan Rosenblatt, & Ben Collins. “ Coronavirus misinformation surges, fueled by clout chasers.” NBC News. 30 January 2020. <https://www.nbcnews.com/tech/social-media/coronavirus-misinformation-surges-fueled-chase-attention-n1126511>
Misleading, unverified and clearly false information about the coronavirus has spread across social media platforms with a mix of fear mongering and racial stereotyping.
“Jennifer Mancini, a public relations representative for the nonprofit, said that while the videos are perhaps technically misinformation, they generally support the current research and are in the service of a greater philanthropic mission: to save animals and build schools.
“A lot of his stuff is for shock value, but look at the results,” Mancini said. “He’s had so many shares. He’s gained so many followers, and donations have started coming in, so it’s clearly working. People are watching, right?””
NPR: Worried About Catching The New Coronavirus? In The U.S., Flu Is A Bigger Threat January 29, 2020
"On average, the flu is responsible for somewhere between 12,000 and 61,000 deaths each year. "And this is just in the United States," Brown says.
A flu shot is your best way to protect yourself against getting the flu, and it's still not too late to be vaccinated this season."
Lena H. Sun. “Flu broke records for deaths, illnesses in 2017-2018, new CDC numbers show.” The Washington Post. 27 September 2018.
Influenza killed about 80,000 people in the 2017-2018 season, according to figures released by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. The previous high for a regular flu season, based on analyses dating back more than three decades, was 56,000 deaths.
BBC “Coronavirus: French Asians hit back at racism with 'I'm not a virus',” 29 Jan 2020
Eds: May consider moving this with “history”? (There is another of a similar nature I added there.)
Ranier Maningding. “It’s coronavirus season. You know what that means? Racism, Lots of it.” NextShark. 29 January 2020. <https://nextshark.com/coronavirus-season-racism-lots-of-it/?fbclid=IwAR3fD71i1TE9DkeuEA6aA66VcTbeSB-Lqm0vLf4jnBZH8dFvi5jFbmfBOK4>
Reports on online anti-Chinese racism and parallel history with Ebola.
James Palmer. “Don’t blame bat soup for the Wuhan Virus.” Foreign Policy. Argument. 27 January 2020. <https://foreignpolicy.com/2020/01/27/dont-blame-bat-soup-for-the-wuhan-virus/>
Racist memes target Chinese eating habits, addresses food habits as mechanism for racialization of Chinese now and historically.
Mira Miller. “Coronavirus concerns in Toronto are leading to racism against the Chinese community.” BlogTO. 27 January 2020. <https://www.blogto.com/city/2020/01/coronavirus-concerns-toronto-are-leading-racism-against-chinese-community/?fbclid=IwAR1O-Ui5sKL5dOSurbgeLtSYZ9veNkAr9HHxs5GVu7jUxjA0B9mj6nHLngE>
Reports on examples of online racism stoking fear in Toronto. Reminders of 2003 SARS outbreak and related discrimination.
Dakshana Bascarmurty. “Fear over coronavirus prompts school board in Ontario to warn parents about racism against Chinese community.” The Globe and Mail. 27 January 2020. <https://www.theglobeandmail.com/canada/article-panic-over-coronavirus-prompts-school-board-in-ontario-to-warn-parents/>
Reports on school board in Toronto pushing back against unnecessary parental requests to limit Chinese immigrant attendance at school. Reflects on experience of SARS in 2003.
Christine Dempsey, Kathleen McWilliams. “Wesleyan Student tests negative for coronavirus, another Connecticut student being monitored for virus after reporting fever, cough.” Hartford Courant. 27 January 2020. <https://www.courant.com/breaking-news/hc-br-yale-wesleyan-coronavirus-20200127-nlgn3cq5njd2lfm7hel5j3gnlu-story.html>
Reports on suspected infection at Wesleyan and one other student.
Meg O’Connor. “ASU Students Panic Over Coronavirus, Redditor Claims Class Cancelled.” 27 January 2020. <https://www.phoenixnewtimes.com/news/coronavirus-asu-students-panic-reddit-claims-class-cancelled-11432612?utm_source=dlvr.it&utm_medium=twitter>
Rumor of coronavirus spread with Reddit post about false claim and class cancellation. Students filed petition to cancel classes. Update: One case.
Sam Phan. “The Coronavirus panic is turning the UK into a hostile environment for East Asians.” The Guardian. 27 January, 2020. <https://www.theguardian.com/commentisfree/2020/jan/27/coronavirus-panic-uk-hostile-environment-east-asians>
Reports on experiences of East Asians in London. “They grouped all east Asian people together, without factoring in that perhaps we were British or, if not, we were from unaffected areas of China, or even came from other countries in the Chinese diaspora. We were all the same to them.”
Zofiya Acosta. “Don’t use the coronavirus outbreak as an excuse to be racist.” NOLISOLI. 27 January 2020.
Perspective from the Philippines.
Todd Ellerin, MD. “The new coronavirus: What we do - and don’t - know.” Harvard Health Blog. Harvard Medical School. 27 January 2020. <https://www.health.harvard.edu/blog/the-new-coronavirus-what-we-do-and-dont-know-2020012518747>
Survey’s knowledge about the current coronavirus and assesses risk factors. Seems to be updated when new information when it becomes available.
Andrew Scottie. “There’s been a run of surgical masks in the US because of the coronavirus scare. You don’t need them, physicians say.” CNN. 28 January 2020. <https://www.cnn.com/2020/01/28/health/coronavirus-us-masks-prevention-trnd/index.html>
Surgical masks are a basic defense against some viruses, and they may be helpful in communities where health officials suspect viruses are circulating widely. But in the US, there's no need to wear surgical masks -- or the N95 respirators physicians wear when treating viruses -- says infectious disease expert Dr. Charles Chiu. There's no evidence of sustained novel coronavirus transmission in the US like there is in China, and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has not recommended Americans wear masks in public.
Ryan Broderick. “QAnon supporters and anti-vaxxers are spreading a hoax that Bill Gates created the coronavirus.” BuzzFeed News. 23 January 2020. <https://www.buzzfeednews.com/article/ryanhatesthis/qanon-supporters-and-anti-vaxxers-are-spreading-a-hoax-that>
Reports on conspiracy theory about coronavirus. Takes aim at Bill Gates and others, does not target Asians. Concern over Facebook Groups like QAnon QClearance 8chan + related articles 2 Staqe 2 and Georgia Coalition for Vaccine Choice to mobilize disinformation.
Elisabeth Rosenthal. “How to Avoid the Coronavirus? Wash Your Hands.” New York Times, January 28, 2020. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/01/28/opinion/coronavirus-prevention-tips.html?action=click&module=Opinion&pgtype=Homepage
Reporter who was in China during the SARS outbreak in 2003 provides common sense advice about what works and what doesn’t based on her time in China. Describes hand washing routine and precautions that she took and that happened in her children’s school--mentions that SARS was more deadly than Corona virus and that the masks aren’t necessary
Sarah Al-Arshani. “A Costco sample-stand worker turned away a kid wearing a face mask because she thought he was from China and could give her the coronavirus.” Insider. 29 January 2020.
Yan, H. & Chen, N. What's spreading faster than coronavirus in the US? Racist assaults and ignorant attacks against Asians CNN, February 21, 2020. https://www.cnn.com/2020/02/20/us/coronavirus-racist-attacks-against-asian-americans/index.html?fbclid=IwAR0CFwYHPCc0fCvDCL9Tyuivg-zwuQDcUSRMOlgpgaTRnmPZAu9VbSBSstY
News in English (Mainland China)
Real time source of epidemic data collected from ncov.dxy.cn, an independent data source maintained by Chinese physicians gather data from local practice, hospitals, CDC, and WHO. Real time data and GIS visualization can be accessed to keep tuned about the epidemic information in Mainland China.
Blog kept by ncov.dxy.cn, an independent data source maintained by Chinese physicians to dispel rumors, educate the public about best practice for fighting COVID-19 and publicizing the latest development in research and clinical practice fighting the virus.
Gao, Junling and Zheng, Pinping and Jia, Yingnan and Chen, Hao and Mao, Yimeng and Chen, Suhong and Wang, Yi and Fu, Hua and Dai, Junming,
Mental Health Problems and Social Media Exposure During COVID-19 Outbreak (2/17/2020). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=3541120
Liu, Shuai, et al. "Online mental health services in China during the COVID-19 outbreak." The Lancet Psychiatry (2020).
Literature review and commentary about implementation of online mental health service in the Mainland.
Summary cited directly from the web post:
“This research is led by PI Charissa Cheah, professor of psychology at UMBC. Her co-investigators include Shimei Pan, assistant professor of information systems at UMBC, and Cixin Wang, assistant professor of school psychology in the department of counseling, higher education, and special education at UMD. Their study, “RAPID: Influences of the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Outbreak on Racial Discrimination, Identity Development and Socialization” is the one of first RAPID research awards granted to examine the COVID-19 outbreak.
Cheah, Pan, and Wang will study various forms of racial and ethnic discrimination experienced by Chinese-American individuals, families, and communities, and the impacts of that discrimination. The researchers are focusing on collecting data on public opinion, the social climate, and the experiences of families. They seek to capture the current moment and make it possible for future researchers to study this phenomenon in the longer term.
As social scientists, Cheah and Wang will conduct focus groups and surveys to understand how the various forms of racial discrimination connected to the COVID-19 outbreak are impacting families, particularly the identity development and adjustment of Chinese-American children. After the initial research phase, they will complete follow-up research six to nine months later to learn how parents have helped socialize their children and offered coping strategies around issues of race, identity, and psychosocial adjustment, in response to discrimination.”
News in English (Taiwan)
The WHO treatment of Taiwan as part of China has created real problems for Taiwan. Even though Taiwan owns high-quality medical technology and abundant medical experiences, and has been contributing to medical issues continuously. However, Taiwan has always been precluded from WHO due to China's opposition and pressure, which made Taiwan unable to access timely information from WHO at SARS outbreak. Now, since the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV is spreading and Taiwan is already standing at the first line of defense, to protect the 23 million Taiwanese people and global safety, the issue of Taiwan being excluded from WHO due to political reasons should be addressed.
As Virus Spreads, Isolated Taiwan Risks Being a Loophole in War on Epidemics (The Wall Street Journal, Jan. 22, 2020)
UN aviation agency blocks critics of Taiwan policy on Twitter (Bethany Allen-EbrahimianJan 28, 2020)
"Flight Suspensions by Italy and Vietnam Illustrate the Effects of Taiwan Being Viewed as Part of China" by Brian Hioe (Feb. 02, 2020)https://newbloommag.net/2020/02/02/italy-vietnam-tw-flight/?fbclid=IwAR39PmuuWSw8vfMq54-3v-riVJFhYr7ZbHjn7OuuTCVMVK5OLDeBQDeV3W0
“Taiwan condemns WHO for ‘Taipei and environs’ label” by Ching-Tse Cheng, Taiwan News,
(Feb. 06, 2020)
News in English (Asia)
Holly Secon. “The Wuhan coronavirus seems to have a low fatality rate, and most patients make full recoveries. Experts reveal why it’s causing panic anyway.” 31 January 2020.
Martinello also said that for people in the US, the seasonal flu poses a much higher risk. At least 15 million Americans contracted the flu in the last four months and 20,000 have died since October. The peak of flu season comes between December and February, so the worst could be still to come.
Sum Lok-kei, Phila Siu. “Philippines reports first death outside China as Duterte orders travel ban on visitors from mainland, Hong Kong.” South China Morning Post. 2 February 2020.
A new Philippine travel ban could apply to all travellers from China, including Hong Kong
Kox Xinghui. “Singapore closes borders to all foriegn travellers from China to tem spread of coronavirus.” South China Morning Post. 31 January 2020.
The island nation is the first Southeast Asian country to bar entry to all new visitors arriving from mainland China, except Singaporeans and permanent residents
Editorial. “The harmful effects of misinformation and Sinophobia amid coronavirus outbreak.” Hankyoreh. 29 January 2020. <http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_editorial/926083.html>
“More than 500,000 people have signed a petition on the Blue House website calling for all Chinese to be banned from entering the country. But we need to pay heed to experts who say that discriminating against Chinese or banning their entry could actually make people more hesitant to report symptoms and knock holes in quarantine efforts.”
Bae Ji-hyun, Kang Jae-gu, and Seon Dam-eun. “Korean-Chinese face discrimination sparked by coronavirus outbreak.” Hankyoreh. 29 January 2020. <http://english.hani.co.kr/arti/english_edition/e_international/926084.html>
Reporting on businesses in Seoul who refuse service to Chinese, also documents trends in online speech in Korea.
Quentin Fottrell. “‘No Chinese allowed’: Racism and fear are now spreading along with the coronavirus.” Market Watch. 29 January 2020. <https://www.marketwatch.com/story/no-chinese-allowed-racism-and-fear-are-now-spreading-along-with-the-coronavirus-2020-01-29>
Summarizes recent expressions of anti-Chinese racism, with coverage of instances in Korea and Japan.
Aminda Smith, “Of Martyrs and Maladies”
Essay on the death of Li Wenliang (the whistleblower doctor) and some connections to earlier epidemics with anti-Chinese reactions, especially the 1900 San Francisco plague. Published by the journal positions.
Imani Bashir. “How to Distinguish between a Public Safety Crisis and a Personal Anxiety.” Forge/Medium. 2 March 2020.
Practical mental health suggestions to develop self-awareness amidst a COVID-19 quarantine.
Guo Jing. “Coronavirus Wuhan Diary: Living alone in a city gone quiet. BBC. 30 January 2020.
Wuhan has been under lockdown since 23 January, to try to contain the infection. Transport is shut down, most shops and businesses closed, and people are being advised to stay at home.
Shawn Yuan. “Diary of a Wuhan native: A week under coronavirus quarantine.” AlJazeera. 31 January 2020.
A teacher from the epicenter of infection describes the growing anxiety under lockdown and anger towards government.
Anonymous, as told to Wu Pei Lin. “The city is suffocating: diary of the Wuhan coronavirus lockdown. The Guardian. 31 January 2020.
A resident describes life in the city at the center of the infection.
Q and A with Wuhan residents about conditions there.
Article on blog Supchina by Feng Jiayun
Article showing banners with insructions as to how to avoid coronavirus, with English translation
Noticias en Español
Zigor Aldama. “Sopa de murciélagos y cadáveres por el suelo: pánico en la red al virus de Wuhan en China.” El Confidencial. 25 January 2020. <https://www.elconfidencial.com/tecnologia/2020-01-25/wuhan-virus-coronavirus-china_2427287/>
“Muchas de estas historias compartidas por WeChat o Weibo vienen acompañadas de documentos gráficos que supuestamente corroboran la información y que, en ocasiones, son borrados por la censura, otorgándoles así una sensación de mayor veracidad. Cuando algún mensaje es borrado sin que sea refutado, el público chino lo atribuye no a que sea un bulo sino a que el Gobierno no desea que se conozca su contenido.”
Translation: “Many of these stories shared by WeChat or Weibo are accompanied by graphic documents that supposedly corroborate the information and that, on occasion, are erased by censorship, thus giving them a feeling of greater truth. When a message is deleted without it being refuted, the Chinese public attributes it not to being a hoax but to the government not wanting its content to be known. ”
El brote de coronavirus ha avivado una ola de sentimiento antichino en todo el planeta: desde tiendas que impiden el ingreso de turistas chinos, insultos en la web que se mofan del su consumo de carne de animales exóticos y sorpresivos controles de salud a trabajadores chinos en el extranjero.
Translation:The outbreak of coronavirus has fueled a wave of anti-Chinese sentiment across the globe: from stores that prevent the entry of Chinese tourists, insults on the web that mock their consumption of meat from exotic animals and surprising health checks to Chinese workers in abroad.
Florencia Cunzolo. “Coronavirus: las 5 claves del protocolo argentino ante un eventual caso.” Clarín Buena Vida. 29 January 2020. <https://www.clarin.com/buena-vida/coronavirus-5-claves-protocolo-argentino-eventual-caso_0_US2WXsM8.html>
La pandemia de gripe A, que tuvo al mundo en vilo hace más de una década, dejó en Argentina mucho más que el recuerdo del febril conteo de casos y de los stocks agotados de alcohol en gel y barbijos: quedó también capacidad instalada y una red de alerta y manejo de casos en todo el país; red que en estos días reforzó su vigilancia para actuar eventualmente frente al nuevo coronavirus 2019-nCoV.
Translation: The pandemic of influenza A, which had the world in suspense more than a decade ago, left in Argentina much more than the memory of feverish case counting and depleted stocks of alcohol in gel and facemasks: there was also installed capacity and a network of alert and case management throughout the country; network that these days reinforced its surveillance to eventually act against the new coronavirus 2019-nCoV.
Actualités en Français
Valentin Cebron. “Garde ton virus, sale Chinoise ! » : avec le coronavirus, le racisme anti-asiatique se propage en France” Le Monde. 28 January 2020.
Alors qu’un cinquième cas avéré sur le sol français a été confirmé mercredi, les propos stigmatisants à l’égard des personnes d’origine asiatique ou perçues comme telles connaissent une recrudescence.
Translation: “While a fifth confirmed case on French soil was confirmed on Wednesday, stigmatizing comments about people of Asian origin or perceived as such are experiencing an upsurge.”
Aude Lorriaux. “Coronavirus : « La référence au "péril jaune" joue sur les fantasmes, les peurs » selon le chercheur Vincent Geisser” 20 minutes. 27 janvier 2020.
“Vincent Geisser, chercheur rattaché au CNRS et directeur de publication de la revue « Migrations Société », décrypte la une du « Courrier picard » sur « l’alerte jaune » qui a suscité beaucoup de réactions sur les réseaux sociaux.”
Translation: “Vincent Geisser, researcher attached to the CNRS and publication director of the review "Migrations Société", decrypts the front page of the "Courrier picard" on "the yellow alert" which provoked a lot of reactions on social medias.”
“Le “Courrier picard” s’excuse apres sa une raciste sur ‘“Alerte jaune”.” TeleObs. 27 January 2020.
“Mea culpa de la rédaction du « Courrier picard ». Le quotidien régional a présenté ses excuses, dimanche 26 janvier, après la publication d’un titre de une où l’on pouvait lire « Alerte jaune » et d’un éditorial intitulé « Le péril jaune ? », afin de traiter l’actualité du coronavirus qui sévit en Chine depuis décembre.”
Translation: “Mea culpa of the editorial team of "Courrier picard". The daily regional journal apologized on Sunday January 26 after publishing a headline that read "Yellow Alert" and an editorial titled "The Yellow Peril?” to cover the news of the coronavirus that have been raging in China since December.”
Hugo Diverres. “‘Peril jaune’, ‘alerte jaune’: Quand le Coronavirus provoque une explosion du racisme anti-asiatique”. GentSide. 27 January 2020.
“Sur les réseaux sociaux, de nombreux commentaires sur le coronavirus sont ainsi teintés de racisme. Plusieurs personnes d'origine asiatique témoignent également d'actes ou de commentaires racistes dont ils sont victimes dans leur vie de tous les jours depuis le début de l'épidémie.”
Translation: “On social medias, many comments on the coronavirus are tinged with racism. Several people of Asian origin also testify to racist acts or comments which they have been victims of in their everyday life since the beginning of the epidemic.”
Marhaut Landaz. “‘J’etais un virus sur pattes’: Ils denoncent le racisme anti-asiatique face au coronavirus.” L’Obs. 29 January 2020.
“Garderie refusant les enfants d’origine asiatique, remarques dans le bus, femme pointée du doigt au supermarché… Depuis quelques jours, les témoignages de Français d’origine asiatique se multiplient. Ils racontent la montée des préjugés et du racisme anti-asiatique dans un contexte de peur de propagation du coronavirus en France. « Aujourd’hui chez Auchan, une vendeuse d’origine asiatique a fondu en larmes après que des clients ont refusé d’être servis par elle… », raconte par exemple une internaute.”
Translation: ““Daycare refusing Asian children, remarks on the bus, woman pointed at at the supermarket… In recent days, testimonies from French people of Asian origin have multiplied. They recount the rise of prejudice and anti-Asian racism in a context of fear of the spread of the coronavirus in France. "Today at Auchan, a saleswoman of Asian origin broke down in tears after customers refused to be served by her ...", says for example a surfer.”
Cyril Simon. “Coronavirus: ‘Chaque epidemie revele les stereotypes d’une epoque.” Le Parisien. 28 January 2020
“Selon le professeur en anthropologie Frédéric Le Marcis, les stéréotypes ont toujours tendance à se renforcer lorsqu’une société fait face à une épidémie. Entretien.”
Translation: “"According to anthropology professor Frédéric Le Marcis, stereotypes always tend to strengthen when a society faces an epidemic. Interview."
Notizie in italiano
Fererico Giuliani. “Coronavirus, tra allarmi e fake news.” InsideOver. 25 January 2020.
Cresce l’apprensione per il nuovo coronavirus partito dalla Cina e per l’effetto pandemia a esso collegato. Allo stesso tempo, sul web e sui social, aumentano le notizie allarmistiche e false che gettano gratuitamente benzina sul fuoco in un momento dove è invece necessario mantenere la calma.
“L'Organizzazione mondiale della sanità ha dichiarato che il pericolo globale derivante dalla diffusione del coronavirus, che in Cina ha già causato la morte di 82 persone, "è elevato". L'ultimo rapporto dell'organismo Onu ammette che nei giorni precedenti si era parlato "erroneamente" di un "rischio moderato". L'Oms ha spiegato che il pericolo di diffusione del virus "è alto sia a livello regionale sia a livello globale"”
Notícias em Português
Stanley Widianto, Khanh Vu. “Sntimento anti-China se eslapha no exterior junto com coronavirus.” Terra. 30 January 2020.
“Mas em lugares distantes como a França, um jornal foi criticado por sua manchete "Alerta Amarelo", ecoando termo racista ocidental "Perigo Amarelo", usado para semear o medo da influência asiática, enquanto autoridades e escolas em Toronto, no Canadá, alertaram contra a discriminação em relação a canadenses de origem chinesa.
"Pressupostos orientalistas, desconfiança política e preocupações com a saúde são uma combinação bastante poderosa", disse Charlotte Setijadi, antropóloga e professora da Universidade de Administração de Cingapura”
Giorgia Cavicchioli. “Com medo de coronavirus, populacao escancara xenofobia e racismo.” Yahoo Noticias. 29 January 2020.
“O surto de coronavírus já matou cerca de 100 pessoas e já atingiu mais de 15 países. No entanto, a ameaça não está comprovada no Brasil. Mesmo assim, uma combinação de falta de informação com preconceitos enraizados em nossa sociedade faz com que parte da população veja a comunidade chinesa presente no País como uma ameaça.”
Nachrichten auf Deutsch
Angst vor Coronavirus: Wenn “Chinese” zum Schimpfwort wird
“Sie sehen asiatisch aus - und für manche sind sie allein deshalb eine Gefahr: Drei Betroffene erzählen von Diskriminierung, befeuert durch die Ausbreitung des Coronavirus.”
Coronavirus: Asiaten beklagen “Corona-Rassismus” - auch in Deutschland
“Die Angst vor dem Coronavirus führt in einigen Ländern zu Rassismus gegen Asiaten. Auch in Deutschland nimmt die Diskriminierung zu.”
“In Deutschland entschied sich nun der „Spiegel“ zu einem Cover, das in Rassismus abrutscht. „Made in China“ steht – in gelben Buchstaben – auf der aktuellen Titelseite, die das Coronavirus behandelt. Dahinter ist ein Chinese zu sehen, der einen Schutzanzug, eine Atemmaske, eine Brille und einen Gehörschutz trägt.”
Coronavirus - Mr. Cumbia
Corona Virus - Yofrangel
Russian Corona Virus Song
Singapore Education Ministry
Anderson, Patrick. “Viral Terror.” In a special issue of e-misferica on “Contagion.” https://hemi.nyu.edu/hemi/en/e-misferica-61/p-anderson
A reflective essay on H1N1 and racism in border territories (San Diego/Tijuana). Patrick posted a link to this with the annotation: “After seeing half of my students (understandably) donning masks in class this morning, and taking some time to talk with them about their fears -- for themselves, for loved ones here and far away -- I remembered writing this little piece ten years ago for the Hemispheric Institute's journal, shortly after the h1n1 pandemic indelibly tightened the policing practices at our nearby border. Reading it again now, I am chilled at how utterly mundane these practices (and those translucent bottles in the 4th paragraph) have become.”
Cosmin Costinas, Inti Guerrero, and Lesley Ma, eds. A Journal of the Plague Year. Hong Kong; Berlin: Para Site; Sternberg Press, 2015.
A publication based on a traveling exhibition, looking at the intersection of epidemiology, race, and culture, from the 19th century Yellow Peril to SARS. Online preview of publication.
Stuart Heaver. “How plague in Hong Kong sowed seeds of democracy, changed urban planning and helped heal social divisions.” South China Morning Post. Health & Wellness. <https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/article/2185675/how-plague-hong-kong-sowed-seeds-democracy-changed-urban>
Spotlights “Contagious Cities’ exhibit which recounts ways health responses have shaped Hong Kong society. “Hong Kong society was largely divided by race. Segregation was the colonial ruler’s traditional solution to maintaining public health – that of the colonisers, at least – but the plague underlined that infectious disease does not discriminate on ethnic grounds, she adds.”
Kitta, Andrea. 2019. The Kiss of Death: Contagion, Contamination, and Folklore. Utah State University Press
Chapter 2 looks at disease and immigration, with a focus on patient zero as a racist stereotype.
McCarthy Simone. “Contagious Cities exhibition in Hong Kong captures fear and paranoia evoked by diseases like SARS.” South China Morning Post. Health & Wellness. <https://www.scmp.com/lifestyle/health-wellness/article/2185675/how-plague-hong-kong-sowed-seeds-democracy-changed-urban>
Interpreting the social and emotional impact of disease with art exhibit.
Chen Yangyang, “In Sickness and in Health” Supchina, Jan.29, 2020
A beautiful essay about illness, health and the medical profession in China which ends with a discussion of coronavirus.
Kai Kupferschmidt, “Mission Impossible: WHO director fights to prevent a pandemic without offending China,” Science, Feb. 10, 2020
Focuses on the WHO and the complicated politics of disease control.
“Social Contagion: Microbiological Class War in China”, Chuang, February 2020
Analysis on the capitalist production of plagues, containment as a practice of statecraft, and imperialist Western media foreign correspondence and area studies “experts”
Congresswoman Grace Meng (D-NY) introduced a Resolution Condemning all forms of anti-Asian sentiment as related to COVID-19. Overnight, over 130 Members of Congress signed onto the resolution. https://meng.house.gov/sites/meng.house.gov/files/Meng%20Resolution_0.pdf
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Disease Burden of Influenza.” <https://www.cdc.gov/flu/about/burden/index.html?fbclid=IwAR0J_74bSPmzwkKpUSo0rugS96k2PuWue2MnwSUav9avm-NsZ6QJprE3O0s>
Provides statistics on seasonal influenza (flu): Symptomatic Illness, Medical visits, Hospitalizations, Deaths. Good for comparison to current coronavirus statistics.
Cyranoski, D. Taiwan left isolated in fight against SARS. Nature 422, 652 (2003). https://doi.org/10.1038/422652a
Yu, H & Leung, CCM. 2006. Western-Led Press Coverage of Mainland China and Vietnam during the SARS Crisis: Reassessing the Concept of ‘Media Representation of the Other’. Asian Journal of Communication.
Highlights social factors why Vietnam response was framed positively and Chinese response negatively by Western news media.
Lee, K. 2013. SARS and Its Resonating Impact on the Asian Communities. Lehigh Review. <https://preserve.lehigh.edu/cgi/viewcontent.cgi?article=1015&context=cas-lehighreview-vol-21
Discusses experiences of discrimation and profiling of Asian-American communities post-SARS.
Lee, J. & Murphy. D. 2003, 17 April. THE SARS EPIDEMIC: ASIAN-AMERICANS; In U.S., Fear Is Spreading Faster Than SARS. The New York Times. <https://www.nytimes.com/2003/04/17/world/the-sars-epidemic-asian-americans-in-us-fear-is-spreading-faster-than-sars.html>
Reports on how racist fears of Chinese carriers of SARS impacted ethnic neighborhoods. “Los Angeles County Department of Health Services. ''We are busy trying to educate people, but the worried mind doesn't always hear. You have to get rid of the anxiety before the thoughts sink in.''” Says impact in NYC was greater than 9/11 fallout.
National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. (2012). Plague in San Francisco: 1900, the Year of the Rat. Dr. Joseph Kinyoun The Indispensable Forgotten Man. National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases. History. <https://www.niaid.nih.gov/about/joseph-kinyoun-indispensable-man-plague-san-francisco>
Describes debates about how to respond to the presence of plague in San Francisco in 1900. “Kinyoun repeatedly advised Wyman against overly stringent public health measures, but nevertheless carried out all orders. Historians have credited Kinyoun with prescience in advising California to concentrate control efforts on killing rats rather than emphasizing quarantine and isolation [of Chinatown].” … “this was the first time that the authority of microbiology in public decision making had been put on national trial”
Ong, J.C. & Lin, T.Z. 2017. Plague in the City: Digital Media as Shaming Apparatus toward Mainland Chinese "Locusts" in Hong Kong. In Aiello, G., Tarantino, M., & Oakley, K. (eds.). Communication and the City. London: Peter Lang. <https://www.academia.edu/27535023/Plague_in_the_City_Digital_Media_as_Shaming_Apparatus_toward_Mainland_Chinese_Locusts_in_Hong_Kong >
Discusses digital shaming as practice of intra-ethnic racism of Hong Kong people toward mainland Chinese tourists and migrants in the city.
Rau, N. (2007). SARS: How the news media cause and cure an epidemic of fear. Baccalaureate Thesis. University of Michigan. <https://lsa.umich.edu/content/dam/english-assets/migrated/honors_files/Rao%20Neil-%20SARS%20How%20the%20News%20Media%20Causeand%20Cure%20an%20Epidemic%20of%20Fear.pdf >
Tom Jacobs, New Research Suggests Fear of Disease is at the Root of Racism (July 22, 2019). The Pacific Standard
Provides an easy to understand synthesis of psychology research showing the relation between racist feelings and fear of germs/contagion.
Speaking out against harassment, discrimination, and anti-Asian prejudice
Arizona State University: @ASU
They have a case of coronavirus. Refused student petition to close classes.
Jane Lytvynenko: @JaneLytv
BuzzFeed Reporter following false news about Coronavirus.
Roger Keil: @rkeil
York University, Environmental Studies Professor
Thomas, Kevin J.A. “Fighting coronavirus fear with empathy: Lessons learned from how Africans got blamed for Ebola.” The Conversation, Feb. 6., 2020.
Thomas, Kevin J.A. Global Epidemics, Local Implications, African Immigrants and the Ebola Crisis in Dallas. Johns Hopkins University Press, 2019. https://jhupbooks.press.jhu.edu/title/global-epidemics-local-implications.
Roger Keil, Harris Ali. “Multiculturalism, Racism and Infectious Disease in the Global City: The Experience of the 2003 SARS Outbreak in Toronto.” Canadian Journal of Cultural Studies. 16:23. 2018 https://utpjournals.press/doi/abs/10.3138/topia.16.23
This paper provides a narrative of the racialization of infectious disease in the context of Toronto’s multiculturalism and the region’s formation as a major global city.
Connecticut SARS experience 2003
William Hathaway. “In State, 2 More Cases Possible.” Hartford Courant. 24 April 2003 (#73) p1.
Flagged more than 200 cases, most were not SARS. Lesson: suspected cases are not an indication of actual scale.
Natalia Molina, Fit to be Citizens? (University of California Press, 2006): https://www.ucpress.edu/book/9780520246492/fit-to-be-citizens
Examines the role of Los Angeles’ public health department in racializing Asian (and Latino) immigrants and Asian Americans through medical discourse and discourses that conflated race, disease, and immigration. For example, in the early 20th century the city targeted laundries but also Asian fruit and vegetable peddlers for being unsanitary. I think it’s helpful here because it shows 1) how the public (and the state) believed it could separate the “diseased” from the non-diseased along racial lines, and 2) that this hysteria over Asians as public health threat is about imagining who should be part of the nation.
The World Staff. “For centuries, migrants have been said to pose public health risks. They don’t.” The World. Public Radio International. 23 May 2019. <https://www.pri.org/stories/2019-05-23/centuries-migrants-have-been-said-pose-public-health-risks-they-don-t?fbclid=IwAR0jS5crKyghgra-4NrvxNAyoCzkGv7ooc83D7uGzvtjCvDAuxRsOfV6Mjc>
Interview with historian Erika Lee about racist assumptions of health risks associated with immigrants. Debunks contemporary accounts in media and draws from experiences in U.S. immigration history.
Washer, P. 2004. Representations of SARS in the British Newspapers. Social Science & Medicine 59: 2561-2571. https://islidedocs.com/philosophy-of-money.html?utm_source=representations-of-sars-in-the-british-newspapers
Traces the shifting modes of news coverage when following an epidemic. Discusses techniques of other-ing.
Story of Dr. Wu Lien-teh who was a cosmopolitan Malayan-born Chinese who made a great contribution to the fight against plague. A Cambridge-educated doctor who was appointed by the Qing government to tackle the plague in Northeastern China (Manchuria), he had to deal with the racial and jingoist prejudice from the Western powers.
Kathleen Mason, Infectious Change: Reinventing Public Health after an Epidemic. Stanford University Press, 2016.
Deals with the response of the Chinese public health community to SARS.
Heinrich, Ari. The Afterlife of Images: Translating the Pathological Body Between China and the West (Chapel Hill: Duke University Press, 2008).
Looks at the development of stereotypes linking Chinese identity and pathology in the 19th and early 20th centuries. See specially Chapter 1: “How China Became the ‘Cradle of Smallpox’”
Arthur Kleinman, James L. Watson (eds.) SARS in China: Prelude to Pandemic? (Stanford, Calif.: Stanford University Press, 2006)
Angele Ki-che Leung and Charlotte Furth, eds. Health and Hygiene in Chinese East Asia:
Policies and Publics in the Long Twentieth Century. Duke University Press, 2010.
Chapter by Marta Hansen in which she discusses SARS and the responses to it.
Nayan Shah, Contagious Divides: Epidemics and Race in San Francisco’s Chinatown. Berkeley, CA. U of California Press, 2001.
A history of the segregated neighborhood of San Francisco Chinatown. Shah notably discusses the ways in which the city government attempted to quarantine the neighborhood, the fears around Chinese male domestic servants, the association of Chinese migrants with the spread of disease, and the ways that opium dens in Chinatown encouraged white middle-class men and women to “become Chinese.”
Neel Ahuja, Bioinsecurities: Disease Interventions, Empire, and the Government of Species. Durham, NC: Duke U Press, 2016.
Book offers analyses of how epidemics have been related to US imperialism and how to move away from the default mode of racialized panic toward more critical discourses and practices of care in the context of epidemics that cross borders and harm unevenly.
Wald, Priscilla, Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative. Durham, NC: Duke U Press, 2008. <https://wwwnc.cdc.gov/eid/article/15/2/08-1408_article>
A good starting point for exploring how discussions of epidemics and pandemics take narrative forms influenced by cultural beliefs. The chapter on Typhoid Mary addresses fears about immigrants and disease from a historical perspective.
John Powers and Xiaosui Xiao, The Social Construction of SARS: Studies of a Health Communication Crisis, John Benjamins, 2008.
Looks at SARS from the standpoint of discourse analysis and communication studies.
Anderson Warwick. Colonial Pathologies: America Tropical Medicine, Race, and Hygiene in the Philippines. Durham, NC: Duke University Press, 2006.
On US colonization in the Philippines and the development of American medical knowledge through the idea that Filipino bodies are essentially contaminated and dangerous for the white race.
Digital Public Library of America. https://dp.la/
Freely accessible digitized primary sources aggregated from participating libraries and archives in the United States. A search for “Yellow Peril” retrieved oral history records, documentary photographs of racist graffiti, and anti-Asian cartoons. Some of these sources are deeply disturbing, so I recommend that teachers assess the source before turning students loose in the database.