Academic evidence on SCI's MDAs
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StudyTitleDoes this study likley reflect on SCI's performance?Country/ regionPrecise locationDates of the studySurvey populationWas SCI working there? [See sheet "Sources and methodology" for detail]Results [See sheet "Sources and methodology" for detail]NotesSCI's involvement in the study
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Studies included in SCI review
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Chaula and Tarimo 2014Impact of praziquantel mass drug administration campaign on prevalence and intensity of Schistosoma haemamtobium among schoolchildren in Bahi district, TanzaniaYesTanzaniaBahi districtMarch - April 2013School-basedMaybe. Paper notes that the area had received two rounds of treatment with praziquantel and SCI was working in Tanzania at the time.Coverage: 39.5% in 2011 and 43.6% in 2012. Prevalence of S. haematobium: 26% in 2011 to 15% in 2012. "Of those infected, 57 (78.1%) had light infection, 9 (12.3%) moderate infection and 7 (9.6%) heavy infection" (Pg 5). "Praziquantel MDA had a positve impact on reducing the prevalence of S. haematobium, thus prevalence significantly (p = 0.00) dropped by 50.0% (from an average of 30.0% microscopic prevalence before MDA to 15.0%) after the two rounds" (Pg 7).Published in a Tanzanian journal.No known involvement
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Stothard et al. 2013Parasitological and malacological surveys reveal urogenital schistosomiasis on Mafia Island, Tanzania to be an imported infectionYesTanzaniaMafia district, Coastal region, TanzaniaJuly 2006School-basedMaybe. Paper notes that mass drug administration was ongoing in the area. We believe SCI was working in Tanzania at the time.Prevalence of S. haemotobium: 4.2%From the review Mazigo et al. 2012. Kids were in primary school but with an average age of 13.9, ranging up to 19. Study measured self-reported treatment but doesn't seem to report it directly.Lynsey Blair was a coauthor
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Stothard et al. 2009Urinary schistosomiasis-associated morbidity in schoolchildren detected with urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio (UACR) reagent stripsYesZanzibarUngujaJune 2006School-aged children, possibly schoolchildrenMaybe. Paper notes that mass drug administration was ongoing in the area. We believe SCI was working in Zanzibar at the time."The prevalence of egg-patent urinary schistosomiasis in this sample of schoolchildren was high (65.2%), with 33.3% of the surveyed individuals heavily infected with S. haematobium" (Pg 289).From the review Mazigo et al. 2012No known involvement
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Rudge et al. 2008Micro-epidemiology of urinary schistosomiasis in Zanzibar: Local risk factors associated with distribution of infections among schoolchildren and relevance for controlYesZanzibarUngujaMar - July 2005SchoolchildrenMaybe. Paper notes that mass drug administration was ongoing in the area. We believe SCI was working in Zanzibar at the time.Prevalence of S. haematobium: 50.6%. Of these infections, 57% were classified as light or moderate (1–49 eggs per 10 ml), and 43% were considered heavy (≥50 eggs per 10 ml).Included in the review Mazigo et al. 2012SCI provided some funding, Artemis Koukounari was a coauthor
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Knopp et al. 2009Changing Patterns of Soil-Transmitted Helminthiases in Zanzibar in the Context of National Helminth Control ProgramsYesZanzibarChaani and Kinyasini in UngujaJune/July 2007SchoolchildrenProbably. Paper notes that the area had received treatment with anti-parasitic drugs in December 2006 and that SCI funded the research for the paper."The prevalence of Trichuris trichiura, hookworm, Ascaris lumbricoides, and Strongyloides stercoralis was 46.6%, 21.6%, 16.9%, and 10.2%, respectively. Infection intensities were generally low. Compared with 1994, the prevalence of S. stercoralis, hookworm, A. lumbricoides, and T. trichiura decreased by 81.0%, 80.5%, 70.6%, and 48.6%, respectively. Infection intensities decreased by > 95% for all helminth species studied" (Abstract).Generally shows positive results, but Trichuris prevalence is still fairly high. Though many of the participants were only found to be positive for Trichuris via the second or third slide (Pg 1074, Table 1).SCI provided some funding: "This study received funding from...the Schistosomiasis Control Initiative" (Pg 1077)
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Standley et al. 2009Intestinal schistosomiasis and soil-transmitted helminthiasis in Ugandan schoolchildren: a rapid mapping assessmentYesUganda"...Six districts bordering on Lake Victoria: Rakai, Masaka, Kalangala, Mukono, Mayuge and Busia" Pg 41.March 2008SchoolchildrenYesPrevalence of S. mansoni: 93% of schools and 42% of children. Infection intensity: 634 eggs per gram of faeces. Prevalence of Trichuris trichiura: 13%. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides: 9%. Prevalence of hookworm: 2%. 38.2% reported to have never received treatment for schistosomiasis. 96% live in districts targeted by the national control programme.They surveyed the districts and schools where we might expect prevalence to be highest.Narcis Kabatereine was a coauthor
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Brooker et al. 2005Rapid assessment of Schistosoma mansoni: the validity, applicability and cost-effectiveness of the Lot Quality Assurance Sampling method in UgandaYesUgandaNebbi district2004SchoolchildrenYesS. mansoni: prevalence: 26.2 %, intensity: 37.9 epg (Table 2, Pg 653)-Alan Fenwick and Narcis Kabatereine are coauthors
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Muhumuza et al. 2013Uptake of Preventive Treatment for Intestinal Schistosomiasis among School Children in Jinja District, Uganda: A Cross Sectional StudyYesUgandaWalukuba Division, Jinja districtSeptember 2011 (six months post MDA)SchoolchildrenMaybe. Paper notes that treatment with praziquantel and albendazole was ongoing in the area. SCI started working in Uganda in 2003 and it's work there has continued, perhaps on and off. Currently SCI treats only a portion of the country.Coverage rate: 28.2%. Prevalence and mean intensity of S. mansoni infection was 35% and 116.1 eggs per gram of stool. Very high prevalence in some schools suggests that they may not have been reached by the MDA: "The prevalence also varied across the schools and ranged from 16.3% to 96.8%" (Pg 3). "During the 2011 MDA, only praziquantel was distributed because albendazole was out of stock" (Pg 2).No known involvement
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Studies not included in SCI review
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Muhumuza et al. 2009Association between socio economic status and schistosomiasis infection in Jinja District, UgandaNoUgandaJinja districtAugust 2007UnclearMaybe. Paper notes that mass drug administration was ongoing in the area. We believe SCI was working in Uganda at the time."Of the 463 individuals aged 10–20 years who were parasitologically examined for schistosomiasis 65% tested positive (301 ⁄ 463). Of these 30% had a light infection (1–99 epgs), 35% had a medium infection (100–399 epgs) and 34 had a heavy infection (>399 epgs)" (Pg 614).Without knowing how many of the participants surveyed ought to have received PZQ in MDAs, we are unable to interpret this study to reflect on SCI's performance.No known involvement
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Muhumuza et al. 2014Effectiveness of a Pre-treatment Snack on the Uptake of Mass Treatment for Schistosomiasis in Uganda: A Cluster Randomized TrialNoNot examinedNot examinedNot examinedNot examinedNot examinedNot examinedThis study was an RCT of giving snacks during an MDA. However, the study carried out health education across both the treatment and control groups. Thus, the control group from the study is not a good illustration of the results of a typical MDA.Not examined
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Pinot de Moira et al. 2010Analysis of Complex Patterns of Human Exposure and Immunity to Schistosomiasis mansoni: The Influence of Age, Sex, Ethnicity and IgENoUgandaNot examined1998Not examinedNot examinedNot examinedThe study was conducted in 1998, before SCI began to conduct treatments.Not examined
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Scheich et al., 2012Hepatosplenic morbidity due to Schistosoma mansoni in schoolchildren on Ukerewe Island, TanzaniaNoTanzaniaUkerewe IslandJune 2007SchoolchildrenNot examinedNot examinedParticipants who had received prior treatment with PZQ were screened out of the study, so the study does not reflect the results of treatment. Also, we are unsure what population the results should be taken to represent.Not examined
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Standley et al. 2010Epidemiology and control of intestinal schistosomiasis on the Sesse Islands, Uganda: integrating malacology and parasitology to tailor local treatment recommendationSomewhatUgandaSesse IslandsAfter the beginning of MDAs School-aged children, possibly schoolchildrenSCI was working in the country, but it hadn't treated these islands prior to the study because it thought them to be low prevalence. "At 22 out of the 45 sites, local prevalence by urine and/or stool diagnostics was in excess of 50%, although mean prevalence of intestinal schistosomiasis overall was 34.6% (95% confidence intervals (CI) = 31.0- 38.3%) by Kato-Katz and 46.5% (95% CI = 42.7-50.4%) by CCA if ‘trace’ reactions were considered infection-positive (if considered infection-negative, mean prevalence was 28.1% (95% CI = 24.7-31.7%)). " Abstract.These results could be interpreted to reflect negatively on SCI, i.e. an area that SCI had previoulsy neglected to treat actually had high prevalence. Or they could be interpreted to reflect positively on SCI, i.e. SCI conducted a study to check out a difficult-to-treat area where it thought prevalence low and was able to discover that prevalence was fairly high and people there should be treated. We are unsure which interpretation is more appropriate, and we see this study as a minor piece of evidence in either case.Alan Fenwick and Narcis Kabatereine were coauthors
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